The Arts and Sciences Cataloging Division (ASCD) was tasked by the director for cataloging with establishing a prototype process and workflow by which it would automatically obtain cataloging copy from utilities and complete the processing within LC. If such a workflow could be shown to be efficient, this prototype could be adopted by other divisions within the Cataloging Directorate as a way of reducing their arrearage. Funds were allotted by the director for cataloging for ASCD to contract with a vendor of automated copy cataloging services. ASCD was able to identify only one - Marcadia, a joint service of Research Libraries Group (RLG) and MARC Link. The service runs files from contracting libraries against RLG's RLIN database to retrieve exact or acceptable matches.
In February 2001, ASCD staff began meeting with staff of the Automation Planning and Liaison Office and the Cataloging Policy and Support Office to formulate the Library of Congress profile for acceptable records, procedures for electronically sending files and receiving, preprocessing, and loading results. Two test files were sent to Marcadia and matched records were returned; staff analyzed the results, fine-tuned the profile and preprocessing criteria, loading, and communication procedures. The ADCD staff developed the guidelines for the completion of the match records delivered.
By the end of fiscal year 2001 (Sept. 30), over 8,600 records had been sent electronically to Marcadia, with 2,385 matches returned for a match rate of 28%. Work is continuing in the new fiscal year.
To explore methods for the most efficient processing of the Marcadia match, ASCD experimented during April with a special SWAT team. This SWAT team completed a backlog of completed copy cataloging records in the Medical Sciences and Biotechnology Team. The SWAT team's workflow was efficient enough such that ASCD decided to use this model with the Marcadia matches.
Staff completed 1,653 copy cataloging items using encoding level 7 procedures, in which a copy-cataloged record is fitted into the LC Database with authority work done according to minimal-level cataloging guidelines, and the resulting bibliographic record is assigned an encoding level of 7 so that it will not displace the original member record in the OCLC database. The productivity rate for this work was nearly double the overall copy cataloging rate for ASCD during this period.
ASCD has provided a preliminary report to the Cataloging Management Team based on several factors, including match rate, costs, and the merits of a dedicated team for copy cataloging. It is also preparing to orient other divisions to the processes involved in using the Marcadia automated copy cataloging service.
At its August 2001 meetings, held in conjunction with the IFLA Annual Conference, the ISBD Review Group, chaired by John D. Byrum, chief of LC's Regional and Cooperative Cataloging Division, developed its strategic plan covering 2001-2003. The work items below are targeted for attention and action during this two-year period. The review group will
1) Complete the revision of the ISBD(M) (anticipated for publication on IFLANET by Dec. 31, 2001).
2) Complete its review of the ISBD for continuing resources (ISBD(CR)) (anticipated for publication by the end of December or in January 2002). The ISBD Review Group will explain, promote, and communicate the new ISBD(CR) to the wider community.
3) Continue to participate in the project to revise the ISBD for cartographic materials (ISBD(CM)).
(4) Initiate a project to revise the ISBD for electronic resources (ISBD(ER)). This project is intended to focus only on the most significant problem areas needing immediate resolution: a) 0.5; b) Area 3; and c) Area 5. With financial support from OCLC, the review group is preparing to engage an expert to undertake this investigation. The deliverable will comprise recommendations for changes to ISBD(ER) in the form of rule revisions and will be due six (6) months after the investigator has been appointed. Meanwhile, the review group will revise other provisions of ISBD(ER) for conformity to the Basic Level National Bibliographic Record (as set out in the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR); available at URL: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr.htm [Nov. 2001].
5) Review ISBDs for non-book materials (ISBD(NBM)), rare books (ISBD(A), and for printed music (ISBD(PM)) to incorporate FRBR changes as well as suggestions from the Working Groups on Use of Metadata Schemes and OPAC Display Guidelines (as they become available).
6) Monitor the study in progress by the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR (JSC) concerning the feasibility and desirability of integrating descriptive cataloging rules for material specific publication according to bibliographic areas. If JSC decides to implement such an approach, the review group will consider initiating a project to produce an integrated version of the ISBDs.
7) Appoint a sub-group to include experts from the Section on Serials, the ISBD(S) Working Group, and other interested parties (e.g. ISSN) to investigate series problems across the ISBDs, a concern raised by the ISBD(S) Working Group. A preliminary report will be due by August 2002.
8) Monitor developments regarding resolution of the multiple versions problems and decide whether to publish guidelines regarding circumstances for use of single and multiple records.
9) Publish for world-wide review guidelines for treatment of publications in multiple formats where there is need to refer to more than one ISBD in developing bibliographic descriptions. The guidelines will be posted to IFLANET for world-wide review by Mar. 30, 2002.
10) Collaborate with the IFLA Section on Cataloguing in identifying the market (e.g., developers and users of ONIX, Dublin Core, creators of portals and subject gateways, the information industry) and devise strategies to promote the ISBDs to that market.
