Members of the Cataloging Directorate have been involved in several initiatives to help automate and enhance the cataloging process. The Electronic CIP Experiment and the cataloging program On the MARC were the first such initiatives. The latest program being developed is called ClipSearch.
ClipSearch is a utility program for use on the Library's Bibliographic Workstation (BWS). It currently provides BWS inter-session searching, automatic copying of headings from authority records to bibliographic records, and online MARC code lists. It will soon be enhanced to provide automatic generation of name authority records as well. The program is now being tested in several Collections Services divisions by approximately fifty catalogers and technicians.
The BWS is an off-the-shelf PC that uses the OS/2 operating system and special 3270 terminal emulation software to allow catalogers to perform online cataloging. One of its features is the ability to open multiple active sessions (also called windows). Catalogers can input bibliographic records in one session, input name authorities in another session, and perform other functions in a third session along with any other windows that may be running, e.g., Passport, RLIN, Internet clients. The cataloger can easily switch among these application windows.
Catalogers viewing or editing a bibliographic record in one BWS session can invoke ClipSearch with two keystrokes (by copying a single character to the OS/2 clipboard). This causes ClipSearch to parse the field selected by the cataloger and reformulate it as an LC database search. ClipSearch then sends that search to a second BWS session. The program then switches the focus to that search session automatically so the cataloger can see the results immediately. The cataloger can then do further searching if necessary. When the desired authority record is displayed in the second session, the user copies a single asterisk into the clipboard and the authority heading is automatically inserted into the first session. ClipSearch supports searching of personal names, corporate bodies, series, titles, and subjects. It will also copy all diacritics and subfield delimiters in the heading being copied.
The program operates by monitoring the OS/2 clipboard and only takes action when a single character is put into memory. A graphical front end allows users to customize many aspects of how ClipSearch formulates searches, which sessions are being used, whether the program will pause for editing of a search before sending, and other options.
ClipSearch also includes a code list utility which brings up easily accessible MARC code lists for countries, geographic areas, and languages. An additional facility in the code list program allows the user to build and recall files of frequently used headings, which can be selected and copied to the clipboard for pasting into a BWS session. Automatic generation of name authority records from displayed bibliographic records is in preliminary testing and will be released to the test group shortly.
This program represents a major advancement in the way catalogers do their jobs and starts to exploit the capabilities of an intelligent workstation. Programs such as ClipSearch provide catalogers with the automation features they want and need without costly, time-consuming mainframe software development.
Fast-moving developments in the digital world are demanding solutions for incorporating digital materials into existing cataloging frameworks. Barbara Tillett, chief, Cataloging Policy and Support Office (CPSO), initiated a three-day meeting to lay the foundation for developing consistent cataloging policies and guidelines for these materials. Participants included Tom Delsey, Director-General, Corporate Policy and Planning, National Library of Canada, as well as several staff members from throughout Collections Services. The meetings were held September 20-22 at the Library of Congress.
The starting point for discussion was the conceptual model of bibliographic information developed by the IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records, for which Tillett and Delsey have served as consultants. The IFLA model incorporates the salient features of a general bibliographic data model developed for an information engineering project at LC in 1991. The model was used to focus discussion on how digital materials fit into the traditional bibliographic universe.
The conceptual model as presented identified three basic categories (entities) of bibliographic data: intellectual or artistic content (the entities WORK and EXPRESSION); generalizable physical description (the entity MANIFESTATION); and individual instances or copies (the entity ITEM). The participants endorsed the basic categories, and agreed that they held true in the digital world. They also agreed on the need for more precision in the vocabulary used to discuss 'digital' materials, and recommended maintaining a distinction between online resources and digital works that are published and maintained as physical materials.
The results of the meeting will be incorporated into a report to be made available by CPSO at the end of the year. It is hoped that this report can serve as a vehicle for achieving consensus on a wide range of issues related to managing the new, rapidly- emerging categories of information needed to support access to a digital world.
