LC Cataloging Newsline

Online Newsletter of the Cataloging Directorate, Library of Congress

Volume 4, No. 12, ISSN 1066-8829, October 1996

New Cataloging Team Leaders
NACO Libraries Contribute 100,000 Authority Records in FY 1996
Certain Names Entities
Treatment Fields in Series Authority Records
Series Institute
Malaysia and LCSH
Pinyin Romanization: Word Division Recommendations
National Library of Medicine Name Authority Records

New Cataloging Team Leaders

Three Cataloging Directorate teams have gained new leaders: Elvirita Gildea in the Religion, Philosophy, and Psychology Team (RPP), Social Sciences Cataloging Division; Philip Melzer in the Korean/Chinese Team, Regional and Cooperative Cataloging Division (RCCD); and Angela Kinney in the Southeast/South Asia Team, RCCD.

Ms. Gildea came to the Library of Congress in 1980 as a descriptive cataloger of English and Philippine language materials. In 1989 she joined the RPP Team as part of the Whole Book Cataloging Experiment and remained with RPP upon the reorganization of the Cataloging Directorate in June 1992. She is a graduate of the University of the Philippines and holds the M.A. in psychology and the M.S.L.S. from Catholic University.

Mr. Melzer began his LC career in the Loan Division in 1975, transferring to the former Preliminary Cataloging Section, Descriptive Cataloging Division, and earning promotion to the position of descriptive cataloger in East Asian languages in 1977. He represents the Library on the OCLC CJK Users Group and was recently elected chair of the Subcommittee on Technical Processing of CEAL, the Council on East Asian Libraries, Association for Asian Studies. He earned a B.A. in Chinese, an M.A. in East Asian languages, and an M.L.S., all from the University of Wisconsin.

Ms. Kinney has been at LC since 1981 as preliminary cataloger, editor in the former Catalog Management and Publication Division, and descriptive cataloger in several teams in the Cataloging Directorate. She contributed cataloging to the Handbook of Latin American Studies. She was acting assistant to the director for cataloging in 1994 and in 1995 helped to coordinate the Altshuler Jazz Project, an arrearage project to process more than 250,000 sound recordings. Currently she is secretary to the Cataloging Council. Kinney holds a bachelor's degree with a major in Spanish from Georgetown University and an M.S.L.S. from Catholic University.


Several speakers at the sixty-second General Conference of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, August 25-31, are active in bibliographic control at LC. Winston Tabb, Associate Librarian for Library Services, serves as LC's representative to the Section on National Libraries, whose Standing Committee he serves as secretary. In addition, at the Section on Cataloguing's open program he delivered an address, "The Program for Cooperative Cataloging: Mission, Goals, and Potential for International Cooperation," keynoting the open program's theme, "Cooperative Cataloguing Projects: Economic Benefits Through Resource Sharing."

Sally McCallum, chief, Network Development and MARC Standards Office, chairs the IFLA Professional Board and is a member of the Standing Committee on Information Technology. A major initiative of the board is the development of IFLA's next medium term program (MTP), which will cover 1998-2001. Plans will focus on all aspects of the electronic environment as it affects IFLA's objective to promote librarianship. The intent is to see IFLA move forward on the problems information services face with digital material, standards being a major consideration. Ms. McCallum held discussions and an open forum on the MTP in Beijing, as well as chairing several other events.

Joan Mitchell and Julianne Beall, editor and assistant editor of Dewey Decimal Classification, spoke at the Classification and Indexing Workshop on "DDC: Edition 21 and International Perspectives." Ms. Mitchell introduced DDC 21 to the workshop participants; Ms. Beall demonstrated Dewey for Windows. Ms. Beall also serves as secretary to the Section on Classification and Indexing and as ALA representative to the section's Standing Committee. She participated in the IFLA Working Group on Principles Underlying Subject Heading Languages, which expects to distribute its draft document for worldwide review in February 1997. Ms. Mitchell chaired and Ms. Beall served on the IFLA Joint Working Group on a Classification Format, which at this conference approved the final version of Requirements for a Format for Classification Data and a request that LC prepare proposals to MARBI for extensions to the USMARC Format for Classification Data as the next step. While in Beijing, Ms. Mitchell also met with officials of the National Library of China to discuss a Chinese translation of DDC Edition 21.

