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In 1989 Harold Varmus and Michael Bishop shared the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their "identification of a large family of genes which control the normal growth and division of cells." Varmus is the former director of the National Institutes of Health and is the former chief executive officer of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. In July, he became the director of the National Cancer Institute. Varmus has written more than 300 articles and five books, including an introduction to the genetic basis of cancer for a general audience and his recent memoir, "The Art and Politics of Science" (W.W. Norton). He has been an adviser to the federal government, pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms, and many academic institutions.