Draft Interim Guidelines for Cataloging Electronic Resources

                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS

B19.1          INTRODUCTION

B19.1.1             Background

B19.1.2             Purpose and Character of DCM B19

B19.1.3             Reasons Why the Guidelines Are Interim

B19.2          CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

B19.3          BASIC CONCEPTS/TERMS

                    Accessing mode

                         a.   Direct access
                         b.   Remote access

                    Aggregates/Components
                    Compilation
                    Delineation
                    Electronic conference
                    Electronic discussion group
                    Electronic resource
                    Managerial responsibility

                         a.   LC responsible
                         b.   LC not responsible

                    Mode of expression
                    Physicality

                         a.   Directly accessed electronic resource
                         b.   Remotely accessed electronic resource

                    Reproduction
                    Selected relationships

                         a.   Counterpart
                         b.   Subset
                         c.   Adjunct

                    Selection status

                         a.   Selected for LC's collection
                         b.   Not selected for LC's collection

                    Special format divisions
                    Storage location

                         a.   On shelf
                         b.   Mounted in LC
                         c.   Mounted outside LC

B19.4          BASE GUIDELINES (GENERAL)

B19.4.1             Content Versus Carrier (Electronic Resources)

B19.4.2             Monograph or Serial

B19.4.3             Single Manifestation

B19.4.4             Multiple Manifestations

B19.4.5             Single/Multiple Records for Multiple Manifestations (Electronic
                    Resources)

B19.4.5.1                Criteria for determining single/multiple record approach

B19.4.5.1.1                   Acquisitions/Initial Bibliographic Control (IBC) criterion
B19.4.5.1.2                   Citation criterion
B19.4.5.1.3                   Interlibrary loan (ILL) criterion
B19.4.5.1.4                   Bibliographic details criterion

B19.4.5.2                Policy for applying single/multiple record approach

B19.4.5.2.1                   General policy

B19.4.5.2.2                   Exceptional practice for both electronic and non-
                              electronic (usually microform) manifestations of the
                              same collection

B19.4.6                  Multiple Manifestations in a Single Record (Electronic Resources)

B19.4.6.1                     Delineate another manifestation
B19.4.6.2                     Note the existence of another manifestation


B19.4.7             Multiple Presentations of the Same Electronic Resource

B19.4.8             Electronic Resources in Bibliographical References

B19.5          ELECTRONIC MANIFESTATION--ORIGINAL IN NON-ELECTRONIC FORM--
               SPECIFIC GUIDELINES

B19.5.1             General

B19.5.2             Electronic Manifestation Is Remotely Accessed

B19.5.2.1                Single-record approach--delineating technique

B19.5.2.1.1                   General

B19.5.2.1.2                   Guidelines for individual data elements

B19.5.2.2                Single-record approach--noting technique

B19.5.2.2.1                   General

B19.5.2.2.2                   Guidelines for individual data elements (online serial)

B19.5.2.3                Multiple-record approach

B19.5.2.3.1                   General

B19.5.2.3.2                   Guidelines for individual data elements

B19.5.3             Electronic Manifestation Is Directly Accessed

B19.6          ELECTRONIC MANIFESTATION--ORIGINAL IS A DIRECTLY ACCESSED
               ELECTRONIC RESOURCE--SPECIFIC GUIDELINES

B19.7          ELECTRONIC COMPILATION--SPECIFIC GUIDELINES

B19.8          Appendix 1:    Tabular Presentation of Electronic Resources and the
                              Documentation Applicable to the Cataloging of Them

B19.9          Appendix 2:    Additional Concepts/Terms

                    Character of work as a matter of time

                         a.   Determinate
                         b.   Indeterminate

                    Realization of a determinate work as a matter of being completed

                         a.   In progress
                         b.   Completed

                    Realization of work as a matter of time

                         a.   Static
                         b.   Dynamic

B19.10         Appendix 3:    Collocating Records/Linking Records

B19.10.1       BACKGROUND

B19.10.1.1     Need for Collocating and Linking Records

B19.10.1.2     Past Practice

B19.10.1.3     Future Practice

B19.10.1.4     Series Technique

B19.10.2       COLLOCATING RECORDS

B19.10.2.1     Added Entry Technique

B19.10.3       LINKING RECORDS

B19.10.3.1     General

B19.10.3.2     Policy for Linking Records

B19.10.3.3     Guidelines for Linking Entry Fields (Decision Has Been Made to Link Records)

B19.11         Appendix 4:    Examples



B19.1          INTRODUCTION

B19.1.1        Background

               The Library of Congress has become increasingly engaged in the world of those
electronic resources requiring the use of a computer (hereafter referred to as "electronic resources"; cf.
the formal definition given in DCM B19.3).  In the early 1980s it began to assign International
Standard Serial Numbers (ISSN) to directly accessed serial electronic resources and in 1988 to those
that are online.  In the early 1990's the Library, through the Cooperative Online Serials (CONSER)
Program, began to address the cataloging of online serial resources, with an emphasis on those
available on the Internet. It began to catalog monographic computer files in the late 1980's.  In the
early 1990's, the Library began the digitization of original materials from its special collections under
the aegis of the American Memory program.  In 1996 an informal group of staff members with
interests in issues relating to digitization, not only of original materials in special collections, but also
including some book materials, met on an irregular basis to begin exploring issues of common interest.

               While the group's initial concern was the cataloging treatment of materials that LC was
digitizing from its own collections, it also encountered issues that relate to the bibliographic control of
material in special collections, particularly "special format" material whose mode of expression is other
than that of language material (non-manuscript language material) or whose modes of expression are
mixed (i.e., collections of mixed material).  Even so, the issues are not solely the domain of these
materials, as the group discovered with some of the collections of language materials (e.g., various
pamphlet collections; broadside collections).  Cataloging electronic reproductions of material held by
the Library as well as cataloging other electronic resources, whether electronic manifestations of new
or already existing material, raises several issues.  One of the most important is the use of one record
or two to describe closely related content.  Thus a medium that spans both general and special
cataloging requires Library-wide application of a standard set of guidelines to ensure clarity in
bibliographic records both for public catalog users and for effective bibliographic control.

               It has been the intent of the Cataloging Policy and Support Office (CPSO) to develop
conceptual guidelines for the cataloging of electronic resources.  That effort has been delayed for
various reasons, and toward the end of 1996, stimulated by increased activities in the area of
digitization, CPSO invited a small group of staff members to develop interim guidelines for cataloging
electronic resources.  These guidelines are the result; they have been reviewed within LC by
representatives of the units most directly concerned with cataloging electronic manifestations,
particularly by the staff members mentioned above.  Additional consultations were held with
Copyright Office staff, and some changes were made to some of the terminology that had originally
been proposed to accommodate the copyright perspective.

B19.1.2        Purpose and Character of DCM B19

               The purpose of DCM B19 is to establish an interim set of guidelines to be used for
cataloging electronic resources in the Library of Congress based on a common conceptual context and
a common terminology.  The intent of the guidelines is to apply to resources of divergent character
produced under varying circumstances and managed by different entities, a set of conventions for
bibliographic control that will enable generalized, standard practice to the extent judged practicable in
a diverse, dynamic environment.  DCM B19 attempts to be more than just a "how to" manual.  It also
endeavors to engage the electronic world on a broader scale by providing a conceptual framework for
treating electronic resources.  This framework is followed by the establishment and definition of
concepts and terms appropriate to electronic resources in an attempt to ensure clear communication
based on a common understanding.  The guidelines then include:

               1)   policies on when to use multiple records and when to use a single record;
               2)   conventions developed especially for the single-record technique;
               3)   directions for indicating the existence of other physical formats (530 field);
               4)   directions related to electronic location (856 field);
               5)   directions relating to collocating records (710 field) and linking them (76X-
                    78X fields);
               6)   directions relating to identifying in MUMS those records related to a specific
                    project (985 field; mandatory for American Memory projects).

               The overall guidelines try to show how the cataloging of all electronic resources fits
together, but they do not cover the specifics of all resources.  DCM B19.8 (Appendix 1) gives a
tabular presentation of electronic resources and the documentation applicable to cataloging them.  This
table shows that the specific guidelines in DCM B19 are more nearly oriented to electronic
reproductions of materials held by the Library, for example, using a single-record approach for
delineating these electronic manifestations.  This emphasis is driven by the fact that the digitizing
efforts of the Library of Congress and the need for their public representation as viable resources
compel immediate attention.  In meeting the needs of the Library of Congress in this regard, it remains
to be seen whether the guidelines developed for these LC materials will necessarily be applicable
elsewhere.

               The one obvious lacuna in the current document is the absence of guidelines relating
to the treatment of Internet resources--particularly with respect to which ones should be represented in
the catalog, under what circumstances, and in what detail.  This is because the collection development
guidelines for electronic resources are only now beginning to be formulated.  Thus the issues related to
cataloging these materials have not been fully confronted.  One question of concern is the impact the
nature of the medium itself will have.  For tangible non-electronic materials, their very tangibility fixes
the intellectual content.  This tangibility is common across all items in a particular manifestation, thus
allowing the description of one item to apply to all the others in the manifestation.  Changes in
physical characteristics are used to surmise that there are changes in content, which is the basis of
creating a new bibliographic record.  With respect to cataloging remotely accessed electronic
resources, it will be interesting to see what the impact of the accessing mode will be, particularly, with
regard to

               1)   the basis for determining that the content is "fixed," absent tangibility as a
                    basis for doing this;
               2)   the basis for determining that the content has changed, again, absent tangible
                    characteristics for doing this.

On a more mundane level there are issues relating to

               1)   the disposition of information that is universal and that which is local;
               2)   determining who we are providing the information for (again universal/local);
               3)   "custody" (is it relevant?); 
               4)   classification (should we attempt to classify?).

B19.1.3        Reasons Why the Guidelines Are Interim

               The Guidelines are interim for the following reasons:

               1)   some of the copyright and collection development guidelines with respect to
                    remotely accessed electronic resources are only now beginning to be
                    formulated; the universe of material for which bibliographic control is to be
                    applied will have a substantial impact on the resources available for this
                    purpose and will in turn influence the nature of the conventions themselves
                    (the larger the number of materials to be controlled the less labor intensive the
                    conventions to control them can be);

               2)   the dynamic nature of the environment of electronic resources is profoundly
                    affecting the standards upon which current conventions of bibliographic control
                    rest; it is necessary to monitor the changes that are developing in AACR2, in
                    USMARC, and in such international activities as the ISBD (ER) : International
                    Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources and the IFLA
                    study on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, and make
                    adjustments accordingly;

               3)   experiments applicable to particular kinds of resources (e.g., serials and
                    CONSER policies; the BEONLINE project for business and economic
                    resources) are under way with evaluation of results and implications for policy
                    guidelines still to be determined;

               4)   system considerations at LC are in a state of flux, particularly with the
                    impending procurement of an Integrated Library System; hypertext links are
                    still not available in the traditional interfaces to MUMS and SCORPIO; once
                    this feature is more widely available, perceptions of which resources should be
                    represented in the catalog and how data need to be depicted may change.