Barbara Tillett, chief, Cataloging Policy and Support Office, is the ALA representative to the Standing Committee of the IFLA Section on Cataloguing. She chaired the Working Group on the Form and Structure of Corporate Headings, which made progress on revising guidelines for conference and corporate names that include a geographic term; corporate names that include personal names; religious and other corporate names that involve sub-bodies; handling of acronyms, punctuation, etc.; and use of international standards for transliteration schemes. She spoke at the IFLA Workshop on Multicultural, Multilingual Subject Headings and chaired the UBCIM (Universal Bibliographic Control and International MARC) Section's Working Group on Minimal Level Authority Records and ISADN (International Standard Authority Data Number), which began review of a draft set of essential data elements needed in authority records that will be shared internationally. A revised set of essential data elements will be circulated for comment this fall in anticipation of discussion at a meeting in Helsinki in spring 1997.

LC staff are also represented in IFLA activities that span previous and future conferences. John Byrum, chief, Regional and Cooperative Cataloging Division, is a member of the IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, and Dr. Tillett serves as a consultant to the group. Dr. Tillett presented an update on the study group's report, distributed for worldwide review in June 1996, to the IFLA Division on Bibliographic Control in Beijing. Comments are due this November for follow-up by the IFLA Sections on Information Technology, UNIMARC, and Cataloguing. The study group will meet in Washington, D.C., in February 1997. Mr. Byrum chaired the IFLA Working Group on the ISBD(CF) (International Standard Bibliographic Description for Computer Files), which was distributed for worldwide review in October 1995 and generated much interest and about 30 lengthy comments. Mr. Byrum will chair a working group to revise the ISBD(S) and an ISBD Maintenance Group which will consider steps to update other ISBDs.

NACO Libraries Contribute 100,000 Name Authority Records in FY 1996

The 203 NACO libraries reached a milestone in fiscal year 1996, which ended September 30. Over 100,000 new name authority records were added to the national authority file by the catalogers that participate in the name authority component of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC). Contributions have increased approximately 10 per cent a year over the past three years. Not only was this year's new record significant because it exceeded 100,000, but also because for the first time in the twenty-year history of NACO, participating libraries added more new headings to the file than catalogers at LC.

This success is due to the expansion of the program as a whole and the willingness of the cooperating libraries to assume a greater responsibility for building the national authority file. As participation in this important collaborative effort became easier through simplifications implemented by the Library of Congress, libraries in North America and Europe have responded enthusiastically with increased contributions.

In its third decade NACO will continue its efforts to increase the number of public libraries, special libraries, archives, and other organizations providing bibliographic access.

The Library of Congress extends its congratulations to all the librarians who contributed to this achievement. For more information about NACO and the PCC visit the PCC home page at:

Certain Named Entities

On August 1, LC began to implement authority record changes approved by the Executive Council of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) based on recommendations of the PCC Task Group on Name Versus Subject Authorities. The cataloging policies for these changes are in revised LCRI 23.1, 23.4F2, and 24.1 as well as a new LCRI 24.7. In addition, corresponding instruction sheets from the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings (H 405, H 720, H 1365 and H 1592) have been rewritten to reflect the new policies and will be available when the fifth edition of the manual is published this fall.

Headings for cemeteries, city sections, concentration camps, and country clubs, which have been established as either name or subject authority records, will henceforth be established only as name authority records. In addition, the tag for cemeteries, concentration camps, and country clubs will change from 151 to 110, and the headings will be formulated in accordance with the general rules for corporate name headings and the appropriate LCRI.

Headings for events that are formally convened, directed toward a common goal, capable of being reconvened, and that have formal names, location, and dates that can be determined in advance will be established as name authority records according to the provisions of chapter 24 and LCRI 24.7 and 24.8 and will be tagged as 111. This category includes sporting events, parades, and contests that were previously established as subject authority records. Events that generally cannot be repeated and have formal names only after the fact, including natural and man-made disasters, riots, battles, reigns, and rules, will remain as subjects.

