The Cataloging Directorate met significant challenges in fiscal year 2000 as it coped with the impact of the LC ILS implementation and declining staffing levels. The directorate nevertheless maintained a high level of cataloging production, prepared for the digital future of libraries, and took steps toward improved staff accountability and recognition. The hallmark of the directorate's activities throughout the year was collaboration and communication with the larger library and information communities.
Fiscal year 2000 was the first complete year of cataloging in the new integrated library system (LC ILS) and was necessarily a year of recovery for production. In view of the lengthy period that the system took to be fine-tuned and stabilized, the directorate attempted to remain current with 70% of incoming new receipts by the end of the fiscal year, a target that all divisions met successfully. The Cataloging Directorate and the Serial Record Division (SRD) together cataloged 224,544 bibliographic volumes on 200,657 bibliographic records and cleared an additional 62,900 from other directorates' arrearages by means of 50,275 inventory-level records. Comparable statistics for the previous year, fiscal 1999, were 205,893 volumes cataloged on 196,302 bibliographic records.
In the area of authority work, the Cataloging Directorate and Serial Record created 86,992 new name authorities, 6,772 new series authorities, 7,494 new subject authorities, and 1,558 new LC Classification (LCC) proposals in fiscal 2000. The number of new subject authorities represented an increase of 27.12% over fiscal 1999 (when production of the LCSH Weekly Lists was suspended for several weeks during the initial LC ILS cataloging module implementation); the number of subject authority records modified was 13,354, an increase of nearly one third from the previous year. Although the number of new name authorities appeared to be sharply lower than the 144,370 reported for fiscal 1999, the number created by staff in the Cataloging Directorate actually was almost the same in the two years, since the figures include machine-derived name authorities (MDARs) generated on contract with OCLC, Inc. (64,194 MDARs in fiscal 1999 compared to only 6,926 MDARs this fiscal year). Production of new series authorities declined nearly seven percent from the previous fiscal year's figure of 7,292, and the number of new LCC number proposals was nearly eighteen percent lower than the 1,897 new proposals in fiscal 1999. The directorate assigned Dewey numbers to 102,127 monographs, an increase of 4.84% over fiscal 2000, and verified a total of 51,423 Cataloging in Publication records, and increase of more than one third over the previous year. The cost of the average monograph record, including Dewey classification and authority work, increased to $121.70 form $115.94 in fiscal 1999.
Production of bibliographic and inventory records in fiscal 2000 generally surpassed that of the previous year but did not approach the level of 274,890 print volumes cataloged and 128,042 items cleared on inventory-level records during fiscal year 1998, the last full year before the implementation of the LC ILS cataloging module in August 1999. Throughput time for CIP galleys hovered at about fifteen working days, with only seventy percent of galleys completed within ten days. Furthermore, as divisions were unable to keep current with all new receipts, the directorate's arrearage of nonrare books increased from 89,615 volumes at the start of the year to 128,750 at the end of September. This increase was within the expected range that had been projected in the planning for the ILS implementation.
Several factors limited production, including the impact of the new integrated library system (LC ILS) implementation within the directorate itself; temporary increases in workloads resulting from the implementation; decreased support from the acquisitions divisions; and continuing declines in staff resources available for cataloging. The system suffered extensive downtime and slow response time and improper sorting of search results, particularly in the first and fourth quarters of the year. These problems affected all the cataloging divisions, since even on those teams which perform JACKPHY cataloging in the RLIN bibliographic utility, holdings and item records must be created in the LC ILS. In addition, the Cataloging in Publication Division (CIP) and the Acquisitions divisions built up large backlogs of unprocessed materials. During the second quarter, CIP forwarded forty-six truckloads of mostly unprocessed Copyright receipts and CIP verification to the Arts and Sciences, History and Literature, Regional and Cooperative, and Social Sciences Cataloging Divisions, which sorted, performed initial searching, and created initial bibliographic control records (IBC) for these materials in addition to performing the usual cataloging responsibilities. To prevent a recurrence of the 'CIP buildup,' the director for cataloging granted overtime and additional staffing for the CIP Division during the second half of the year.