B19.2          CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

               The Interim Guidelines establish a common context through the use of entities and
concepts derived from an entity analysis technique and based on work done heretofore in LC as part
of information modelling and in the more recent work that resulted in an IFLA study: Functional
Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report (July 1997).  The following entities/concepts,
applicable to all forms of material, are taken directly from the aforementioned IFLA study in a
condensed but usually directly quoted form.  They are stated here because they provide a vocabulary
that clarifies conceptually what is currently embodied in a bibliographic record.   

                    work                a distinct intellectual or artistic creation; a work is an
                                        abstract entity

                    expression          the intellectual or artistic realization of a work in the
                                        form of alpha-numeric, musical, or choreographic
                                        notation, sound, image, object, movement, etc., or any
                                        combination of such forms; an expression is the
                                        specific intellectual or artistic form that a work takes
                                        each time it is "realized"; inasmuch as the form of
                                        expression is an inherent characteristic of the
                                        expression, any change in form (e.g., from alpha-
                                        numeric notation to spoken word) results in a new
                                        expression; similarly, changes in the intellectual
                                        conventions or instruments that are employed to
                                        express a work (e.g., translation from one language to
                                        another) result in the production of a new expression

                    manifestation       the physical embodiment of an expression of a work;
                                        as an entity, manifestation represents all the physical
                                        objects that bear the same characteristics, in respect to
                                        both intellectual content and physical form; when a
                                        work is realized, the resulting expression of the work
                                        may be physically embodied on or in a medium such
                                        as paper, audio tape, video tape, etc.; the physical
                                        embodiment constitutes a manifestation of the work; in
                                        some cases there may be only a single physical
                                        exemplar produced of that manifestation of the work
                                        (e.g., an author's manuscript, a tape recorded for an
                                        oral history archive, an original oil painting, etc.); in
                                        other cases there are multiple copies produced in order
                                        to facilitate public dissemination or distribution

                    item                a single exemplar of a manifestation; an item is a
                                        concrete entity; it is in many instances a single
                                        physical object (e.g., a copy of a one-volume
                                        monograph, a single audio cassette, etc.); with respect
                                        to intellectual content and physical form, an item
                                        exemplifying a manifestation is normally the same as
                                        the manifestation itself; however, variations may occur
                                        from one item to another, even when the items
                                        exemplify the same manifestation, where those
                                        variations are the result of actions external to the intent
                                        of the producer of the manifestation (e.g., damage
                                        occurring after the item was produced, binding
                                        performed by a library, etc.)

The entities described above and as shown in the following diagram (now quoting from the IFLA
report, p. 12-13) "represent the different aspects of user interests in the products of intellectual or
artistic endeavour.  The entities defined as work (a distinct intellectual or artistic creation) and
expression (the intellectual or artistic realization of a work) reflect intellectual or artistic content.  The
entities defined as manifestation (the physical embodiment of an expression of a work) and item (a
single exemplar of a manifestation), on the other hand reflect physical form.

The relationships depicted in the diagram indicate that a work may be realized through one or more
than one expression (hence the double arrow on the line that links work to expression).  An
expression, on the other hand, is the realization of one and only one work (hence the single arrow on
the reverse direction of that line linking expression to work).  An expression may be embodied in one
or more than one manifestation; likewise a manifestation may embody one or more than one
expression.  A manifestation, in turn, may be exemplified by one or more than one item; but an item
may exemplify one and only one manifestation ...
Diagram illustrating that WORK is realized through EXPRESSION, EXPRESSION is embodied in MANIFESTATION, MANIFESTATION is exemplified by ITEM
B19.3          BASIC CONCEPTS/TERMS
           
               The Guidelines use the following basic concepts and terms with their associated
definition  to establish a consistent vocabulary, recognizing that there may not always be full
agreement in particular cases.  The basic concepts/terms are presented alphabetically for ease of
reference.  Some apply at a general level, others are more nearly related to electronic resources
themselves.  Additional concepts/terms are given in DCM B19.9 (Appendix 2).

               Accessing mode -              A concept that characterizes the means of access to an
                                             electronic resource; it is applicable at the item level.

                    a.   Direct access -     The term used to characterize access to an electronic
                                             resource resident in a carrier such as a computer disk
                                             or a CD-ROM that a user physically inserts into a
                                             computer, typically a microcomputer.

                    Observation:   A tangible resource may also be accessed in an online mode as
                                   if remote (e.g., networked CD-ROMS; data copied onto UNIX
                                   hosts).

                    b.   Remote access -     The term used to characterize access to an
                                             electronic resource resident in a carrier that a
                                             user cannot physically handle, i.e., a resource
                                             accessed, processed, executed, etc. remotely. 
                                             Frequently this involves connection through a
                                             computer network.  This type of access is often
                                             referred to as "online" access.

               Adjunct see under Selected relationships

               Aggregates/Components -  Concepts pertinent to the make-up of a work.  A work
                                        may be an integral unit or it may represent an
                                        aggregate of individual works (e.g., a compilation), a
                                        set of individual monographs brought together by a
                                        common theme or topic (e.g., a series), or a group of
                                        private papers organized by an archive as a single
                                        collection.  A work may also represent an intellectually
                                        or artistically discrete component of a larger work, e.g.,
                                        an article in a journal, a monograph in a series. 
                                        Entities at the aggregate or component level are seen
                                        as the same as entities at the integral unit level.

               Compilation -  An electronic anthology whose constituent elements have been brought
                              together and selected, coordinated, or arrnaged to form a new work.

               Components see under Aggregates/Components

               Computer file see under Electronic resource

               Counterpart see under Selected relationships

               Delineation -  A technique used in lieu of separately cataloging a manifestation
                              whereby detailed information about that manifestation is given in the
                              bibliographic record for another manifestation; simply noting the
                              existence of another manifestation does not constitute what is meant by
                              delineation

               Digital resource see under Electronic resource

               Directly accessed electronic resource see under Physicality

               Electronic conference -       A conference held in a virtual mode that takes place
                                             within the context of an interactive software
                                             environment running on the Internet.  Headings for
                                             such conferences are treated the same as those for
                                             other conferences except headings for electronic
                                             conferences do not contain the name of the local place
                                             or other location in which the conference was held.

               Electronic discussion group - The term used to refer to a forum conducted
                                             electronically; these services, commonly called
                                             newsgroups and listservs, allow a computer user to
                                             post messages to, and read messages from, a group of
                                             people who have a common interest, usually by means
                                             of the Internet, a commercial online service, or
                                             electronic mail.  For cataloging purposes, treat such a
                                             discussion group as a work entered under title (X30
                                             series of tags).

               Electronic resource -         The term used to refer to a manifestation of a work
                                             encoded for manipulation by computer.  The
                                             manifestation resides in a carrier accessed either
                                             directly or remotely.  It is the term used in the revised
                                             ISBD (ER) and serves in lieu of other terms currently
                                             in use such as computer file or digital resource.  Some
                                             electronic resources may require the use of a peripheral
                                             device attached to a computer (e.g. a CD-ROM player). 
                                             Note that for these Guidelines this term does not
                                             include "electronic" resources that do not require the
                                             use of a computer, e.g., music compact discs,
                                             videodiscs.

               Intangible electronic resource see under Physicality

               Managerial responsibility -   A concept pertinent to the responsibility for
                                             maintenance, preservation, use, etc. of an electronic
                                             resource; it is applicable at the manifestation and item
                                             levels.

                    a.   LC responsible

                    b.   LC not responsible

                    Observations:       Related to selection status.  LC is either responsible for
                                        maintenance, use, preservation, etc. or not.  An example is
                                        JSTOR, a service for which LC pays a fee to make it available
                                        to the users at LC but for which LC bears no responsibility
                                        with respect to maintenance.

               Mode of expression -     The means through which the intellectual or artistic content of
                                        a work is realized in the form of alpha-numeric, musical or
                                        choreographic notation, graphic, image, object, movement,
                                        sound, etc., or any combination of such forms.

               Not selected for LC's collections see under Selection status

               On shelf see under Storage location

               Online access see under Accessing mode

               Physicality -            A concept pertinent in the context of workflow issues; it is
                                        applicable at the manifestation level.

                         a.   Directly accessed electronic resource -

                                        The term used to refer to an electronic resource whose carrier
                                        is "touchable," e.g., a CD-ROM.  Although a manifestation
                                        might conceivably consist of a single item, more typically it
                                        consists of multiple items.  This type of electronic resource is
                                        sometimes referred to as a "tangible" electronic resource.

                         b.   Remotely accessed electronic resource -

                                        The term used to refer to an electronic resource whose carrier
                                        does not embody a direct, "touchable" physicality.  In contrast
                                        to a typical directly accessed manifestation, a remotely
                                        accessed manifestation usually consists of a single item (site),
                                        although that item may be mirrored or copied and therefore
                                        exist at several storage locations.  This type of electronic
                                        resource is sometimes referred to as an "intangible" electronic
                                        resource, i.e., incapable of being touched or perceived by
                                        touch.

               Remote access see under Accessing mode

               Remotely accessed electronic resource see under Physicality

               Reproduction -           A reproduction is a manifestation that replicates an item or a
                                        group of items or another manifestation (e.g., a reprint with no
                                        changes) and that is intended to function as a substitute.  The
                                        reproduction may be in a different physical format from the
                                        original.  Reproduction is a mechanical rather than an
                                        intellectual process.  The physical characteristics of the
                                        reproduction such as color, image resolution, sound fidelity are
                                        influenced by the particular mechanical process used to create
                                        it, and therefore may differ from those of the original. 
                                        Reproductions are usually made for such reasons as the
                                        original's limited availability, remote location, poor condition,
                                        high cost, or restricted utility.

               Selected relationships

                    The following terms characterize selected relationships with respect to the
                    equivalency or relatedness of the intellectual and artistic content.  These
                    relationships apply at the manifestation level.  Those that pertain to
                    equivalency indicate whether it is for all the work or only a part of it.

                    a.   Counterpart -  The equivalence is at the work level.  The concept
                                        applies so long as the equivalence is there, even
                                        though the content may be repackaged.  In LC there
                                        are instances in which an electronic finding aid
                                        contains digital surrogates and is therefore in and of
                                        itself an equivalence of the collection to which it
                                        refers.

                    b.   Subset -       The equivalence is for only a portion of a work, e.g., a
                                        table of contents in electronic form.

                    c.   Adjunct -      There is no equivalence but there is relatedness. 
                                        Examples are non-cumulative supplements, finding aids
                                        that are not counterparts, publisher's home pages as
                                        gateways to information about their serials.

               Selection status -       A concept pertinent to whether a resource is regarded
                                        as forming a part of the Library's collections or not; it
                                        is applicable at the manifestation and item levels.

                    a.   Selected for LC's collection.

                    b.   Not selected for LC's collection.

                    Observations:  Need to determine whether or not we regard it as a formal part
                                   of our collection.  Issues of "passing through" data elements in
                                   copy cataloging records (the data element is in the record but
                                   LC does not actively supply it but retains it in the reissued
                                   record), especially 856 fields when we do not plan to
                                   "maintain" the information other than for our own location.