Since August 1, 1996, all new headings for cemeteries, city sections, concentration camps, country clubs, and formally organized events of the type described above have been established as name authority records. The existing approximately 700 subject authority records for cemeteries are being converted to name authority records on a project basis and distributed as name authority records. Headings for city sections, concentration camps, and organized events that are now established in the subject authority file converted to name authority records as the headings are needed for current cataloging.

Subscribers who have questions about the above authority changes should contact

Robert M. Hiatt
Cataloging Policy and Support Office
Library of Congress
Washington, D.C. 20540-4305
Phone: (202) 707-5831M
Internet: [email protected]

For more information about LC's MARC Distribution Services, contact

Library of Congress
Cataloging Distribution Service
Customer Services Section
Washington, DC 20541-5017 USA
Phone: (202) 707-6100
FAX: (202) 707-1334
Internet: [email protected]

Treatment Fields in Series Authority Records

Some series authority records for monographic series and multipart items may lack fields 642, 644-646. These fields can record a specific library's decisions on local treatment of the series or multipart item: decisions on analysis, classification, and tracing; the specific library is identified in subfield $5 in each field. The fields, however, are optional. The Library of Congress always records its decisions on local treatment in series authority records it creates or uses; subfield $5 has "DLC." NACO participants have the option of including or omitting their treatment decisions in the series authority records they create or use.

Before August 1995, NACO participants also had the option to record actual LC treatment decisions or to predict future LC treatment decisions; this option is no longer available. However, there are some series authority records showing LC treatment decisions for series and multipart items not yet cataloged by the Library of Congress.

Series Iinstitute

Nine catalogers from libraries participating in the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) attended the fifth Series Institute held September 18-20, 1996, at the Library of Congress. Judy Kuhagen, senior cataloging policy specialist, Cataloging Policy and Support Office, served as the instructor for the course, which was sponsored by the Cooperative Cataloging Team. Five LC catalogers also participated in order to gain expertise and familiarize themselves with new developments in this area of descriptive cataloging.

Those attending the September Series Institute were: Kristine Smets, Joint Bank; Linda Taylor, Oklahoma State University; Ralph Papakhian, University of Indiana - NACO Music; Debra Hill, University of Alabama; Chong Chung, National Library of Medicine; Ann Leslie Jones, Art Institute of Chicago; Mischa Buczkowski, University of Oregon; Fiona Kelleghan, University of Miami; and Laurel Jizba, Michigan State University. Those who participated from the Library of Congress included David Saah, Young Ki Lee, Minar Rony, Mary Shaw, and Janet McDonald.

During the past fiscal year three such institutes were held (October 1995, April 1996, and September 1996). By the end of the fiscal year, NACO libraries submitted about 8,000 new series authority records. This level of contribution has reaffirmed the Cooperative Cataloging Team's commitment to sponsoring these ongoing institutes.

Malaysia and LCSH

Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia, the National Library of Malaysia, sponsored a workshop on Library of Congress Subject Headings from August 5 - 10, 1996, for forty-six participants and a number of observers from twenty academic and government libraries in Malaysia that apply LCSH in their cataloging. Lynn El-Hoshy, senior cataloging policy specialist, Cataloging Policy and Support Office, travelled to Kuala Lumpur to lead the workshop, which covered subject analysis and assignment of headings, the nature and structure of LCSH, subdivisions in LCSH, geographic headings, special materials and topics, and current developments in subject headings and cooperative cataloging.

LCSH is the most widely used standardized list of subject headings in Malaysia. The National Library of Malaysia uses LCSH for the Malaysian National Bibliography and for its cataloging in publication program for Malaysian imprints. To promote the use of standardized subject headings in libraries throughout the country, the National Library of Malaysia in 1992 published a two-volume, bilingual translation (English to Bahasa Malaysia and vice versa) of 33,600 subject headings from LCSH that had been applied in its bibliographic database. Through its National Cataloging and Classification Committee, the National Library investigated the creation of local subject headings to supplement LCSH and in 1993 published a local headings list.