All cataloging divisions also felt the impact of 'shelflist compare activity' or SLC, the process of ensuring that inventory information in the card shelflist was transferred to the LC ILS online database as added volumes and copies were processed. The burden of SLC was especially heavy in certain teams such as the music and sound recordings teams in the Special Materials Cataloging Division (SMCD), the Law Team of the Social Sciences Cataloging Division (SSCD), and the Arts and Sciences Cataloging Division (ASCD). The Cataloging Policy and Support Office (CPSO) helped to resolve many of the complex SLC cases, working with the Cataloging Technicians' Advisory Committee. Like the CIP buildup, the impact of SLC was essentially a temporary phenomenon, since it resulted from the initial LC ILS implementation and the workload would lessen over time as new holdings and item records are now created as materials are received.
The impact of reduced support from the Acquisitions Directorate threatened to be more long-lived, however. In November that directorate announced that it would supply only a very bare initial bibliographic control record for incoming items that it forwarded to the cataloging divisions. The acquisitions divisions, facing new duties including the creation of IBC, holdings, and item records in the LC ILS for all incoming materials, saw no alternative for coping with their own workloads. The Cataloging Directorate, however, found that the new 'IBC Lite' records posed many difficulties for its staff, both because the records did not carry enough information to distinguish editions, analytics, etc., and because the cataloging teams' staffing levels had historically been set on the assumption that incoming receipts would arrive with a much fuller IBC record. In addition, analysis late in the fiscal year of the Library of Congress's rate of adapting bibliographic records from the Program for Cooperative Cataloging showed that the Library was making much less use of these records for its own collections than expected, most likely because it was easier for Acquisitions and CIP staff to create 'IBC Lite' records than to search the bibliographic utilities for cataloging copy. In the spring, the Acquisitions Directorate agreed to begin supplying a few additional data elements in its IBC records; the resulting IBC records are nevertheless much less complete than the cataloging teams had received in the past, and the added workload resulting from 'IBC Lite' appeared likely to be permanent.
The final factor in the growth of the directorate's arrearages is the continuing loss of expert, dedicated staff members. The Cataloging Directorate had 727 full-time equivalent staff members in September 1990 but only 550 at the end of fiscal year 2000, representing a decrease of 24.3% in ten years. The directorate worked vigorously to reinforce its staffing this year. From open postings it hired a new Rare Book Team leader, who was the first cataloging first-line supervisor to be hired from outside the Library since the early 1970s; seven catalogers for very understaffed areas of music, Arabic and South Asian languages, and children's literature; and three technicians. It also gained three new team leaders, three assistant team leaders, six catalogers, an automated operations coordinator, and several technicians by promoting staff from within the Library. The directorate also lost three team leaders, nineteen catalogers, eight cataloging technicians, and a Decimal classifier through retirements, promotions, or deaths. The chief of SSCD, Regene Ross, retired at the end of December and was succeeded in April by new division chief Ichiko Morita. The directorate was saddened by the deaths of three cherished staff members: senior cataloger Mary Shaw (Romance Languages Team, SSCD), senior cataloger Joseph Ataman (Germanic and Scandinavian Languages Team, SSCD), and team leader Phillip De Sellem (Music and Sound Recordings Team II, SMCD). At the close of the fiscal year, four team leader positions were vacant, and the directorate had a net decrease of six catalogers over fiscal year 1999.
The directorate maintained a high level of production despite these obstacles, completing 86.7% of its receipts for the year. Catalogers, cataloging technicians, and CIP Division staff worked large amounts of overtime in the second quarter and in August and September to process the 'CIP buildup' and to ensure that items that had received descriptive or subject cataloging earlier in the year were completed and shelflisted. ASCD employed 'SWAT days' on which teams concentrated on clearing buildups in particular areas: for instance, the Biological and Agricultural Sciences Team shelflisted 454 items in 117 hours; and the Technology Team I's SWAT day for CIP verification resulting in 507 completions in 195 hours. In HLCD, the Children's Literature Team suspended the provision of summaries for works of juvenile nonfiction in May in order to improve throughput time and succeeded in clearing its backlog of nonfiction in Priorities Two and Three. The Japanese II, South Asia, and Southeast/South Asia Teams in RCCD all completed more items than they received; South Asia set a team record of 12,000 items processed during the year, an increase of forty-five percent over fiscal 1999.