               Special format divisions -    The term used in these Guidelines to refer collectively
                                             to the American Folklife Center, the Geography and
                                             Map Division, the Manuscript Division, the Motion
                                             Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division,
                                             the Music Division, the Prints and Photographs
                                             Division, and the Rare Book and Special Collections
                                             Division.

               Storage location
 
                    a.   On shelf -          This term characterizes directly accessed electronic
                                             resources.

                    b.   Mounted
                         in LC -             This term characterizes remotely accessed electronic
                                             resources.  Mounting may be done by ITS or another
                                             unit; it may be in ITS or anywhere else within the
                                             Library. An example is the Daguerreotype Collection.

                    c.   Mounted outside
                         LC -                This term characterizes remotely accessed electronic
                                             resources.  The mounting is outside LC and may also
                                             include joint custodial arrangements as well as no LC
                                             custody.  An example is JSTOR.

               Subset see under Selected relationships

               Tangible -     In the context of these Interim Guidelines, a term used to refer to non-
                              electronic library materials that are capable of being touched or
                              perceived by touch.

B19.4          BASE GUIDELINES (GENERAL)

               Use the following base guidelines in determining the cataloging treatment of a
particular electronic resource.  In general, the cataloging treatment applied depends upon important
factors related to the creation of the electronic resource itself, most importantly whether the resource is
a sole manifestation or one of multiple manifestations and the realization of the work as a matter of
time, i.e., whether it is judged to be a monograph or a serial.

B19.4.1        Content Versus Carrier (Electronic Resources)

               How to characterize records for electronic resources in terms of their primary form of
material (the issue of "content versus carrier") has been widely discussed.  AACR2 is oriented toward
basing cataloging treatment on carrier.  Until 1997 the definition of computer file in USMARC
(Leader/06 code"m") also indicated that the record would be coded for carrier.  However, as a result of
a change approved by MARBI in June 1997, Update No. 3 (July 1997) to the USMARC Bibliographic
Format revised the definition of code "m" to allow for computer files to be coded for their most
significant aspect.  That definition now reads:

                    Code m indicates that the content of the record is for
                    the following classes of electronic resources: computer
                    software (including programs, games, fonts), numeric
                    data, computer-oriented multimedia, online systems or
                    services.  For these classes of materials, if there is a
                    significant aspect that causes it to fall into another
                    Leader/06 category, code for that significant aspect
                    (e.g. vector data that is cartographic is not coded as
                    numeric but as cartographic).  Other classes of
                    electronic resources are coded for their most significant
                    aspect (e.g. language material, graphic, cartographic
                    material, sound, music, moving image).  In case of
                    doubt or if the most significant aspect cannot be
                    determined, consider the item a computer file.

In conjunction with this change, field 007 for computer files is now mandatory in any record
representing an item whose carrier is a computer file.

               Directly accessed electronic resources have been treated as computer files at LC as
have most of those accessed remotely.  Directly accessed electronic resources have been represented in
the COMPUTER FILES file, the BOOKS file (those that accompany books), and, with format
integration, in the SERIALS file.  With respect to cataloging remotely accessed electronic resources,
LC has been most active in cataloging electronic serials/journals and electronic counterparts or subsets
of tangible, original items or collections.  In most cases, the latter do not receive separate catalog
records; instead, they are delineated in records for the original items or collections.  The special format
divisions are interested in providing an integrated approach to the bibliographic records for the
materials of interest to them.  Currently, that is done through the disposition of physical files under
MUMS, essentially by type of material.  Under an ILS it will be a requirement to be able to approach
the catalog in a similar way as at present but it will probably be a logical disposition instead of a
physical one.

               In the future when the shift in approach from carrier to content is implemented at LC,
fundamental changes in the current LC environment will be required.  Those electronic resources
judged to have a significant aspect other than that of a computer file would now be represented in the
file appropriate to what is judged to be the significant aspect.  For example, if the significant aspect of
a monographic electronic resource is judged to be language material, that resource would be
represented in the BOOKS file, not the COMPUTER FILES file (use of the GMD "[computer file]"
will continue).  As of the current writing, not all the details of the impact of this change have been
worked out, but it is assumed that staff in the Computer Files/Microforms Team will continue to
catalog those general monographic electronic resources not pertaining to the materials of interest to the
special format divisions.  However, they will do so by working in the file judged appropriate to the
resource being cataloged.

               It is further assumed that special format divisions will continue to focus on cataloging
(except for Music, RBSCD) and servicing material acquired for the collections in their custody.  The
change in approach that emphasizes content will, as described above, mean that electronic resources
will now be represented throughout the files that constitute the catalog, not just in the COMPUTER
FILES file.  An issue of potential significant impact relates to those computer-related electronic
resources acquired by the special format divisions for their collections.  As of this writing, it is not
clear how some of these materials will be treated with respect to 1) who will catalog these materials
and 2) what cataloging treatment they will receive.  It is assumed that those judged to be cartographic
materials will continue to be cataloged by staff in the Geography and Map Division (G&M); those
judged to be serials will be cataloged in the Serial Record Division (SRD)).  The treatment of other
monographic materials is less clear.  For example, will a directly accessed electronic resource
manifested in multiple copies whose significant aspect is judged to be moving image be cataloged in
MBRS under the AMIM rules and, if circumstances warrant, added to the record for another
manifestation?  This would be in lieu of being cataloged according to the general rules of AACR2 as a
manifestation receiving a separate record by staff either in MBRS or in SMCD.  The Library of
Congress will develop/change workflow and cataloging policies related to "content vs. carrier" issues
and will make them available to the larger cataloging community.

B19.4.2        Monograph or Serial

               Apply the current AACR2 definitions of monograph and serial to electronic resources.
Treat digitized texts, individual Web sites, and indeterminate works not issued in separate parts,
particularly databases, as monographs.  Treat as serials indeterminate works issued in separate,
designated parts.  The parts may constitute an issue, or in some cases, an individual article.

               Applying the current definitions may result in different manifestations receiving
different cataloging treatment.  For example, a manifestation in print form, such as an annual directory,
is cataloged as a serial whereas it is cataloged as a monograph when the directory takes on the form of
an electronic file that is continuously updated.  This practice may change, but for the present LC and
CONSER adhere to current definitions.  Remotely accessed electronic resources of a dynamic nature
that are currently excluded from serial treatment are:

                    Databases (including directories, A&I services, etc.)
                    Electronic discussion groups (e.g., SERIALST)
                    Electronic discussion group digests (e.g., AUTOCAT digest)
                    Gopher servers (e.g., LC-MARVEL)
                    Online public access catalogs (e.g., OCLC, RLIN)
                    Online services (e.g., America Online)
                    Web sites (e.g., the CONSER home page)

B19.4.3        Single Manifestation

              An electronic resource that exists solely in a single manifestation, e.g., a publication
that exists solely online, by definition is represented by a single bibliographic record in the same
manner as other non-electronic resources that exist in a single manifestation.  Currently, those judged
to be monographs are cataloged as computer files by the Computer Files/Microforms Team of the
Special Materials Cataloging Division (SMCD) or as cartographic materials by staff in the Geography
and Map Division (G&M) or, if judged to be accompanying material, by the general cataloging
divisions.  Those judged to be serials are cataloged in the Serial Record Division (SRD).  Both
monographs and serials are cataloged according to AACR2R, LCRIs, DCM, LCSH, SCM, LCC,
USMARC, and supplementary documentation appropriate to each category of material.  The detailed
guidelines and conventions applicable to these materials are not repeated in DCM B19 (cf. DCM
B19.8 (Appendix 1)).

B19.4.4        Multiple Manifestations

              An electronic resource that is another manifestation of a work is likely to be one of the
following:

               a)   a manifestation that is a counterpart or subset of a published resource (tangible
                    or otherwise, usually directly accessed) or an adjunct to it;

               b)   a directly accessed manifestation that is
 
                    1)   a counterpart or subset of a tangible resource (either at the collection
                         level or item level or both);
                    2)   an adjunct to material described in 1) immediately above;
                    3)   a reproduction in electronic form done by or for the Library of
                         Congress of a resource (including material that may have been
                         published) held by the Library;

               c)   a remotely accessed manifestation that is

                    1)   a counterpart or subset of a tangible resource (either at the collection
                         level or item level or both);
                    2)   an adjunct to material described in 1) immediately above;
                    3)   a reproduction in electronic form done by or for the Library of
                         Congress of a resource (including material that may have been
                         published) held by the Library.

Materials in categories a) and b) are usually cataloged by staff in the Computer Files/Microforms
Team, SMCD (computer files), or in G&M (cartographic materials) or in SRD, depending upon
whether the resource is judged to be a monograph or a serial.  Materials in category c) are usually
delineated by staff in the special format division that has custody of the tangible, non-electronic
resource.

               Note that a manifestation of conventionally published materials, including directly
accessed electronic resources, usually consists of multiple copies.  Unique collections usually occur in
a single instance, although electronic manifestations of the original collection may be mirrored or
copied and therefore exist at several storage locations.  The data elements contained in the USMARC
bibliographic format are predicated on data elements common to all the copies of a manifestation. 
Those applicable to a particular copy are generally treated as "local" or as holdings information.  This
concept is less appropriate to a unique tangible resource such as an archival collection, although this
does not preclude the concept of "copy specific" as applied to a particular item in a collection when
the manifestation of the item itself consists of multiple copies.

B19.4.5        Single/Multiple Records for Multiple Manifestations (Electronic Resources)

B19.4.5.1      Criteria for determining single/multiple record approach

               The policy for applying a single/multiple record approach is stated in DCM B19.4.5.2.-
3.  The criteria for determining whether to employ a single-record or multiple-record approach that
form the basis of the policy are stated in DCM B19.4.5.1.1-4 below.

B19.4.5.1.1    Acquisitions/Initial Bibliographic Control (IBC) criterion

               Determine the processing state of the electronic resource from the perspective of
acquisitions or the need for IBC data.  The degree of detail required for the management of initial and
subsequent acquisitions actions may influence the employment of a single or multiple record approach
as may the workflow steps required subsequent to the acquisitions process.

B19.4.5.1.2    Citation criterion

               A user must be able to get to the manifestation cited in the record the user is
observing.  When a single bibliographic record includes one or more citations to multiple
manifestations, each citation the user is observing must state clearly and succinctly the content of the
manifestation(s) cited:

               1)   for the directly accessed, the format of the manifestation more than likely
                    requires a separate record to fulfill the citation criterion;
               2)   for the remotely accessed, a separate record is less likely to be needed to fulfill
                    the citation criterion unless the content among multiple manifestations varies
                    substantially.

B19.4.5.1.3    Interlibrary loan (ILL) criterion

               The receiver of a request must know which manifestation is being requested and the
initiator of a request must know the manifestation(s) available for loan:

               1)   for multiple directly accessed manifestations, multiple bibliographic records
                    make it more clear which manifestation is being requested;
               2)   employment of a single bibliographic record that represents both tangible and
                    remotely accessed manifestations is unlikely to cause confusion with respect to
                    the manifestation available for loan, since it is unlikely someone would request
                    the loan of a remotely accessed resource;
               3)   when a single bibliographic record represents both a tangible manifestation
                    (electronic or otherwise) and a remotely accessed one and the Library "holds"
                    only the latter, it is more likely to cause confusion with respect to the
                    manifestation held and whether it s likely to be available for loan.