Attendees from LC were Ardith Bausenbach (Automation Planning and Liaison Office (APLO)), Elizabeth Davis-Brown (National Digital Library), John Byrum (Regional and Cooperative Cataloging Division), Elizabeth Dulabahn (APLO), Kay Guiles (CPSO), Norma Hendrickson (Special Materials Cataloging Division), Diane Humes (CPSO), Judith Kuhagen (CPSO), Elizabeth Mangan (Geography and Map Division), Joyce Owens (Information Technology Services), Barbara Tillett (CPSO), Belinda Urquiza (APLO), and Emily Zehmer (Manuscript Division).
Annotated Card or subject headings for children's literature in USMARC format will be added to the Library of Congress subject authority file early in 1996. These records are currently maintained as text. The project to convert the approximately 900 records has begun, and records are expected to appear in the Cataloging Distribution Service's subject authority MARC distribution service as they are verified by the Cataloging Policy and Support Office beginning in January 1996. A customer notice will accompany the first MDS-Subject Authority weekly file containing these records. The records may be identified by a value of "b" in USMARC field 008 position 11.
The subject headings for children's literature will continue to appear as a separate section in the print and microfiche editions of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). They will also be in a separate section of the LC Subject Headings Weekly Lists. Because of the nature of the subject headings for children's literature and the workload associated with changing the CDMARC production process, these headings will not be included in CDMARC Subjects at present.
Subject headings for children's literature were created to provide a more appropriate and in-depth treatment of subjects for juvenile titles and to offer easier subject access to these materials. This was accomplished chiefly by a more liberal application of the subject headings in LCSH. In some cases, the rules for application were changed and headings were simplified; in a few instances headings were created where none had previously existed. Subject headings for children's literature are exceptions to LCSH and therefore must be consulted and used in conjunction with it.
Library of Congress Classification R, Medicine, 1995 edition, has just been published by the Library's Cataloging Distribution Service. This replaces the fifth edition, 1986. Class R includes classification data created through early 1995 and has new class numbers and captions for such topics as DNA fingerprints, Exercise addiction, and Lyme disease.
Class R is smaller and less bulky than before and is printed on both sides of the page. Thumb tabs throughout the tables and indexes make content location easier.
The schedule costs $34 in North America and $35 outside North America. The publication can be ordered from Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service, P.O. Box 75640, Washington, DC 20013-5640; Telephone: 1-800-255-3666 (toll-free in U.S.) or (202) 707-6100 elsewhere; Fax: (202) 707-1334.
Update No. 1 (March 1995) to the USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data is now available. This first update to the 1994 edition completes the format integration (FI) documentation, incorporating into the regular format specifications those FI and related changes that were previously documented in "Future" sections. Changes falling into this category are generally limited to the leader and fields 006 to 008.
Update no. 1 also includes a few new data elements added primarily to accommodate the latest technology. Examples include field 342 (Geospatial Reference Data) and field 786 (Data Source Entry). The largest number of pages in this update results from the addition of only one data element, subfield v (form subdivision), which can now be used in most subject access fields. Appendix A (National Level Record and Minimal Level Record Requirements) has also been revised to reduce its length by one third, eliminating 24 pages.
The integrated USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data now supports the encoding of 14 different bibliographic record types. Seriality and archival control can now be applied to any of these. It is also possible to encode fixed-length data elements applicable to any material through the use of field 008 (Fixed-Length Data Elements) and the newly-added field 006 (Fixed-Length Data Elements--Additional Physical Characteristics).
Update No. 1 to the USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data, 1994 edition, sells for $21 (North America) and $22 (outside North America). The publication can be ordered from: Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service Customer Services Section, Washington, D.C. 20541-5017; Phone: (202) 707-6200; Fax: (202) 707-1334.
LC CATALOGING NEWSLINE (ISSN 1066-8829) is published at least quarterly by the Cataloging Directorate, Collections Services, Library of Congress, and contains news of cataloging activities throughout the Library of Congress. Editorial Office: Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540-4305. Editor, Robert M. Hiatt; Editorial Advisory Group: John Byrum, Roselyne Chang, Rebecca Guenther, Angela Kinney, Albert Kohlmeier, John Mitchell, Susan Morris, Geraldine Ostrove, Regina Reynolds, David Smith, Richard Thaxter, Susan Toulmin, and David Williamson. Address editorial inquiries to the editor at the above address or [email protected] (eMail), (202) 707-5831 (voice), or (202)707-6629 (fax). Listowner: David Williamson. Address subscription inquiries to the listowner at [email protected]
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