Highlights of Fiscal Year 1995, Part II
LC-Harvard Cooperative Cataloging Project
Index to LCC Online
Subclass JX in the 1995 Edition of Class J
This is the second in a series of articles relating to highlights from the annual reports that were prepared by divisions whose staff are largely engaged in cataloging activities at the Library of Congress. These reports cover fiscal year 1995, which began October 1, 1994, and concluded September 30, 1995. Arts and Sciences Cataloging Division (ASCD)
ASCD is responsible for the cataloging of books in art, architecture, the performing arts excluding music, and the agricultural, biological, medical, military, physical, and technological sciences in all languages written in roman or cyrillic scripts.
Chief Beacher Wiggins was acting director for cataloging during the last three quarters of the fiscal year. ASCD's receipts were 70,556 for the year of which 69,813 were completed. At the end of the fiscal year, the division's arrearage stood at 11,547, more than satisfying ASCD's arrearage goal of 12,507 for the quarter ending September 1995.
ASCD saw significant increases in copy cataloging during the fiscal year: receipts for copy cataloging totaled 10,813 compared to 7,793 in fiscal year 1994, and of this number, 9,030 titles were cleared, compared to 7,447 cleared in fiscal year 1994. These figures represent copy cataloging increases of 39% in receipts and 21% in completions. In addition to its application to a large number of current receipts, copy cataloging was a factor in a 50% reduction in the number of ASCD's older arrearage items.
During the year, the division became an active participant in the cooperative cataloging projects between the Cataloging Directorate's book cataloging divisions and Harvard and Princeton Universities.
As part of a contract between the Cataloging Directorate and OCLC begun in fiscal year 1994, OCLC's Techpro Service supplied both copy and original cataloging for Dutch and Finnish arrearage books. In its effort, Techpro cataloged 1,638 books, of which 959 were copy cataloging and 679 were original cataloging. This contract was monitored by ASCD staff. History and Literature Cataloging Division (HLCD)
HLCD is responsible for the cataloging of books in history, literature, genealogy, general bibliography, and library science in all languages written in roman or cyrillic scripts.
Teams developed various ways to tackle arrearage reduction, most focusing their efforts on special projects. For example, in June the Hispanic Team initiated a regular monthly program of production-project weeks, in which one week a month is devoted to accomplishing a specific arrearage-reduction goal. The Anglo- American Teams gained two new future descriptive catalogers in the Affirmative Action Intern Program.
The division completed 83,672 items in fiscal year 1995. Although this figure represents a 1.78% decrease in total completions compared to fiscal year 1994, there were significant increases in two components of HLCD's cataloging work. Full cataloging rose 2.65% and copy cataloging rose 32.1% over fiscal year 1994, reflecting a continuing shift toward whole book cataloging and toward utilization of outside cataloging records. In addition the division established or modified 35,425 authority records and modified 8,578 bibliographic records.
The Central Asian languages arrearage material was sorted by Gouljan Manieva, a visiting librarian from Kyrgyzstan, working with a Slavic Team cataloger.
Patricia Myers-Hayer (Germanic History and Literature Team) took a leave of absence from October 1994 through March 1995 as the recipient of an American Library Association Book Fellowship at King Abdul Aziz Women's College Library, Saudi Arabia.
The Hispanic Team spent six months coordinating the "Rio project," the result of LC's Overseas Office in Rio de Janeiro contributing descriptive cataloging and authority records (independent of any review in most cases) for materials from Latin America. The materials are then subject-cataloged and shelflisted by the Hispanic Team, if in scope, or forwarded elsewhere for completion of the cataloging. Coordination of this workflow is shared, in alternating six-month periods, with the Romance Languages Team, Social Sciences Cataloging Division.
The Hispanic and Romance Teams participated in an ongoing cooperative project with Princeton University, begun in June 1994 (see LCCN, v. 2, no. 4 (June 1994), for a description of this project). The team completed 984 Mexican imprints during fiscal year 1995. Finding a substantial number of Princeton records in RLIN enabled the team to reduce its Italian work on hand. The addition of a subject cataloger to the team also boosted the completion of Italian books, many of which had been completed descriptively but were awaiting subject cataloging and shelflisting. Social Sciences Cataloging Division (SSCD)
SSCD is responsible for the cataloging of book material in anthropology, business, Christian theology and church history, comparative religion, economics, education, law, philosophy, psychology, political science, recreation, sociology, and sports in all languages written in roman or cyrillic scripts.
On January 8, 1995, Regene Ross, assistant chief of the History and Literature Cataloging Division, began her appointment as chief of SSCD.
During the year, many of the ways the division performed its work changed as a result of growing workload requirements, automation enhancements, and decreases in its work force.
Receipts for the year rose 4.6% to 97,673 items as compared with 93,425 last year. Steeling themselves for this challenge, the teams completed 95,112 items, a 2.26% increase over last year's 93,011. The division achieved this increase in completions despite having fewer staff members and a significant number of staff assigned or detailed to other projects and divisions with, consequently, fewer hours devoted to cataloging and shelflisting.
Copy cataloging took a dramatic leap from 7,765 completions in 1994 to 11,193 in 1995 - an increase of 44.1%.
SSCD completed 97.4% of the items received during the year. At year's end the division held 27,470 arrearage items, a decrease of 9.9% from the 30,495 reported last year.
Tom Imhoof, team leader, Germanic and Scandinavian Languages Team, worked with Cataloging Policy and Support Office staff to evaluate the Deutsche Bibliothek resource file. This project showed the usefulness of the records as base acquisitions records and in subject analysis.
The Law Team collaborated with the Rare Book and Special Collections Division to expedite the processing of rare Russian legal materials in the Law Library's collections.