B19.4.5.1.4    Bibliographic details criterion

               When there is more than one manifestation, the significant bibliographic details of
each need to be recorded to identify and to access each.  When using a single record that includes one
or more delineations, it is necessary to find ways to indicate the significant bibliographic details of all
the manifestations, not just those for the primary one.

               In the past the Library of Congress has attempted to provide catalog records not only
for use in the catalogs of the Library of Congress but also of use in the catalogs of other libraries.  For
economic reasons, the present Guidelines now provide for the use of a single record to represent more
than one manifestation in the cases outlined below.  This necessarily focuses on the needs of the
Library of Congress but may pose difficulties on other libraries that may wish to represent such
resources in their catalogs.

B19.4.5.2      Policy for applying single/multiple record approach

B19.4.5.2.1    General policy

               The policy is for the categories listed in DCM B19.8 (Appendix 1) and is stated in this
section as follows:


                        Multiple Manifestations (Electronic Resources)
                      Policy for Applying Single/Multiple Record Approach


       Electronic Resource                     Policy                    Example
     (another manifestation)


 Directly accessed           In cataloging a directly accessed         California books
 manifestation               resource that is another manifestation     CD-ROM
                             of a work, employ a multiple-record       Warren Commission
                             approach (represent each manifestation     CD-ROM
                             by a separate record).

 Remotely accessed           In cataloging a remotely accessed         Daguerrotype
 manifestation (LC           electronic resource that is another        Collection
 collection                  manifestation of an LC collection,
                             employ a single-record approach 
                             (delineate the electronic counterpart, 
                             subset, or adjunct by adding 
                             information about it to a record for the 
                             original), since there currently appear
                             to be no instances in which this 
                             approach violates the criteria set forth 
                             above in DCM B19.4.5.1.1-4.

 Remotely accessed           In cataloging a remotely accessed         A remotely accessed
 manifestation (one-         electronic resource that is a one-to-one   California book
 to-one reproduction         electronic reproduction of another        A panoramic map
                             item, employ a single-record approach     A JSTOR title
                             (delineate/note the electronic            HTML conference
                             counterpart, subset, or adjunct by         proceeding
                             adding information about it to a record
                             for the original), since there currently
                             appear to be no instances in which this
                             approach violates the criteria set forth
                             above in DCM B19.4.5.1.1-4.

 Other remotely accessed     In cataloging a remotely accessed         American variety
   manifestation (including  electronic resource that is neither of     stage
   a compilation from LC     the two categories of remotely            American treasures
   collections)              accessed resources mentioned               of the Library of 
                             immediately above, (or if                  Congress
                             there is doubt that the resource in hand 
                             fits one of the two categories
                             mentioned above), employ a multiple-
                             record approach (represent each
                             manifestation by a separate record).


B19.4.5.2.2    Exceptional practice for both electronic and non-electronic (usually microform)
               manifestations of the same collection

               In addition to electronic manifestations, special format divisions often have non-
electronic manifestations (usually microforms) of their original items or collections or portions of
them.  Current LC policy for microform reproductions of general materials is a two-record policy; in
most cases these microforms are serviced in the Microform Reading Room.  Ideally, the same policy
would apply to microforms of material housed in LC special format divisions.  However, using a
single-record approach as an exception to the general policy is justified by the following mitigating
circumstances:

               1)   it is more practical to provide information about the microform manifestation
                    in the bibliographic record for the original collection, particularly when the
                    microform is also serviced in the special format division and often serves as a
                    surrogate for use in a reading room in lieu of the original materials;
               2)   staff in the special format division are probably more knowledgeable about the
                    shelf numbering scheme and other aspects of the material.

(When this approach is used, it is important, in the absence of a separate record for the microform
manifestation, to include significant details about the microform manifestation, e.g., extent, in addition
to the statement of additional availability.)

               Conversely, when the microforms of material housed in a custodial division are
serviced in the Microform Reading Room, it is better to represent the microforms in separate records. 
Staff in the Special Materials Cataloging Division are more likely to be familiar with the treatment of
these microforms than are staff in special format divisions.

               This clarification is needed because as more and more special materials are digitized,
the records for the original item or collection may often represent multiple manifestations.

B19.4.6        Multiple Manifestations in a Single Record (Electronic Resources)

               Two techniques are available for indicating the existence of an electronic manifestation
in a record for another manifestation.  Both are in lieu of LC's cataloging the remotely accessed
resource separately.

B19.4.6.1      Delineate another manifestation

               When using a single record to describe a tangible resource and also to delineate an
electronic manifestation, consider the information provided in the delineation of the electronic resource
as being in lieu of a separate catalog record.  Use the 530 field (Other Physical Form Available Note)
to focus all the information about the electronic resource in one place.  Organize the delineation to
include at least:

               1)   an introductory phrase indicating the additional availability of an electronic
                    manifestation;
               2)   the name or title of the electronic manifestation if it varies from that of a
                    tangible counterpart or subset;
               3)   information about the content of the electronic manifestation when it varies
                    from that of the original, e.g., a subset of the original or additional material;
               4)   general information about access, particularly any restrictions on access or
                    information about availability.

If a finding aid in electronic form is involved and it is the kind that incorporates actual material from
the collection such that the finding aid itself becomes a remotely accessed electronic manifestation of
the content of the collection or a subset of it, describe this special condition in the delineation (this
does not preclude providing a brief mention of the existence of a finding aid in field 555).

               As the 530 examples in DCM B19.5.2.1.2 illustrate, the data making up a particular
delineation are not prone to a structured presentation; therefore, the flexibility of the 530 field was
chosen for delineation over the more structured 533 field.  Also use of the 530 field avoids any
implication that the original is not held, an implication often associated with the use of field 533.

               When the electronic manifestation bears a title different from that of the tangible
resource, provide uncontrolled title access through the title that differs.  Do this by means of a 740
field with indicator values set to 0# (cf. the 740 examples in DCM B19.5.2.1.2).  This is an exception
to the general LC policy of providing title access through a controlled form (730).

B19.4.6.2      Note the existence of another manifestation

               The cataloging rules have long provided for indicating the existence of another
manifestation in a note (field 530), usually in a very brief statement.

               With respect to serials, CONSER's Interim Guidelines for Online Versions allow
CONSER institutions either to create separate records or to note the existence of an remotely accessed
electronic manifestation on the record for the print (or other) serial.  Practically speaking, this policy is
quite similar to delineating; however, there is a difference in the intent.  The CONSER guidelines aim
to retain the integrity of the print (or other) record in a shared database in which separate records for
the remotely accessed electronic manifestation might exist or be created later.  Thus, field 007 is not
given in such records and 530 notes tend to be less detailed than those given in records for LC's
special collections.  Field 740 may also be given when the title of the remotely accessed electronic
manifestation differs from that of the original.

               LC applies the CONSER single record option only for one-to-one reproductions of
serials (e.g., JSTOR; cf. Example 3) and in other cases creates separate records.

B19.4.7        Multiple Presentations of the Same Electronic Resource

               If an electronic resource is available in multiple presentations that may be generated
from different underlying digital representations, e.g., images in TIFF or JPEG format, it is not
necessary to acknowledge the condition.

B19.4.8        Electronic Resources in Bibliographical References

               With respect to bibliography notes, interpret the term "bibliographical references" to
include all kinds of resources, including electronic resources; do not give any special treatment to, or
provide special mention of, the latter.

B19.5          ELECTRONIC MANIFESTATION--ORIGINAL IN NON-ELECTRONIC FORM--
               SPECIFIC GUIDELINES

B19.5.1        General

               This is the condition in which an electronic resource is the digitized counterpart to,
subset of, or an adjunct to, a tangible manifestation of a work, and the decision has been made to
represent the electronic manifestation in the catalog.  Determine, according to DCM B19.4.5.2,
whether it is preferable to do this by a single- or multiple-record approach (the single-record approach
requires a record for the original, tangible manifestation; one may already exist or it may need to be
created).

B19.5.2        Electronic Manifestation Is Remotely Accessed

               It is possible to delineate or note the electronic manifestation in the record for another
manifestation as described in DCM B19.4.6.1-2 respectively.

B19.5.2.1      Single-record approach--delineating technique

B19.5.2.1.1    General

               Under this approach, delineate the electronic manifestation in the record for another
manifestation as described in DCM B19.4.6.1.

B19.5.2.1.2    Guidelines for individual data elements

               Use the following guidelines to individual data elements to delineate a
counterpart/subset/adjunct of an electronic manifestation that is remotely accessed (cf. Examples 1-2):

               506 (Restrictions on Access Note)

               It is unlikely there will be restrictions on access relating to the electronic
manifestation.  Should such occur, however, do not use this field; instead, mention them in the
delineation in the 530 field.

               516 (Type of Computer File or Data Note)

               Do not use this field.

               530 (Additional Physical Form Available Note)

               This field must always be present; use it to delineate the remotely accessed electronic
resource as described in DCM B19.4.6.1.  For remotely accessed manifestations of tangible LC
materials, a general reference to the Library of Congress Web site is sufficient, since the specific
location is always given in an 856 field.  For uniformity of presentation, use the terminology
illustrated in the following examples to the extent practicable:

               530 ## $a Available also through the Library of Congress Web site
                         under title: America's first look into the camera:
                         daguerreotype portraits and views ...  (Earlier title:
                         Daguerreotypes, 1842 -1862.)  This finding aid in
                         electronic form, with reproductions, captions, and
                         subject indexing for each image, was produced in 1995
                         for the National Digital Library Program, American
                         Memory collections.
                           (Cf. Example 1; note that the dates have been left off
                           the Web site title because they change as more
                           material is added)

               530 ## $a Available also through the Library of Congress Web site
                         under title: Color photographs from the FSA and OWI, ca.
                         1938-1944.  This finding aid in electronic form contains
                         reproductions with full caption information and subject
                         indexing for each image.

               530 ## $a Available also through the Library of Congress Web site
                         under title: Documents from the Continental Congress and
                         the Constitutional Convention 1774-1789.  At least one
                         facsimile image of each broadside is presented along
                         with a narrative introduction.
     
               530 ## $a Available also as part of a microfilm with title:
                         Continental Congress and Constitutional convention
                         Collections.  Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress
                         Photoduplication Service.  1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm.
                           (Two delineations in a single record; cf. Example 2)

               530 ## $a Available also through the Library of Congress Web site
                         in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text
                         in SGML.

               530 ## $a Available also through the Library of Congress Web site
                         as a raster image.

               538 (System Details Note)

               Do not use this field.  Ordinarily, it is not necessary to state explicitly that a browser
or other client software is required to access Internet resources, since the protocols necessary should be
obvious from the 856 field (e.g., mode of access is http).  However, if a browser alone does not obtain
access (e.g., a RealAudio player is also required), state that additional requirement in the 530
delineation.  Use judgement in stating any additional requirement, given the fact that the pace of
technological change may rapidly make available tomorrow what is not available today.  Requirements
that are unlikely to be widely available are resources aimed at specialized communities in which the
content is only available in a discipline-specific or industry-specific format (e.g., documents available
in Postscript).