Participants in the workshop expressed interest in cooperating in the development of LCSH and the National Library and its Cataloging and Classification Committee are currently considering joining the Subject Authority Cooperative Program (SACO) of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) to propose headings needed by Malaysian catalogers.

Pinyin Romanization: Word Division Recommendation

In 1990, the Library of Congress made the decision to convert from Wade-Giles romanization of Chinese to the pinyin system. Since then, the Library has been exploring how best to effect the conversion. Following extensive planning and preparation, the National Library of Australia (NLA) has successfully converted its Chinese MARC files, including all LC's Chinese records, into a new pinyin database. The Library of Congress has been monitoring NLA's progress with great interest and hopes to benefit from its experience.

Before embarking on a conversion project, it will be necessary to decide upon guidelines for the connection or division of syllables. With that in mind, the Library of Congress has recommended that pinyin romanization employ a word-division practice that separates individual Chinese characters from each other. Only the syllables of surnames and forenames, as well as geographic names, would be connected. Terms for jurisdictions and topographical features would be separated from geographic names.

LC believes that this method would offer the least change from the current Wade-Giles word-division practice and would eliminate the use of hyphens in the romanization of Chinese. Separation of syllables would be easy to learn and to apply.

Furthermore, this approach to pinyin word division would be fully compatible with the system adopted by the NLA. By adopting the same system of word division, libraries and utilities in this country could conveniently utilize Library of Congress bibliographic records that have been converted by NLA.

LC is submitting this proposal to professional organizations for review and comment. The Library would also appreciate receiving comments on this proposal from scholars and other library users. Please send all comments to Philip Melzer ([email protected]).

National Library of Medicine Name Authority Records

Staff in the Cataloging Directorate at the Library of Congress continue efforts to optimize the use of the cataloger's bibliographic workstations. One such effort was described in LC Cataloging Newsline, v. 4, no. 4 (March 1996). That effort resulted in a 400% increase in productivity and mostly eliminated the problem of "late" NLM CIPs (those requiring more than 10 work days to process). NLM and LC have now focused their attention on the transfer of name authority records and the results are even better.

The NLM NAR workflow is almost identical to the NLM CIP workflow. A technician retrieves daily files from NLM containing name authority records submitted the previous day as part of NLM's NACO participation. The technician then runs software that converts the USMARC file of authority records to LCMARC records for addition to the LC name authority file.

As the records are loaded to the system, the program performs error detection for duplicate LC control numbers and for MARC coding problems. If no problems are found, the record is released for distribution. When all records have been processed, the system generates a report indicating either that the record was successfully added or that a problem occurred that is then handled offline.

Because there is minimal human intervention, the process is completed quickly. About twenty-five name authority records an hour can be keyed manually (about 144 seconds a record). The report generated for each set of NARs processed shows a processing time of 8.5 seconds a record. The dramatic decrease in processing time has allowed LC to maintain currency in the processing of NLM authority records.

LC CATALOGING NEWSLINE (ISSN 1066-8829) is published irregularly by the Cataloging Directorate, Library Services, Library of Congress, and contains news of cataloging activities throughout the Library of Congress. Editorial Office: Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540-4305. Editor, Robert M. Hiatt; Editorial Advisory Group: John Byrum, Roselyne Chang, Eugene Kinnaly, Angela Kinney, Albert Kohlmeier, John Mitchell, Susan Morris, Geraldine Ostrove, Regina Reynolds, David Smith, Richard Thaxter, and David Williamson. Address editorial inquiries to the editor at the above address or [email protected] (eMail), (202) 707-5831 (voice), or (202) 707-6629 (fax).

Listowner: David Williamson. Address subscription inquiries to the listowner at [email protected]

LC CATALOGING NEWSLINE is available in electronic form only and is free of charge. To subscribe, send a mail message to listserv with the text: subscribe lccn [firstname lastname]. Back issues of LCCN, volumes 1-3, are available on LC MARVEL. Volume 4, number 1- are available through the LC World Wide Web site ( The back issues on LC MARVEL are being migrated to the web site.

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