There were numerous successes in arrearage reduction: HLCD created 66 collection-level records to clear 1,948 arrearage items in miscellaneous African languages. The Education, Sports, and Recreation Team, SSCD, completed the subject cataloging of a large arrearage in Slavic languages, although overall the SSCD arrearages increased. The Japanese Teams in RCCD continued processing the Japanese arrearage that was transferred to the division from the Area Studies Collections Directorate in 1995. At the end of the fiscal year, only 4,326 of the original 79,563 Japanese items in that arrearage remained to be processed, representing a reduction of ninety-five percent in only five years. This division also made progress in the cataloging of Japanese and Chinese rare books. The Japanese Team II processed twenty-four percent of the Library's arrearage of Japanese rare books, and the Chinese Team participated in the Research Libraries Group's Chinese Rare Books Project; as of September 30, 88 Chinese rare book cataloging records were created in RLIN and are now publicly available. The Special Materials Cataloging Division completed processing the Secrist Collection of 78 rpm sound recordings and their preservation tape copies and the Slonimsky Collection of 771 items from the music historian's library and personal archives. This division also embarked on a project to catalog every 78rpm set held by the Library, approximately 5,000 titles, by means of core level cataloging.
As in past years, the directorate targeted certain categories of arrearage material for contract cataloging. A contract with WLN/OCLC, first awarded in fiscal year 1997, produced minimal level cataloging for 285 titles in Romance languages and records at various levels of cataloging for 271 titles in Central Asian languages printed in Cyrillic script. Two retired catalogers returned on contract (one on a gratuitous service contract) to clear subject cataloging arrearages in art and religion. The OCLC Claimed Music Records Project was essentially completed this year. Under a contract with OCLC first signed in 1995, SMCD and the Public Service Collections Directorate's Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Division (M/B/RS) had added approximately 40,000 OCLC records for sound recordings to the MUMS Music File before the ILS implementation. In cooperation with M/B/RS, the Automation Planning and Liaison Office, Cataloging Distribution Service, CPSO, Information Technology Services, and the ILS Program Office, SMCD designed a new workflow for preprocessing and loading the remaining records claimed on the contract into the LC ILS. By the end of June 28,855 music records had been loaded successfully. Cleanup projects were identified to cover areas that the preprocessing was unable to manage. In September, SMCD submitted an import request to the ILS Program Office for the last batch of claimed records still held by OCLC. The final batch of approximately 7,000 machine-derived authority records generated on a contract with OCLC was also loaded this year, with data cleanup continuing into fiscal 2001.
The Cataloging Directorate supported the implementation of the Library's first integrated library system by providing staff resources, expertise, and enthusiasm in full measure. More than 100 directorate staff were recognized for their contributions to the initial implementation with special achievement awards and cash awards in November. The directorate continued its support throughout the fiscal year. The chief of SSCD oversaw the launch of the ILS Help Desk, and the Help Desk was staffed chiefly with volunteers from the directorate, which also provided a half-time coordinator and scheduler for the desk. In addition, CPSO staff produced and distributed new and updated documentation for all levels of cataloging staff to support use of the LC ILS, including the suite of 'Bibliographic Workflow Training Documents' and the 'Cataloging Tip of the Day' issued via the ILS electronic mail list or on the CPSO Home Page. Cataloging Directorate staff continued to serve on the ILS Management Oversight Group, Data Policy Group and related groups such as the 'Little Loaders,' Public Catalog User Interface Design Team, and Cataloging Technical Group. Directorate staff provided training and quality review for the sheet shelflist conversion contractors and contributed to planning for the future card shelflist conversion.
The director for cataloging authorized two significant business process improvements to make use of new capabilities of the LC ILS. One was to permit selected reference staff to update the 991 field of bibliographic records to reflect reference assignments; the other was to cease writing call numbers on the verso of hardcover monographs' title pages, since staff further down the workstream can see the call number by scanning the item barcode.
The directorate's cataloging automation specialist developed several add-on software programs to enhance use of the LC ILS cataloging module in all directorates. The most important of these was the Record Validator error-checking software, which can be run to check for structural and content designation errors in both bibliographic and authority records. When sampling showed that on average twelve to fourteen percent of bibliographic records in the pipeline had such errors, directorate management made the use of Record Validator mandatory at the descriptive, subject cataloging, and end-processing stages of the pipeline. Just after Record Validator's implementation, the rate of such errors fell to less than ten percent, and by the fourth quarter, the error rate had fallen even further, to four to five percent.