               555 (Cumulative Index/Finding Aids Note)

               For an electronic manifestation, use the phrase "finding aid available in electronic
form."  If a finding aid in electronic form is involved and it is the kind that incorporates actual
material from the collection such that the finding aid itself becomes a remotely accessed electronic
manifestation of the collection or a subset of it, describe this special condition in the delineation.

               710 (Added Entry - Corporate Name)

               If the resource being delineated is an LC collection or part of an LC collection to
which access is desirable, provide the access through an added entry unless it would be the same as
that of the 245 title in the collection-level record in which the delineation is being recorded.  See also
DCM B19.10 (Appendix 3) for a more extended discussion of the use of this field for collocating
records.

               740 (Added Entry - Uncontrolled Related/Analytical Title

               When the electronic manifestation bears a title different from that of the tangible
resource, provide uncontrolled title access through the title that differs.  Do this by means of a 740
field with indicator values set to 0# (cf. Example 2).  This is an exception to the general LC policy of
providing title access through a controlled form (730).

               740 0# $a Documents from the Continental Congress and the
                         Constitutional Convention 1774-1789.
               740 0# $a Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention
                         Collections.

               76X-78X  (Linking Entries)

               See DCM B19.10 (Appendix 3), particularly DCM B19.10.3.

               856 (Electronic Location and Access)

               For remotely accessed manifestations of tangible LC materials, this field must always
be present.  Use it to indicate the location of the electronic manifestation.  The conventions applicable
to this field are in a state of flux and will continue to change for some time to come.  For a detailed
description of the use of this field, see Guidelines for the Use of Field 856 prepared by the Network
Development and MARC Standards Office and located at:

                    http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/856guide.html

In addition, use the following guidelines in creating the field.

               Use subfield $3 to characterize the remotely accessed resource when it is a subset or
an adjunct, i.e., it does not equate to the original.  Capitalize the first word.  Use subfield $3 in all
cases of finding aids whether counterpart or not.

               Use the following subfields when providing a URL or URN to indicate the location of
an remotely accessed electronic manifestation for LC materials (cf. Example 1):

                    $g   Uniform Resource Name as applicable for American Memory materials

                    $u   Uniform Resource Locator as applicable

                    $2   Access method (use "http" for Web resources)

Note that it is not possible to access a remotely accessed electronic resource "directly" by means of a
hot link from the traditional access to MUMS or via telnet.  Instead, it is necessary to access the
record from a search interface that supports hot links (i.e., one of the Web interfaces) or to approach
the resource directly via a Web browser.

               In the special case of serial titles available through JSTOR, the Library wants to
encourage readers to use those versions, not the paper ones.  Because SCORPIO has not yet been
updated to display the 856 field in records for serials, the 051 field is being used temporarily to signal
the existence of the remotely accessed electronic version of a serial.  The electronic location is given
in subfield $a and the statement "ELECTRONIC COPY" is given in subfield $c (cf. Example 3).  This
is an interim measure, and these 051 fields will not be migrated to the ILS.

               Use the following subfields when not providing a URL or URN to indicate the
location of an remotely accessed electronic manifestation for LC materials (cf. Example 4):

                    $d   Path; use for aggregate

                    $f   Electronic name; use for item

                    $2   Access method; use the term "file"

               985 (Record History)

               The 985 field is available to identify the records in MUMS related to a particular
project.  Its use is optional except for American Memory projects.  Do all notation in lowercase to
facilitate input/update.  If multiple unit/collection designations are involved, record each in a repeated
985 field.  Use the following additional guidelines:

               1.   Subfield $a (Agency that keyed record/Record history; use for
unit/collection designation).  Use subfield $a to designate a unit and a collection; separate the two
with a slash (rarebk/pre1801); if more than one designation is applicable, repeat the 985 field instead
of using a repeated $a subfield as in

                    985 ## $a rarebk/mad
                    985 ## $a rarebk/ya

"Collection" in this context is loosely defined to include "formal" collections and configurations of
materials relevant to the context of American Memory.  The following RBSCD designations illustrate
the use of subfield $a to designate a unit and a collection.

                    985 ## $a rarebk/bdsides
                    985 ## $a rarebk/mad
                    985 ## $a rarebk/mur
                    985 ## $a rarebk/pre1801
                    985 ## $a rarebk/rosen
                    985 ##  $a rarebk/ya

               2.   Subfield $e (Responsible LC application; use for project, special
application).  Use subfield $e to designate a project or special application; if more than one
designation is applicable, use a new 985 field as needed instead of a repeated $e subfield.  The
following RBSCD designations illustrate the use of subfield $e.  Note that field 985 with "ammem" in
subfield $e is mandatory for any project associated with American Memory.

                    985 ## $e ammem     [American Memory project]
                    985 ## $e pam       [Bound Pamphlet project]
                    985 ## $e rbc       [Rare Book Collection existing record or
                                        arrearage]

               3.   Subfield $f (Online cataloger maintenance; use for staff code).  Use of
subfield $f to give a staff code is optional.  If more than one code is applicable, do not use a repeated
$f subfield; instead, separate each code with semicolon space (parallel to the convention in the 955
field) as in

                    985 ## $f vp51 10-12-90; ta05 12-05-91

               006 (Fixed-Length Data Elements - Additional Material Characteristics)

               Do not use the 006 for computer file.

               007 (Physical Description Fixed Field)

               There is a need to provide access to the subset of records in the catalog that represents
an electronic resource by means of a single data element.  Therefore, when an remotely accessed
electronic resource is delineated, include an 007 field in the record.  Use value "c" (Computer file) in
character position 0 and value "r" (Remote) in character position 1.  Use a fill character ( | ) in the
remaining character positions (2-5):

                    007 ## $a cr||||

If more than one remotely accessed electronic resource is delineated, it is only necessary to provide a
single 007 field.  In the unlikely event that a single record in which delineation is used represents both
directly and remotely accessed electronic resources, include a single 007 field for each different
accessing mode:

                    007 ## $a cr||||
                    007 ## $a co||||

B19.5.2.2      Single-record approach--noting technique (remotely accessed electronic resource)

B19.5.2.2.1    General

               For monographs, the technique used in applying a single record approach is that of
delineating described in general in DCM B19.4.6.1 and in more detail in DCM B19.5.2.1.  For serials,
the technique used in applying a single record approach is that of noting the existence of an remotely
accessed electronic serial resource described in general in DCM B19.4.6.2 and in more detail in DCM
B19.5.2.2.2 below.  Other guidelines may also be found in the CONSER Editing Guide and in the
CONSER Cataloging Manual.

B19.5.2.2.2    Guidelines for individual data elements (online serial)

               Use the following guidelines to individual data elements to note the existence of an
online serial resource (cf. Example 3):

               506 (Restrictions on Access Note)

               Do not use this field.  Instead, mention any restrictions in access in the 530 field.

               516 (Type of Computer File or Data Note)

               Do not use this field.

               530 (Additional Physical Form Available Note)

               Use this field to note the existence of an online serial counterpart/subset/adjunct as
described in DCM B19.4.6.2.  For material available through the Internet, a general reference to the
source is sufficient, since the specific location is always given in an 856 field.  For uniformity of
presentation, use the terminology illustrated in the following examples to the extent practicable:

               530 ## $a Scanned images of back issues also available to
                         subscribers of JSTOR via the World Wide Web.

               530 ## $a Available also on the Internet (Letters section only;
                         for some issues only).

               530 ## $a Some issues available also via the Internet at the
                         Argonne Web site.

               530 ## $a Some issues available also via Internet.

               530 ## $a Issues for  available also on the
                         Internet via the World Wide Web.

               530 ## $a Data available also online via EIA Web Site.

               530 ## $a Some issues or data available also via Internet.

               538 (System Details Note)

               Do not use this field.  Ordinarily, it is not necessary to state explicitly that a browser
or other client software is required to access Internet resources, since the protocols necessary should be
obvious from the 856 field (e.g., mode of access is http).  However, if a browser alone does not obtain
access (e.g., a RealAudio player is also required), state that additional requirement in the 530 notation. 
Use judgement in stating any additional requirement, given the fact that the pace of technological
change may rapidly make available tomorrow what is not available today.  Requirements that are
unlikely to be widely available are resources aimed at specialized communities in which the content is
only available in a discipline-specific or industry-specific format (e.g., documents available in
Postscript).

               740 (Added Entry - Uncontrolled Related/Analytical Title)

               When the electronic manifestation bears a title different from that of the tangible
resource, provide uncontrolled title access through the title that differs.  Do this by means of a 740
field with indicator values set to 0# .  This is an exception to the general LC policy of providing title
access through a controlled form (730).

               856 (Electronic Location and Access)

               This field must always be present; use it to indicate the location of the electronic
resource.  Use the guidelines in DCM B19.5.2.1.2 and in other documentation relevant to cataloging
serials in creating the field; note the following issue relevant to representing a remotely accessed
electronic resource in a record:

                    It is probably inadvisable to include local information (e.g., whether a
                    particular resource or service is available to users of the LC system) in an 856
                    field in a shared environment; a local note (590) is available for monographs
                    but not for serials (consider 506 with subfield $5?).

               006 (Fixed-Length Data Elements - Additional Material Characteristics)

               Do not use the 006 for computer file.

               007 (Physical Description Fixed Field)

               Do not use the 007 for computer file.

B19.5.2.3      Multiple-record approach (remotely accessed electronic manifestation)

B19.5.2.3.1    General

               Under this approach, catalog the electronic resource and use a separate bibliographic
record to represent it in the catalog (cf. Example 5).  Materials judged to be monographs are cataloged
as computer files by the Computer Files/Microforms Team, SMCD or as cartographic materials by
staff in G&M.  In the future when the change described in DCM B19.4.1 (Content Versus Carrier
(Electronic Resources)) is implemented at LC, materials in the former category will be coded in the
Leader (MUMS FFD 41) according to their significant aspect.  Those judged to be serials are
cataloged in the Serial Record Division.  Staff in these units follow well-
established cataloging conventions appropriate to the materials they catalog (cf. DCM B19.8 (Appendix 1)).


B19.5.2.3.2    Guidelines for individual data elements

               Use the following guidelines to individual data elements in the bibliographic record for
the electronic resource:

               506 (Restrictions on Access Note)

               Use as appropriate, e.g., to indicate, in a general way, material available only through
licensing.  Use field 590 (Local Note) to indicate that monographic material is available to users of the
Library of Congress system at LC.

               530 (Additional Physical Form Available Note)

               Use this field to indicate the availability of another manifestation.

                    530 ## $a Available also in print form.

