↓ Refine your search

Results: 1-100 of 247

  • Map showing route taken by Mosby with his prisoners, Nov. 27th-29th, 1863.

    Map showing route taken by Mosby with his prisoners, Nov. 27t...

    In this detail from an unidentified printed map, Sneden has traced the circuitous route he and other prisoners captured by Mosby's Guerillas during the Mine Run Campaign followed from near Rappahannock Station, Va., to Woodville, down the Blue Ridge Valley, through Madison Court House and on to Gordonsville. Sneden has annotated the map with the names and locations of many of the small communities ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-11-27
  • Plan of the Rebel attack on Washington, D.C., 11th & 12th July 1864.

    Plan of the Rebel attack on Washington, D.C., 11th & 12th Jul...

    Map shows the location of Union fortifications around Washington, D.C., and the presence of Confederate forces under Gordon, Ramseur and Rhodes poised on the outskirts of the city.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-07-11
  • Plan of the battle of Fisher's Hill, Virginia. Fought September 22nd, 1864.

    Plan of the battle of Fisher's Hill, Virginia. Fought Septemb...

    Despite a strong natural defensive position near Fisher's Hill, south of Strasburg, Va., Early's Confederates were overwhelmed by Sheridan's greater numbers. Map shows the flanking movement led by Crook as well as the position of the Union forces just prior to their frontal assault. The detail of the distribution of the Confederate forces was contained on that portion of the map that is missing.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-09-22
  • Position of Union Army April 5th and 6th 1862

    Position of Union Army April 5th and 6th 1862

    Shows the area of Wormsley Creek to the north and Poquoson River to the south as McClellan's forces prepared to launch the siege of Yorktown, Va. The locations of Howard's Bridge across the Poquoson and the road from Yorktown to Hampton are also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04-05
  • Union and Rebel works Yorktown, Va. [1862]

    Union and Rebel works Yorktown, Va. [1862]

    Shows the York River from Gloucester Point to south of Wormsley Creek. Yorktown appears at top of image, with remaining detail showing interior of the Peninsula. Woods, creeks, fields, roads, houses and other points of reference are included. Also indicates location of the British Army's surrender after the Revolutionary War Battle of Yorktown in 1781.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04
  • Battle of Crampton's Gap, Maryland : fought Septr 14th 1862.

    Battle of Crampton's Gap, Maryland : fought Septr 14th 1862.

    Shows the area surrounding Burkittsville, Frederick County, Md., as the left wing of McClellan's army moved toward Crampton's Gap to try to prevent the Confederate assault on Harper's Ferry, W. Va.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-09-14
  • Plan of the battle of Mine Run, Virginia : fought Monday 30th Novr. 1863.

    Plan of the battle of Mine Run, Virginia : fought Monday 30th...

    Meade's intention was to cross the Rapidan River at Germanna Ford, travel west toward Orange Court House, and force Lee from his position in Orange County, just south of river. Alerted to these movements, Lee deployed his forces in strong defensive positions along Mine Run. There being no feasible point of attack, Meade withdrew his forces to winter quarters at Culpeper. Details on this ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-11-30
  • The Defences [sic] of Savannah, Georgia, November 1864.

    The Defences [sic] of Savannah, Georgia, November 1864.

    Regional view of Savannah and enrivons just before the Union arrival at that place. Shows the layout of canals, creeks, rivers, swamps, roads and railroads around Savannah as well as the various outlying Confederate batteries and those occupied by Federal troops. There is some indication of the names of property owners and also notations of rice and cotton fields that were either flooded or ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-11
  • The Cavalry battle, Gettysburg, Pa. July 3rd 1863, 2:30 p.m.

    The Cavalry battle, Gettysburg, Pa. July 3rd 1863, 2:30 p.m.

    The cavalry action took place approximately two miles to the east of the town of Gettysburg. This map shows the Confederate cavalry, under Stuart, attempting to cut the Union lines of communication along the Baltimore Turnpike. They were thwarted in their effort by Union cavalry commanded by David McMurtrie Gregg. The map depicts the rough locations of individual skirmishes.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-07-03
  • Battlefield of Dinwiddie Courthouse, Va. from official map made by Col. W. H. Paine U.S. Engineers.