The chief of RCCD and its Cooperative Cataloging Team continued to serve as the secretariat to the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC), which flourished in fiscal 2000. PCC member libraries created 128,160 name authorities, 8,914 series authorities, 2,791 subject authorities, 979 LCC proposals, 19,744 CONSER records, and 62,423 bibliographic records for monographs, an increase over the 57,811 monograph records created in fiscal 1999.
Approximately one quarter of the new additions to the Library of Congress Subject Headings in fiscal 2000 were submitted through SACO, the subject authority component of the PCC. Subject authorities created in SACO libraries increased by nearly a third from the 2,027 approved the previous fiscal year, the fruit of the Coop Team's intensive efforts to encourage SACO participation. For example, the team worked with the Cataloging Issues Discussion Group of the African American Studies Librarians Section (AFAS) to form the African American Subject Heading Funnel Project. Among the first proposals submitted through the Funnel Project was the proposal to change the term 'Afro-Americans' to 'African Americans' in the Library of Congress Subject Headings, a change that the director for cataloging announced at the Annual Conference of the American Library Association (ALA) in July. The Coop Team developed an online form to enable SACO participants to request a literary author number from LC via the World Wide Web for inclusion in the 053 of a name authority record. The team also established electronic discussion lists for SACO contributors and for members of the African American Subject Heading Funnel. It coordinated five SACO workshops in Chicago, Philadelphia, San Antonio, Utah, and Washington, D.C. during the year.
Thirty-five institutions joined NACO, the PCC's name authority component. The North Dakota and the Audio-Visual Funnel consortiums expanded, and three new funnels were established: the Vermont Funnel, the GAELIC funnel, and the CALICO Funnel. The latter two funnels are composed of libraries in South Africa and indicate the growing importance of international cooperation in cataloging. Coop Team members and CPSO also revised the procedures for adapting National Library of Canada (NLC) authority headings for use in LC cataloging, as NLC has begun to publish its name authority records on the Internet. Catalogers at LC began deriving authority records for persons and corporate bodies of Canadian origin from NLC via the World Wide Web in July.
The directorate worked closely throughout the year with the bibliographic utilities and the Council on East Asian Libraries (CEAL) to accomplish a historic shift from the Wade-Giles system for romanizing Chinese characters to the more modern pinyin system, which has become the standard for communications media and financial systems throughout the world. Library staff led the coordinated planning whereby OCLC undertook to convert 156,000 name and series authority records and the Research Libraries Group agreed to convert headings containing romanized Chinese data on bibliographic records in the RLIN database. Policy specialists in CPSO and the staff of the Korean/Chinese Team, RCCD, converted several hundred subject authority records and revised the relevant LCC schedules; Library staff began using pinyin on new subject heading records on July 5. The Library maintained close communication about the progress of the pinyin conversion with the entire library community by means of a world Wide Web page, regular telephone conferences with staff at OCLC and RLG, reports to CEAL, and presentations at both the Midwinter Meeting and the Annual Conference of ALA. After a moratorium on creating and changing authority records containing Chinese data during August and September while the OCLC performed its conversion, Library of Congress staff were ready to begin applying the pinyin romanization standard in all cataloging on October 1, 2000.
There was significant progress in the development of the LCC schedules for religious law, with particular emphasis on Canon law, Islamic law, and Jewish law. As in years past, work on the development of the law schedules included active and continuous participation by stakeholders inside the Library-for example, the Law Library of Congress, cataloging teams in the Cataloging directorate, and reference staff in the African and Middle Eastern Division-as well as by the law library community in the United States and internationally. The Cataloging Policy and Support Office consulted closely with the American Association of Law Library's Advisory Committee on LC Law Classification, the University of California, Berkeley, New York University, Harvard University, and the Biblioteca generale "Pio IX" of the Pontificia Universitů lateranense at the Vatican.
The law classification specialist gave presentations in the U.S. and abroad to demonstrate the use of the law schedules on the World Wide Web, where they were posted in draft form at an address made known to selected U.S. libraries, and to give instruction in using the schedules for cataloging and reference. Outreach in these ways demonstrably influenced some law libraries to reclassify their collections according to the LCC or to classify them for the first time and inspired work that brought the Dewey Decimal Classification law schedule into closer alignment with LCC.