11) Cooperate with the Section on Cataloguing's Metadata Working Group in promoting use of the ISBDs as metadata content schema.
12) Provide leadership in encouraging harmonization of existing cataloging rules with the ISBD, consulting with the authors of national and multi-national cataloging codes in particular AACR2, the German rules (RAK), and the Russian rules.
The Bibliographic Enrichment Advisory Team (URL http://www.loc.gov/catdir/beat/ [Nov. 2001]) has three projects underway to make table of contents (TOC) data available. One of these involves putting TOC information from Electronic CIP manuscripts in the 505 field of the bibliographic record (1,304 items processed during the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 2001). Another involves scanning TOC data from books after they are published, converting the data into HTML files, mounting the files on the LC Web server, and linking to the bibliographic record in the 856 field (2,700 items processed to date with 250 being added a month).
The most recent effort involves extracting TOC data from publisher-supplied ONIX records. ONIX (ONline Information eXchange) is an XML (extensible mark-up language) DTD (document type definition). It is comprised of a set of tags that publishers use to indicate what type of information is given in a record. This standardized format can then be used to send and receive information. Publishers use ONIX to send information to book dealers and retailers, who can then use the information for promotional or other sales needs, such as creating Web retailing screens.
David Williamson, cataloging automation specialist, developed a Visual Basic program that scanned a file of ONIX records and resulted in the creation of 10,090 digital tables of contents (D- TOC) that are now available on the Internet. Each offers the user an option to visit the bibliographic records in the LC online catalog for further information. The bibliographic records will be enhanced by links in the 856 field to the D-TOC files. The records will then be redistributed by the Cataloging Distribution Service.
Just as with the Scanned TOC Project, users will find the links to these ONIX TOC files through the bibliographic record in their local library catalog and can then retrieve the TOC information from the Internet. Users will also find these TOC files by searching on the Internet with the major search engines.
With the ONIX-derived TOC files, the user will be able to search on the Internet and find the files using words from the TOC information as well as words from the 245 field of the bibliographic record, which is given at the beginning of the TOC display. Also, the keyword metadata tag in the TOC HTML file contains the words from the 6XX fields of the bibliographic record, further enriching searching. These ONIX TOC files have not yet been indexed by the major search engines, but the scanned TOC files are indexed and can be searched.
The ONIX approach to providing TOC data enables the creation of many TOC files quickly and easily. Several major publishers produce ONIX files for their publications. Williamson is in contact with these publishers to request access to those files. With a standardized workflow, a steady stream of D-TOC information will become available for users. This will also enable the Scanned TOC Project to focus on publishers that do not yet create ONIX files.
The Scanned TOC Project has been operating for several years. The project participants have experimented with different workflows, equipment, and software to find the most efficient way to produce TOC files. The TOC files on the Web are monitored by counters. Earlier in the project, there were about forty "hits" a day on these files. Recently the TOC counters show that many more people are finding these TOC files with hits currently ranging from forty to seventy an hour from 8:00 a.m. and 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time. The overnight rates average between twenty to thirty hits an hour.
With this increase in usage, interest has grown in making these files more useful. Williamson developed a simple, voluntary Web survey and modified the scanned TOC files to provide a link to the survey. The survey was posted in August. The results of the survey are updated regularly and available at URL http://www.loc.gov/catdir/tocsurveyresults.html [Nov. 2001].
With 189 responses to his survey submitted by the end of October indicate that this work should continue. When asked how they found the TOC file, one hundred six responded it was through the bibliographic record while searching in a library catalog or bibliographic utility. Seventy-three indicated they found the TOC on the Internet through one of the search engines. When asked if the TOC information was useful, 153 replied in the affirmative. Of the respondents, 112 indicated they did further searching by using the link to the LC record found in the TOC file. The large majority indicated they were students or researchers. Twenty-seven indicated they were ad hoc users, and forty-six identified themselves as librarians. The remainder included business executives, consultants, faculty members, and public employees.
Survey participants were given the opportunity to leave comments. The overwhelming majority of these were positive. The information found had proved useful and the TOC assisted in decisions to retrieve or buy the book. Many of the comments indicated a desire to retrieve the entire text in addition to the TOC information.
LC CATALOGING NEWSLINE (ISSN 1066-8829) is published irregularly by the Cataloging Directorate, Library Services, Library of Congress, and contains news of cataloging activities throughout the Library of Congress. Editorial Office: Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540-4305. Editor, Robert M. Hiatt; Editorial Advisory Group: Victoria Behrens, John Byrum, Roselyne Chang, Jurij Dobczansky, Anthony Franks, Les Hawkins, Albert Kohlmeier, Susan Morris, Geraldine Ostrove, David Smith, David Williamson, and Roman Worobec. Address editorial inquiries to the editor at the above address or [email protected] (email), (202) 707-5831 (voice), or (202) 707-6629 (fax). Listowner: David Williamson. Address subscription inquiries to the listowner at [email protected].
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