Division staff provided orientation, training, or consultation for numerous distinguished foreign visitors to the Library. These included Blanca Ripodas, a law librarian from Cordoba, Argentina; Edita Vorobjova from the Subject Editorial Policy Office at the National Library of Lithuania, who had a two-month internship at the Library of Congress; Andrew MacEwan of the British Library; Katya Zhekova, a business librarian from Bulgaria; Yitzhak Arad, director of Yad Vashem, Israel; and musicologist Dr. Edmund Bowles. Mary Myers of the Joint IMF-World Bank Library spent six weeks as a guest cataloger on the Business and Economics Team.
Staff member David Williamson was elected vice-chair/chair- elect of the Microcomputers in Support of Technical Services Interest Group of the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA) of ALA. He was also named to the board of the group.
Although there is high demand for German copy cataloging, the utility hit rates are disappointingly low. The LC-Harvard Cooperative Project described below was devised as an attempt to cooperatively process Germanic items and thereby provide high-quality copy cataloging that can be used not only by LC and Harvard but by the rest of the library community as well.ěThe project was initiated at the end of 1993 as a result of a conversation between Michael Kaplan, head of database management and coordinator of OCLC/RLIN operations at Harvard College Library, and Jerry Wager, LC, during a visit by LC staff to Harvard. Mr. Kaplan coordinates the project for Harvard, and Mr. Wager coordinated the project for LC until June 1995. Bruno Quiros, Germanic-Scandinavian Languages Team, Social Sciences Cataloging Division, is the current LC coordinator.
Although specific details of the project have varied over time, the workflow in broad outline was as follows:
Once LC and Harvard had finished processing the target materials, discussions would begin on whether to extend the project. After agreeing to extend the project, a new target group of materials would be defined and processed following the procedure outlined above. LC staff retrieved materials from the arrearage, downloaded copy from OCLC, cleaned it up following guidelines, and sent the material to the appropriate cataloging teams. Cataloging teams were asked to give priority cataloging to these materials.
Through June 1995, the Harvard Project had gone through three phases. The initial phase included German-language in-process records with 91-prefix LCCNs. As an experiment, phase 2 added Scandinavian languages and Finnish to German-language in-process records with 92-prefix LCCNs. The overlap in these languages was found to be so small that it was decided not to include them in any follow-on projects. Phase 3 covered 93-prefix German-language in- process items.
Until phase 3, the project had been limited to searching in- process records for which there were readily-available numeric search keys. To overcome this limitation, Bill Hays, a programmer in the Cataloging Services Dept., Harvard University, developed a Paradox program that creates OCLC derived search keys from in- process records lacking ISBNs or other unique numeric codes. This improvement resulted in finding copy for an additional 87 items in phase 3.
Both institutions have benefitted from this project. Both have realized greater efficiencies in their processing of these materials. In June 1995, LC's German-language cataloging teams reported that they had completely cataloged their arrearage, thereby accomplishing one of the original goals of the project. Through this cooperative arrangement, LC expedites cataloging of materials that it knows Harvard has not yet cataloged, Harvard catalogs material for which no copy exists, and LC does not have to use staff time to search OCLC for German-language copy. The records that LC processes as a result of this project are supported by full LC authority work and subject analysis and classification, including Dewey Decimal Classification. Since these records are redistributed by LC's Cataloging Distribution Service, the national and international library community also benefits from the speedier processing of these materials and the wider availability of high-quality cataloging copy.
LC and Harvard have recently agreed to continue the project and to expand it to include Portuguese-language materials. The plan is to extend this portion to include Harvard creation of authority records to accompany the bibliographic work that Harvard is already doing. Most of these titles are cataloged on receipt, whether by doing original cataloging or by using copy from OCLC. Once the plan is fully operational, the records will be wrapped into the mantle of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging as BIBCO records. The precise timing of this phase is not yet determined since it depends on the release of upcoming enhancements that will allow batch-loading of PCC records from contributing libraries.
Domestic and foreign geographic names from the United States Board on Geographic Names are now available on the World Wide Web. These web pages can serve as valuable resources in establishing geographic names for cataloging purposes. Domestic names from the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) are available at http://www-nmd.usgs.gov/www/gnis/gnisform.html from the U.S. Geologic Survey. Foreign names from the GEOnet Names Server (GNS) are available at http://184.108.40.206 from the Defense Mapping Agency. For GEOnet a username and password are currently required. However, as is noted on the GEOnet Names Server page, the term guest may be used for a brief time for both username and password.
With the conversion of the Library of Congress Classification schedules (LCC) to machine-readable form nearing completion, the Cataloging Policy and Support Office (CPSO) is examining the index structure of the individual schedules, as displayed both online and in print, to see how the indexes relate to each other and to consider the design of an overall, combined index to the LCC. In addition, CPSO is planning for the revision, maintenance, and future development of LCC. To assist in these projects, CPSO invited Dr. Lois Chan to LC December 7 and 8. Dr. Chan, an expert in classification and indexing theory and structure, met with CPSO chief Barbara Tillett, subject policy specialists, and interested staff from the cataloging divisions. She will submit a report containing her recommendations at the end of February.
In the 1995 edition of the Library of Congress Classification, Class J: Political Science, all numbers in subclass JX have been parenthesized. The statement is made on the back cover and on the tab guide page that subclass JX is no longer applied at the Library of Congress. As explained in the Preface, the Library of Congress is now in the final stages of developing two new subclasses, JZ and KZ, for the literature of international relations and public international law. These new subclasses, when completed, will replace subclass JX. Until that time, subclass JX will continue to be used at the Library of Congress to classify new material, contrary to the statement on the cover and on the tab guide page.
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