The chief of CPSO continued to be the Library's representative to the Joint Steering Committee for the Revision of AACR (JSC). CPSO staff assisted the JSC by maintaining the file of official documents supporting agenda items, soliciting opinions from cataloging staff, and preparing official Library of Congress responses to specific documents and positions. This year CPSO paid particular attention to JSC's consideration of the harmonization of the International Standard Bibligraphic Description for Electronic Resources (ISBD(ER)) and the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition (AACR2); proposed revisions of AACR2 to accommodate electronic serials, unnumbered series, and looseleafs and other integrating resources; treatment of British terms of honour; and descriptive cataloging of conferences.
During the year the three Division assistant editors prepared exhibits for three Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee (EPC) meetings, the first November 7-9, 1999, the second May 3-5, 2000, and the third to be held early in fiscal 2001. Editorial work was on track for publication of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) Edition 22 in 2003. The division hired its first automated operations coordinator this year. The division classified 102,127 titles during the year, an increase of approximately 5,000 over fiscal year 1999. During the year the assistant editors traveled everywhere from Birmingham, Alabama, to Jerusalem to promote the use of the DDC.
Despite the buildup of materials shortly after the initial implementation of the LC ILS, the directorate completed cataloging of a record 56,846 CIP galleys, a seven percent increase over fiscal 1999. The CIP Division performed initial bibliographic control for these titles, ensured that completed cataloging data were mailed to the publishers, and handled 7,514 requests for changes to the records. In addition, CIP obtained 68,416 books, with an estimated value of $3,577,420, through the CIP and Preassigned Card Number (PCN) programs. Division staff performed CIP verification of 10,742 titles, approximately twenty percent of the directorate's entire CIP verification workload, and searched 153,749 titles in the LC ILS.
The division reorganization of fiscal 1999, which consolidated the staff into three teams, also provided opportunities for staff advancement. During fiscal 2000, twenty of the division's 47 staff members earned promotions. The appointment of a new Cataloging Team leader and a full-time coordinator of electronic programs positioned the division well for the coming years.
The Electronic Cataloging in Publication (ECIP) program grew to include 598 publishers this year. A total of 3,804 ECIP galleys in all subject areas were cataloged. Nearly all catalogers and cataloging technicians received training in use of the ECIP traffic manager module, and training in Text Capture and Electronic Conversion (TCEC) was offered to descriptive catalogers. The National Library of Medicine joined the ECIP program and sent its cataloging staff for training as well. With training complete and all divisions able to implement ECIP by the end of the fiscal year, approximately 100 staff members who contributed to the implementation of the ECIP program received special achievement awards and cash awards.
Months before the National Academy of Sciences issued its July report, LC21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress, the Cataloging Directorate and SRD were actively facing the challenges of bibliographic control in an electronic environment. The staff and chief of CPSO and the chief of RCCD took a leadership role in considering proposed revisions to AACR2 and the ISBDs to accommodate seriality in both analog and digital formats, as first drafted by the CONSER coordinator and supervisors in SRD. The Bibliographic Enrichment Activities Team (BEAT), chaired by the chief of RCCD and comprised of cataloging and reference staff, expanded its provision of digital tables of contents and its BeCites+ project to link LC Internet resources to associated LC bibliographic records and to related Internet and LC resources. BEAT also continued its BeOnline+ project to identify, select, and catalog remote-access Internet resources, expanding from resources in business and entrepreneurship to other subject areas. In November the director for cataloging accepted BEAT's recommendation that LC join CORC, the OCLC Cooperative Online Resource Catalog project, and the Library was a charter member when CORC went into production in July. The directorate began planning how to extend the Library's use of this Web-based system for creating metadata and pathfinders (subject bibliographies) for electronic resources to all cataloging divisions.
The chief of the CIP Division developed and demonstrated a prototype system, tentatively titled the New Books project, to provide the library community and general public with enriched information about soon-to-be-published books and just-published books. The keystone of the project was a computer-generated record that included partial bibliographic information, as well as an image of the book jacket, jacket blurb, summary, sample text, table of contents, author information, author's email, link to the publisher's World Wide Web home page, links for purchasing the book online, and a link to access the catalog record if one has been created for the title in question. This project would also feature a Library of Congress Partnership program that would enable the reader to request the book at a local library from the Library of Congres Web site.