               The overall policy for indicating the availability of another manifestation on records,
applicable also to directly accessed electronic resources (cf. DCM B19.5.3), is as follows:

               1)   for general cataloging related to monographs, use field 530 to indicate the
                    availability of other manifestations when that information is readily available;
                    provide the information in the record for the item being cataloged; if multiple
                    manifestations are being cataloged simultaneously, provide the information in
                    the record for each; if one of the manifestations has already been cataloged, do
                    not go back and add the information to the record for that form;

               2)   for cataloging related to materials in special format divisions, use field 530 to
                    indicate the availability of other manifestations when that information is
                    readily available; in cases of multiple manifestations represented by separate
                    records, the decision of whether to provide the information in all the relevant
                    records is at the discretion of the division or cataloging unit;

               3)   for cataloging related to serials, follow the CONSER and LC guidelines laid
                    out in documentation described elsewhere (cf. DCM B19.8 (Appendix 1)); in
                    general, the policy is to indicate other availability in all relevant records.

               538 (System Details Note)

               Use this field as appropriate.  For resources on the Internet, ordinarily it is not
necessary to state explicitly that a browser is necessary for access in a "Systems requirement:" note,
since the protocols necessary should be obvious from the "Mode of access:" note and field 856.
However, if a browser alone does not obtain access (e.g., a RealAudio player is also required), state
that additional requirement in a "Systems requirement:" note.  Use judgement in stating any additional
requirement, given the fact that the pace of technological change may rapidly make available
tomorrow what is not available today.  Requirements that are unlikely to be widely available are
resources aimed at specialized communities in which the content is only available in a discipline-
specific or industry-specific format (e.g., documents available in Postscript).

               710 (Added Entry - Corporate Name)

               If the resource being cataloged is part of an LC collection to which access is desirable,
provide the access through an added entry using the form of the name of the collection determined to
be the form used to provide such access (cf. DCM B19.10 Appendix 3)).

               76X-78X (Linking Entries)

               See DCM B19.10 (Appendix 3), particularly DCM B19.10.3.

               856 (Electronic Location and Access)

               This field must always be present; use it to indicate the location of the electronic
resource.  Use the guidelines in DCM B19.5.2.1.2 in creating the field; note the following issue
relevant to representing a remotely accessed electronic resource in a separate record:

                    It is probably inadvisable to include local information (e.g., whether a
                    particular resource or service is available to users of the LC system) in an 856
                    field in a shared environment; a local note (590) is available for monographs
                    but not for serials (consider 506 with subfield $5?).

               985 (Record History)

               See the guidelines for this field under DCM B19.5.2.1.2.

               006 (Fixed-Length Data Elements - Additional Material Characteristics

               Do not use the 006 for computer file.

               007 (Physical Description Fixed Field)

               Include an 007 field  and use value "c" (Computer file) in character position 0 and
value "r" (Remote) in character position 1.  Use a fill character ( | ) in the remaining character
positions (2-5):

                    007 ## $a cr||||

B19.5.3        Electronic Manifestation Is Directly Accessed

               Materials in this category are usually cataloged using a multiple-record approach by
staff in the Computer Files/Microforms Team, SMCD (computer files), or staff in G&M (cartographic
materials) or in SRD, depending upon whether the resource is judged to be a monograph or a serial. 
Staff in these units follow well-established cataloging conventions appropriate to the materials they
catalog (cf. DCM B19.8 (Appendix 1).

B19.6          ELECTRONIC MANIFESTATION--ORIGINAL IS A DIRECTLY ACCESSED
               ELECTRONIC RESOURCE--SPECIFIC GUIDELINES

               This is the condition in which a remotely accessed electronic resource is the
counterpart to, subset of, or an adjunct to, an original directly accessed electronic manifestation of a
work (e.g., a Web manifestation of a CD-ROM resource, cf. Example 6), and the decision has been
made to represent the remotely accessed electronic manifestation in the catalog.  Determine, according
to DCM B19.4.5, whether it is preferable to do this by a single- or multiple-record approach (the
single-record approach requires a record for the original, directly accessed electronic manifestation;
one may already exist or it may need to be created).  If the decision is to use a single-record approach,
follow the guidelines in DCM B19.5.2.1; if a multiple-record approach, those in DCM B19.5.2.3.

B19.7          ELECTRONIC COMPILATION--SPECIFIC GUIDELINES

               This is the condition in which selected items are digitized and are put together to form
what constitutes, in essence, a "new work" whose manifestation is a remotely accessed electronic
resource (theoretically, this does not preclude the work (or parts of it?) being further manifested as a
directly accessed electronic resource).  Using a separate-record approach, describe such a compilation
as a computer file (i.e., carrier) or cartographic material and code it in the Leader (MUMS FFD 41) as
appropriate.  In the future when the change described in DCM B19.4.1 (Content Versus Carrier
(Electronic Resources)) is implemented at LC, continue to describe the compilation as a computer file
(i.e., carrier) but code in the Leader according to its significant aspect (i.e., content; (cf. Example 7)). 
Reflect the characteristics of the work in the cataloging of it; for example, treat as an open entry when
there is evidence the work is not stable or fixed; characterize the work in a more general way in a note
or notes.  Be flexible about whether to relate, through analytic added entries, the compilation to one or
more of the collections from which it is made up.  If such added entries are given, limit their number
to five.  If more than five collections are involved, give added entries for the five judged to be most
important.  If there is doubt about which are most important, give added entries for the first five based
on order in which they are mentioned in the record.  Do not use linking entry fields.


B18.8                   Appendix 1:  Tabular Presentation of Electronic Resources and the Documentation
                                                 Applicable to the Cataloging of Them

(The following table displays properly only with browsers that support HTML table coding, such as Netscape 3.0 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 or higher. If your browser does not display the table properly, you may obtain a copy by contacting the Cataloging Policy and Support Office at [email protected].)

DIRECTLY ACCESSED (DA) Electronic Resources
Category
Cataloged / Delineated By
Documentation
Example
Published Monographic Item
Electronic Original
Separate Record Created by CF/M Team or G&M
AACR2R, LCRIs, DCM, LCSH, SCM, LCC, USMARC, & supplementary documentation appropriate to each category of material CD-ROMS, disks
Electronic Manifestation of Original (Non-Electronic or Electronic)
Separate Record Created by CF/M Team or G&M
AACR2R, LCRIs, DCM, LCSH, SCM, LCC, USMARC, & supplementary documentation appropriate to each category of material California books CD-ROM;

Warren Commission Report CD-ROM

Published Serial
Electronic Original
Separate Record Created by SRD
AACR2R, LCRIs, DCM, LCSH, SCM, LCC, USMARC, & supplementary documentation appropriate to serials cataloging Directly accessed electronic journal (CD-ROMs, disks)
Electronic Manifestation of Original (Non-Electronic or Electronic)
Separate Record Created by SRD
AACR2R, LCRIs, DCM, LCSH, SCM, LCC, USMARC, & supplementary documentation appropriate to serials cataloging CD-ROM/disk manifestation of print journal
Unpublished Manifestation of Original LC Collection
(Counterpart, Subset, Adjunct)
Delineated by Staff in Special Format Divisions
AACR2R, LCRIs, DCM, LCSH, SCM, LCC, USMARC, & supplementary documentation appropriate to each category of material with particular emphasis on DCM B19 Surrogate manifestation to be served in a Special Format Division RR in lieu of an original
 
 
REMOTELY ACCESSED (RA) Electronic Resources
Category
Cataloged / Delineated by
Documentation
Example
Published Monographic Item
Electronic Original
Separate Record Created by CF/M Team or G&M
Same as for DA + DCM B19
HTML Conference Proceeding
Electronic Manifestation of Original (Non-Electronic / Electronic)
Separate Record / Delineation Done by CF/M Team, G&M, or other appropriate staff
Same as for DA + DCM B19
A California book (delineation on record for original book);

A panoramic map (delineation on record for original map)

Published Serial
Electronic Original
Separate Record Created by SRD
Same as for DA + DCM B19
Electronic journal;

A Project MUSE title

Electronic Manifestation of Original (Non-Electronic / Electronic)
Separate Record / Notation Done by SRD
Same as for DA + DCM B19
A JSTOR title (notation on record for original title)
RA Manifestation of an Existing Collection Unique to LC
(Counterpart, Subset, Adjunct)
Delineated by Staff in Special Format Divisions
Same as for DA + DCM B19
Daguerreotype Collection
Compilation of Materials from LC Collections
(Counterpart, Subset, Adjunct)
Separate Record Created by CF/M Team and Possible Delineation by Staff in Special Format Divisions
Same as for DA + DCM B19
American variety stage;

American treasures of the Library of Congress;

California books

B19.9                   Appendix 2: Additional Concepts/Terms


          Character of work as
          a matter of time -       A concept applicable at the work level.

               a.   Determinate -  The work is intended to be complete in a specific
                                   period of time, i.e., it is not intended to continue
                                   indefinitely.

               b.   Indeterminate - The work is intended to continue indefinitely.

          Completed see under Realization of a determinate work as a matter of being
                              completed

          Determinate see under Character of work as a matter of time

          Dynamic see under Realization of work as a matter of time

          Extensible see under Dynamic under Realization of work as a matter of time

          In progress see under    Realization of determinate work as a matter of being
                                   completed

          Indeterminate see under Character of work as a matter of time

          Realization of a determinate
          work as a matter of being
          completed -              A concept pertinent to whether a determinate work is
                                   regarded as being completed or not and applicable at
                                   the expression, manifestation, and item levels; it
                                   applies to any particular state (e.g., an initial state,
                                   another edition).

               a.   In progress -  The term used to characterize a work that is regarded
                                   as being uncompleted.

               b.   Completed -    The term used to characterize a work that is regarded
                                   as being completed.

          Realization of work as
          a matter of time -       A concept applicable at the expression, manifestation,
                                   and item levels.

               a.   Static -  The realization of a work at the expression, etc. levels
                              is accomplished in a specific period of time.

               b.   Dynamic - The realization of a work at the expression, etc. levels
                              occurs indefinitely.  The realization may be extensible
                              (as in a tangible serial), revisable (as in a tangible
                              loose-leaf), or extensible and revisable (as in a tangible
                              loose-leaf).

          Static see under Realization of work as a matter of time

               Observations:  With respect to electronic resources, those that are directly
                              accessed can be static or dynamic; most of those accessed
                              remotely tend to be dynamic but can also be static.  New terms
                              are emerging to describe attributes such as "extensible" for a
                              work whose life continues and the intellectual content is
                              "added to" and "revisable" for a work whose life continues and
                              the intellectual content is undergoing "replacement" (in the
                              loose-leaf for updating sense).  New patterns are emerging
                              within the remotely accessed.  Currently, some serials are
                              being "rearranged," i.e., only a current issue contains a numeric
                              and/or alphabetic, chronological, or other designation with
                              previous issues rearranged into a "database" with loss of the
                              issue designations.


B19.10                  Appendix 3: Collocating Records/Linking Records

B19.10.1       BACKGROUND

B19.10.1.1     Need for Collocating and Linking Records

               The special format divisions of the Library have custody of collections that they need
to identify for various reasons, e.g., access, historical record, publicity.  Their needs encompass both
that of collocating records, i.e., the capacity to elicit from the catalog all the records relating to a
particular named collection, and that of managing and relating records representing hierarchical
groupings within a collection.  The need for relating hierarchical groupings is particularly characteristic
of larger collections.