The directorate, with the help of the Cataloging Distribution Service, began the planning for the Bicentennial Conference on Bibliographic Control for the New Millennium, to be held early in fiscal year 2001. The conference would consider all aspects of bibliographic control in the electronic age, including applications of existing standards, development of new standards specific to digital resources, cooperation among various stakeholders in the public and private sectors, and redefinition of the catalog and of cataloging work in the new millennium. The Conference Organizing Team, chaired by the chief of RCCD, established two electronic discussion groups to support planning for the conference and commissioned thirty background papers, conference presentations, and reaction papers in anticipation of this major conference on the digital future.
The directorate demonstrated its commitment to appropriate staff recognition and compensation throughout the year. Two catalogers and a senior technical advisor were promoted to the position of assistant team leader, a position that was certified in fiscal 1999 to provide additional administrative and supervisory support in teams with unusually large staff levels or complex missions. Teams continued to monitor the quality and quantity of individuals' production.
The director for cataloging also proposed that a GS-9 senior technical specialist position and a GS-13 senior cataloging specialist be established to enable management to recognize nonsupervisory staff members who had attained an exceptional level of skill in task performance and contributions to team management. Two working groups of team leaders, chaired by the chief of SMCD, had completed draft position descriptions, classification evaluation factors, and promotion factors by the end of the fiscal year for the GS-9 and GS-13 technician and cataloger positions, as well as drafts to justify classification upgrades for team leaders, automated operations coordinators, and secretaries.
The Director for Cataloging, Beacher Wiggins, provided oversight of the Conference Organizing Team (COT) for the Bicentennial Conference on Bibliographic Control for the New Millennium; continued as a Facilitative Leadership instructor; participated in the Library's pilot mentoring program; served as steward of the Library's arrearage reduction goals; oversaw the coordination of the pinyin conversion initiative; and represented the Library's bibliographic control stakeholders on the ILS Management Oversight Group. Throughout the year he considered how the duties of catalogers and cataloging technicians would evolve over the next five years and initiated proposals to add higher grade levels to career ladders for most job categories in the directorate. He was the Library's principal spokesperson on issues of bibliographic control at ALA and to the PCC and principal liaison between the Library and the bibliographic utilities, OCLC and RLIN.
The Cataloging Reference Librarian, Harold Boyd, continued to administer the Cataloging Reference Collection of print and online reference tools most frequently consulted by cataloging staff. He served on the Cataloging Reference Steering Committee, coordinated the work of more than thirty cataloging reference specialists, and participated in the ILS Reference Collections Subteam.
The assistant to the director, Susan Morris, compiled the annual reports of the Cataloging Directorate and Library Services and organized the staff briefing sessions and documents in advance of the ALA Midwinter Meeting and Annual Conference. She was the Cataloging Directorate's principal reporter and the Facilitative Leadership columnist for Library Services News and also served as proofreader of the newsletter. She was recorder for several ongoing and ad hoc groups, including a retreat of the Library's Digital Futures Group. She served on the ILS Management Oversight Group and Public Catalog User Interface Design Team and coordinated submission of templates for repeated ILS rollouts during the year. She also participated in the Library's pilot mentoring program.
The Cataloging Automation Specialist, David Williamson, wrote the Preprocessor program that ensured that cataloging copy could be imported into the LC ILS with minimal cataloger intervention; the Record Validator error-checking software; and such specialized programs as Bulk Validator and FileSele, which are used to identify problem records for a variety of data cleanup projects. He served on the Bicentennial Conference COT, was listowner of several electronic discussion groups for the Conference as well as the PCC, and continued as the liaison between the ALA Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access and the Library and Information Technology Association. He chaired the STARS Replacement Committee which is defining functional requirements for a new statistical reporting system to work with the LC ILS. Mr. Williamson and Ms. Morris were both members of the Cataloging Management Team, chaired by the director.
The executive secretary to the director, Barbara Williams, performed the basic duties of several positions for most of the year. She performed all the duties of her own position, including preparing extensive correspondence between the director and parties interested in the question of MARC codes related to Croatian and correspondence relating to the planned Bicentennial Conference; and preparation of the On the Spot Awards column in every issue of Library Services News. In addition, she carried out the duties of the secretary to the chief and administrative officer of the Special Materials Cataloging Division, including time and attendance reporting, while these positions were vacant.
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