               Over the past years several techniques within the separate divisions have been used for
collocating and linking records.  More recently, with the increasing number of digitization projects
stimulated by the National Digital Library Program (NDLP), the question has arisen whether there is a
need for a uniform approach to collocating and linking records.  The Cataloging Policy and Support
Office (CPSO) reviewed the issues with staff from the divisions involved and has concluded there are
sound reasons for a flexible approach in accommodating the varying characteristics of the materials in
the custody of the special format divisions and the techniques used for their bibliographic control.

B19.10.1.2     Past Practice

               The following techniques have been used:

               1)   series (440); the name of the collection chosen for access to it is given in a
                    bracketed series note/added entry in records representing items in the collection
                    or constituent parts of the collection;
               2)   added entry for name of the collection; the name of the collection chosen for
                    access to it is given in an added entry in records representing items in the
                    collection or constituent parts of the collection; the name of the collection is
                    treated as a corporate body and is tagged 710;
               3)   linking entry; the data relevant to referring to the record being linked to is
                    given in a linking entry; for vertical relationships, field 772 has been used in
                    records for a single issue, a supplement, or a special issue to provide
                    information about the related parent record; field 773 has been used in records
                    for constituent units to provide information about the related host item record.

B19.10.1.3     Future Practice

               It is better to distinguish between the collocating function and the linking function and
to apply the appropriate technique to each:

               1)   for the collocating function, use the added entry technique;
               2)   for the linking function, use a linking entry field appropriate to the condition;
                    use field 773 to express a vertical relationship between a record representing
                    an item in a collection or a part of a collection and the record representing the
                    collection as a whole; use field 776 to express a horizontal relationship;
               3)   if it is desirable to provide both functions, use both techniques
               4)   if neither function is required, do not use either technique.

B19.10.1.4     Series Technique

               There are rare cases in which material in collections coming to LC has been numbered. 
In such cases, the series technique is an appropriate one to use if the material has been numbered in a
way that lends itself to use of this technique.

B19.10.2       COLLOCATING RECORDS

B19.10.2.1     Added Entry Technique

               Use the added entry technique for collocating records for the following reasons:

               1)   flexibility; unlike the linking entry technique, this technique does not require
                    structuring the main entry of the collection-level record under the name of the
                    collection to be used for access;
               2)   the special format divisions can choose the collections for which they want to
                    provide access and the character string (name) through which they want to
                    provide that access;
               3)   this technique is the one that has most commonly been used in LC, it is
                    consistent across materials (general and special), and it is predictable for users
                    of the catalog;
               4)   this technique can be applied both to collection level and to item level records
                    in support of being comprehensive;
               5)   this technique is more straight forward in support of governing the headings in
                    bibliographic records through authority records than is the linking entry
                    technique.

               CPSO initially advocated continuing the practice of treating names of collections as
corporate names and content designating them as X10.  In a meeting with staff from the special format
divisions, however, it became clear that, although there was not unanimous agreement on this point
among staff from those divisions, there were persuasive reasons for treating the names of collections
as titles (X30).  CPSO now needs to:

               1)   assess the impact of such a change;
               2)   formulate the guidelines to be followed after the change;
               3)   develop a plan for managing the change.

B19.10.3       LINKING RECORDS

B19.10.3.1     General

               Linking entry fields may provide additional access by means of indexing (currently,
some, but not all, are indexed in LC).  They also have the potential of supporting instantaneous
navigating among records although that capability is not now available at LC.  For linking among
records, use the linking entry fields for the following reasons:

               1)   this technique is specifically designed for linking records, not for collocating
                    per se;
               2)   when divorced from collocating, this technique supports flexibility because it
                    frees the special format divisions from needing to ensure that main entry
                    access in the bibliographic record for a collection be the same as the character
                    string used for access purposes; for example:

                         245 00 $a Resolved:  we are now free states.
                         300 ## $a 2 broadsides.
                         710 2# $a Continental Congress Broadside Collection
                                   (Library of Congress)
                         773 0# $a United States. $b Continental Congress. $t
                                   Continental Congress broadsides $w (DLC)
                                   90-898267

               3)   this technique facilitates the management of records for hierarchical groupings,
                    especially in large collections.

B19.10.3.2     Policy for Linking Records

               As indicated above, the focus on linking records is more a matter of managing records,
providing additional access, and supporting navigation than it is a matter related to the cataloging of
electronic resources per se.  However, in the course of dealing with issues related to electronic
resources, issues relating to linking have arisen that needed to be addressed.  The overall policy for
linking among records is as follows:

               1)   for general cataloging related to monographs and monographic component
                    parts, do not link records except:

                    a)   for so-called "In analytics" in which the retrieval of the component
                         part is dependent upon the physical identification and location of the
                         host item or container (field 773);
                    b)   for a reproduction microform (link to the record for the original (field
                         776));

               2)   for cataloging related to materials in special format divisions, the decision to
                    link is at the discretion of the division or cataloging unit;

               3)   for cataloging related to serials and serial component parts, follow the
                    CONSER and LC guidelines laid out in documentation described elsewhere
                    (cf. DCM B19.8 (Appendix 1)); in general, the policy is to link.

B19.10.3.3     Guidelines for Linking Entry Fields (Decision Has Been Made to Link Records)

               Use the following guidelines:

               1)   for monographs and monographic component parts, only use a linking entry
                    field when there is another record to which a record can be linked;

               2)   use field 773 (Host Item Entry) to express a vertical link; for example, in the
                    record for a constituent unit, use field 773 to link to the record for the
                    collection as a whole; in general, do not link from a larger bibliographic unit
                    to a constituent unit (field 774);

               3)   use field 776 (Additional Physical Form Entry) to express a horizontal link; for
                    example, between a record that represents a non-electronic tangible resource
                    and its counterpart electronic manifestation).

               4)   always give in subfield $w the LCCN of the record being linked to;

               5)   use in the linking entry the bibliographic data constituting the main entry
                    access of the record being linked to; use subfields $a and $t for a main entry
                    (1XX)/title (240/245) combination; use subfield $t for entry under title (245).

               Observations:

               We need to explore further issues related to using linking records for LC collections as
               follows:

               1)   the actual linking mechanism will be dependent upon that of the ILS;
               2)   it would appear that if the actual linking mechanism is control number, then
                    that raises the question of what is the function of the bibliographic data given
                    in the linking entry; technically, all that would be required would be a control
                    number; if so, does that mean the bibliographic data, if any, are serving more
                    an "informational" function and the requirements for the form in which they
                    are given can be less rigorous?


B19.11                          Appendix 4: Examples

B19.11.1       EXAMPLE 1

001 ## $a 95-861318 $b PP $c r97
050 00 $a Guide Record $u 
245 00 $a Daguerreotype Collection (Library of Congress) $h [graphic].
260 ## $c 1839-1864.
300 ## $a <599   > photographs : $b daguerreotypes.
351 ## $a Organized into one filing series with the call number prefix DAG.
520 0# $a The majority of the daguerreotypes are portraits by American
          photographers, including many by the Mathew Brady studio and the
          first American daguerreotype, made by Robert Cornelius. The
          collection also includes some early architectural views, outdoor
          scenes, and copies of works of art. Portraits are primarily of men,
          chiefly politicians, but also artists, journalists, and
          entertainers. Some of the portraits are occupational daguerreotypes
          that show workers with the tools of their trade. Unidentified people
          appear in more than 200 images. Among the architectural views are
          the White House, Capitol, Patent Office, and the General Post Office
          in Washington, D.C., by John Plumbe, and street scenes in
          Philadelphia. The 30 images from the American Colonization Society
          Records are of Liberian government officials and colonists and
          relate to the Society's resettlement program for African Americans;
          includes images taken by Rufus Anson and Augustus Washington.
555 8# $a Finding aid available in electronic form.
506 ## $a Daguerreotypes served by appointment only.
540 ## $a No known restrictions on reproduction.
530 ## $a Available also through the Library of Congress Web site under title:
          America's first look into the camera: daguerreotype portraits and
          views ...  (Earlier title: Daguerreotypes, 1842-1862.) This finding
          aid in electronic form, with reproductions, captions, and subject
          indexing for each image, was produced in 1995 for the National 
          Digital Library Program, American Memory collections.
530 ## $a For some of the daguerreotypes by Brady's studio, prints from glass
          copy negatives are available in LOT 13129.
530 ## $a For daguerreotypes by John Plumbe, reference prints are available
          in LOT 11338.
500 ## $a New daguerreotypes are added to the collection as they are acquired.
541 ## $c Most Brady studio daguerreotypes from transfer; $a U.S. Army War
          College ; $d 1920; $e (DLC/PP-1920:46153).
541 ## $c Gift, purchase, and deposit; $a various sources; $d 1926-present.
610 24 $a American Colonization Society $x People $y 1840-1850.
650 #7 $a Buildings $y 1840-1850. $2 lctgm
650 #7 $a Artists $y 1840-1860. $2 lctgm
650 #7 $a Entertainers $y 1840-1860. $2 lctgm
650 #7 $a Government officials $z Liberia $y 1840-1850. $2 lctgm
650 #7 $a Journalists $y 1840-1860. $2 lctgm
650 #7 $a Politicians $y 1840-1860. $2 lctgm
655 #7 $a Daguerreotypes $y 1840-1870. $2 gmgpc
655 #7 $a Portraits $y 1840-1870. $2 gmgpc
700 1# $a Brady, Mathew B., $d 1823 (ca.)-1896.
700 1# $a Cornelius, Robert, $d 1809-1893, $e photographer.
740 0# $a America's first look into the camera: daguerreotype portraits and
          views.
740 0# $a Daguerreotypes, 1842-1862.
852 ## $a Library of Congress $b Prints and Photographs Division $e
          Washington, D.C. 20540 USA $n dcuB19.11.1  EXAMPLE 1 (CONTINUED)

856 7# $3 Finding aid $u http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/daghtml/daghome.html
          $2 http
040 ## $a DLC $c DLC $d DLC $e gihc
043 ## $a n-us---
007 ## $a kh|bh#
007 ## $a cr||||
985 ## $a pp/dag $e ammem
005 ## $a 19970807171531.3
908 ## $a 


B19.11.2       EXAMPLE 2

001 ## $a 90-898267 $c r974
050 00 $a Cont Cong no. 1-242 $u 
110 10 $a United States. $b Continental Congress.
245 10 $a Continental Congress broadsides.
260 ## $c ca. 1774-1778.
300 ## $a <ca. 260   > pieces.
520 0# $a Contains broadsides and other documents pertaining to the work of
          the Continental Congress during the Revolutionary War and
          Confederation period.  Items include acts, resolutions, committee
          reports, treaties, and proclamations.  Many of the documents
          represent drafts of resolutions and bills which eventually passed in
          a different form; some items have manuscript annotations which are
          not elsewhere recorded.  Some pieces exist in multiple copies.
530 ## $a Available also through the Library of Congress Web site under title:
          Documents from the Continental Congress and the Constitutional
          Convention 1774-1789.  At least one facsimile image of each
          broadside is presented along with a narrative introduction.
530 ## $a Available also as part of a microfilm with title: Continental
          Congress and Constitutional Convention Collections.  Washington,
          D.C. : Library of Congress Photoduplication Service.  1 microfilm
          reel ; 35 mm.
561 ## $a Some pieces have been transferred from the Manuscript Division,
          Library of Congress.
651 #0 $a United States $x Politics and government $y 1775-1783.
651 #0 $a United States $x Politics and government $y 1783-1789.
610 10 $a United States. $b Continental Congress.
710 2# $a Continental Congress Broadside Collection (Library of Congress)
740 0# $a Documents from the Continental Congress and the Constitutional
          Convention 1744-1789.
740 0# $a Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention Collections.
852 ## $a Library of Congress $b Rare Book and Special Collections Division $e
          Washington, D.C. 20540-4862 USA $n dcu
856 7# $u http://lcweb2.loc.gov/bdsds $2 http
040 ## $a DLC $c DLC $d DLC $e appm
051 ## $a Microfilm 90/3000 $u  $c Microfilm.
043 ## $a n-us---
007 ## $a cr||||
005 ## $a 19970802130030.2
985 ## $a rarebk/bside $e ammem


B19.11.3  EXAMPLE 3

001 ## a 34-16980 c r97
005 ## a 19970613083547.0
010 ## a 34016980//r97
012 ## a -3-7n9706130044-p----- 111
022 0# a 0012-9682 z 0098-1699
030 ## a ECMTA7
032 ## a 030930 b USPS
035 ## a (OCoLC)1567366
037 ## b Econometrica, Tieto Ltd., Bank House, Ba Hill Rd., Clevedon, Avon
         BS21 7HH, England
040 ## a MnMULS c MnMULS d CtY d MnMULS d NSDP d OCoLC d InU d NSDP d
         MH d AIP d NSDP d AIP d MH d AIP d NSDP d MH d TxU d DLC d
         InU d DLC
041 0# a engfre
042 ## a nsdp a lc
050 00 a HB1 b .E2
051 ## a www.jstor.org/fcgi
         -bin/jstor/lisstjournal.fcg/00129682?frame=frame&dpi=3 c ELECTRONIC
         COPY
082 ## a 330.5
210 0# a Econometrica
222 #0 a Econometrica
245 00 a Econometrica :b journal of the Econometric Society.
260 ## a Chicago, Ill. : b Econometric Society, the University of Chicago,
300 ## a v. : b ports., diagrs. ; c 26 cm.
310 ## a Bimonthly b <, Mar. 1975- >
321 ## a Quarterly, b 1933-
362 1# a Began in Jan. 1933.
500 ## a Published: Evanston, Ill. : Econometric Society, 
500 ## a Description based on: Vol. 15, no. 1 (Jan. 1947); title from cover.
510 1# a Management contents b 1974-
510 1# a Social sciences index x 0094-4920
510 2# a ABI/INFORM b Mar. 1972-Mar. 1973
510 2# a Index of economic articles in journals and collective volumes x
         0536-647X
510 2# a Mathematical reviews x 0025-5629
310 ## a With supplements.
530 ## a Scanned images of back issues also available to subscribers of J
         -STOR via the World Wide Web.
546 ## a English and French.
555 ## a Vols. 1 (1933)-20 (1952).  1 v. (Supplement to v. 20); v. 21 (1953)
         -45 (1977).  1 v.; v. 46 (1978)-55 (1987).  1 v.
650 #0 a Economics x Periodicals.
650 #0 a Economics, Mathematical x Periodicals.
710 2# a Econometric Society.
776 1# t Econometrica (Online) w (DLC)sn97023014 w (OCoLC)35705710
850 ## a InU a MH a MH-CS a MH-KG a TxU
856 7# z Online version: u http://www.jstor.org/fcgi
         -bin/jstor/listjournal.fcg/00129682?frame=frame&dpi=3 2 http
936 ## a Vol. 54, no. 6 (Nov. 1986) LIC


B19.11.4  EXAMPLE 4

001 ## a 75-693072 b MAPS c r93
050 00 a G3974.A5A3 1903 b .D7
052 ## a 3974 b A5
100 1# a Dry, Camille N.
245 00 a Bird's eye view looking northwest, city of Anniston, Calhoun County,
         Alabama. c Drawn by C. N. Dry.
260 ## a N[ew] Y[ork] b Chas. Hart, lith., c c1903.
300 ## a map c 58 x 87 cm.
507 ## b Perspective map not drawn to scale.
500 ## a Indexed for points of interest.
510 4# a LC Panoramic maps (2nd ed.), c 3
530 ## a Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a Raster
         image.
952 ## a AACR2
651 #0 a Anniston (Ala.) x Aerial views.
752 ## a United States b Alabama d Anniston.
710 2# a Charles Hart Litho.
852 0# a Library of Congress b Geography and Map Division e Washington,
         D.C. 20540-4650 USA n dcu
856 7# d g3974a f pm000030 2 file
007 ## a crlmn#
040 ## a DLC c DLC d DLC
985 ## a GMD/PM e ammem
005 ## a 19970609101211.6


B19.11.5  EXAMPLE 5

001 ## a 96-801286
050 00 a Z674.8
082 10 a 025.04 2 12
110 2# a Network Advisory Committee. b Meeting d (1994 June 12-14 : c
         Washington, D.C.)
245 10 a Community connections h [computer file] : b the national
         infrastructure and civic networks : proceedings of the Library of
         Congress Network Advisory Committee, June 12-14, 1994.
256 ## a Computer data.
260 ## a Washington, D.C. : b Network Development and MARC Standards Office,
         Library of Congress, c 1996.
490 1# a Network planning paper ; v no. 27
538 ## a Mode of access: World Wide Web or gopher.
500 ## a Title from home page.
500 ## a "2/16/96."
530 ## a Available also in print form.
520 ## a Full text of a Network Advisory Committee (NAC) meeting which was
         held to update participants on developments affecting the public
         interest in the national information infrastructure, to inform NAC
         members of the status and outlook for community and civic networks,
         and to advise the Library of Congress on the draft of its strategic
         plan to create the national digital library.  Includes meeting
         agenda, list of attendees, foreword by the NAC chair, presentations
         and discussion.
505 2# a Introduction to community connections / Jane Williams --
         Administrative connections / David Lytel -- Legislative connections
         / Robert Gillespie -- Cyberspace for everyone? / Ronald Doctor -- An
         overview of civic networking / Christinger Tomer -- CapAccess /
         Richard Civille, Janice Snyder Anderson -- Blacksburg Electronic
         Village / Joseph Wiencko -- Three Rivers Free-Net / Robert
         Croneberger -- Selfin Free-Net / Elizabeth Curry -- Discussion with
         community networks panel -- Review of Civic networks in the United
         States / Peter R. Young.
650 #0 a Library information networks z United States x Congresses.
650 #0 a Wide area networks (Computer networks) x Access z United States x
         Congresses.
710 2# a Library of Congress. b Network Development and MARC Standards
         Office.
830 #0 a Network planning paper (Online) ; v no. 27.
856 7# u http://www.loc.gov.nac/nac27 2 http
856 7# u gopher://marvel.loc.gov/11/services/libinforg/nac/nac27 2 gopher
040 ## a DLC c DLC d DLC
043 ## a n-us---
007 ## a cr||||
005 ## a 19960327110309.6


B19.11.6  EXAMPLE 6

001 ## a 96-802206
050 00 a TK5105.888 u <1996 00558> u 
082 10 a 025.04 2 12
111 2# a International WWW Conference n (5th : d 1996 : c Paris, France)
245 10 a Proceedings of the 5th International World-Wide Web Conference h
         [computer file] : b May 6-10 1996, Paris, France.
246 30 a World-Wide Web Conference
256 ## a Computer data.
260 ## a Amsterdam : b Elsevier Science, c [1996]
300 ## a 1 computer laser optical disc ; c 4 3/4 in. + e 1 insert.
538 ## a System requirements for IBM: 386SX or higher; 4MB RAM; MSDOS; HTML
         viewer software (e.g., Netscape); CD-ROM drive.
538 ## a System requirements for Macintosh: Macintosh; 4MB RAM; System 7.0 or
         higher; HTML viewer; CD-ROM drive.
500 ## a Title from disc label.
500 ## a Also published as a special issue of: Computer networks and ISDN
         systems (Vol. 28, issues 7-11, 1996).
530 ## a Available also through the Internet.
520 ## a Contains 58 HTML-formatted technical papers accepted for
         presentation at the 5th International World-Wide Web Conference, 7th
         to 9th of May, 1996, in Paris.
020 ## a 0444825010
650 #0 a World Wide Web (Information retrieval system) x Congresses.
650 #0 a Internet (Computer network) x Congresses.
710 2# a Elsevier Science Publishers.
730 0# a Computer networks and ISDN systems.
856 7# u http://www5conf.inria.fr 2 http
040 ## a DLC c DLC d DLC
007 ## a co||||
007 ## a cr||||
005 ## a 19961003151449.7


B19.11.7  EXAMPLE 7

001 ## a 96-802670
050 00 a PN1968.U5 u <1996 01525> u 
082 10 a 793.8 2 12
245 00 a American variety stage h [computer file] : b vaudeville and
         popular entertainment, 1870-1920 / c American Memory, Library of
         Congress.
246 30 a Vaudeville and popular entertainment, 1870-1920
256 ## a Computer data.
260 ## a Washington, D.C. : b Library of Congress, c 1996-
538 ## a Systems requirements: World Wide Web (WWW) browser software.
538 ## a Mode of access: Internet.
500 ## a Title from title screen dated Oct. 31, 1996 (viewed on Feb. 12,
         1997).
500 ## a "Groups of theater posters and sound recordings will be added to
         this anthology in the future."
520 ## a Multimedia collection containing digitized versions of selected
         Library of Congress holdings.  Represents diverse forms of popular
         entertainment, especially, vaudeville, that thrived from 1870-1920. 
         Includes 334 English and Yiddish language playscripts, 146 theater
         playbills and programs, sixty-one motion pictures, and 143
         photographs and twenty-nine memorabilia items documenting the life
         and career of Harry Houdini.
505 1# a Houdini -- Theater playbills and programs -- Sound recordings
         (coming soon) -- Motion pictures -- English playscripts -- Yiddish
         playscripts
650 #0 a Vaudeville z United States x History y 20th century.
650 #0 a Vaudeville z United States x History y 19th century.
650 #0 a Vaudeville z United States x Film catalogs.
650 #0 a American drama y 20th century.
650 #0 a American drama y 19th century.
650 #0 a Yiddish drama y 20th century.
650 #0 a Yiddish drama y 19th century.
650 #0 a Theater programs z United States.
650 #0 a Playbills z United States.
600 10 a Houdini, Harry, d 1874-1926.
710 2# a Library of Congress. b National Digital Library Program.
856 7# u http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/vshtml/vshome.html 2 http
952 ## a Cataloged using WebExplorer browser software.
040 ## a DLC c DLC d DLC
043 ## a n-us---
007 ## a cr||||
005 ## a 19970116111119.4

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Comments: [email protected] (01/05/98)