    Battlefield of Dinwiddie Courthouse, Va. from official map ma...

    Map shows the area between Dinwiddie Court House and Five Forks, Va., including the location of troops at different times during the engagement. Beginning on March 30, 1865, Sheridan advanced on the Five Forks area. He was stopped overnight at Dinwiddie Court House due to heavy rain. On March 31st he advanced toward Five Forks only to meet significant Confederate resistance, and was forced ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox - Paine, William H.
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1865-03-31
  • Union forts on Maryland shore

    Union forts on Maryland shore

    Shows the names and configurations of Union fortifications on the Maryland side of the Potomac River in 1862, and in some cases the name of the regiment that built the structure. This appears to be a companion piece to the image on p. 43.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Map shewing [sic] country opposite Harrison's Landing, Va., and position of [U.S.] Army.

    Map shewing [sic] country opposite Harrison's Landing, Va., a...

    Shows the location along the James River between Petersburg and Harrison's Landing, Va., of the camps of the U.S. Army of the Potomac after the Seven Days' Battles, 26 June-1 July 1862. Positions of U.S. gunboats are indicated along the James River as well as Confederate strongholds and positions of the Cavalry.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-07
  • Chancellorsville, Va. Position of the 11th Corps at 6 p.m. May 2nd 1863 Maj Genl O.O. Howard commanding

    Chancellorsville, Va. Position of the 11th Corps at 6 p.m. Ma...

    Map shows the position of Union and Confederate troops in the area surrounding Chancellorsville, Va., at 6 p.m. on May 2, 1863. By late afternoon on May 2, Stonewall Jackson's troops had moved deeper into the Wilderness and were within striking distance of the 1st Corps, U.S. Army of the Potomac, P.O. Howard, commanding. Jackson gave the order to attack at 6 p.m., pushing ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-05-02
  • Fort Wagner. Morris Island

    Fort Wagner. Morris Island

    In July 1863, Union Generals Gillmore and Dahlgren hoped to take Fort Wagner, on Morris Island in Charleston Harbor, in order to gain a vantage point from which to launch an attack on the city of Charleston. Strongly defended, the first Union assaults (July 10th and 18th) resulted in extremely high casualties. Gillmore began formal siege operations and had reached to base of the ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-07
  • Cavalry battle, Gettysburg, Pa. July 3rd 3:30 p.m.

    Cavalry battle, Gettysburg, Pa. July 3rd 3:30 p.m.

    Shows in detail the cavalry battle east of the town of Gettysburg with the action depicted as happening at 3:30 p.m. Also includes pairings of Union and Confederate brigades as engaged.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-07-03
  • The Union army encampment at Hampton, Virginia Showing picket lines and Fortress Munroe [sic].

    The Union army encampment at Hampton, Virginia Showing picket...

    Shows the landmarks in the area around Union-occupied Hampton, Va., including the Poor Farm, the Female Seminary, Buckrow's house, Hickman's farm, and "Fox Hill," the home of J. Fox.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Battle at Dranesville, Va. Decr. 20th, 1861.

    Battle at Dranesville, Va. Decr. 20th, 1861.

    NOTE: Researchers will be served a color photocopy of this scrapbook image. Original scrapbook housed in the Museum Department of the Virginia Historical Society (1994.80.4-525) with restricted access. This item is from the collections of the Virginia Historical Society; please contact the institution for more information. This item is from the collections of the Virginia Historical Society; please contact the institution for more information. ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861-12-20
  • Plan of the prison. March 1, 1864.

    Plan of the prison. March 1, 1864.

    Map shows the plan of Andersonville Prison Camp including the stockade, the town of Anderson Station on the Macon and Americus Rail Road, the locations of Confederate units serving as guards, and the headquarters of camp commandant Maj. Henry Wirz.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-03-01
  • Map of country between Yorktown and Williamsbu[rg] in Virginia.

    Map of country between Yorktown and Williamsbu[rg] in Virginia.

    Shows a portion of the peninsula outlined by the York River to the north and the James River to the south. Sneden marked the Union line of march, wagon trains, and Confederate works, all related to the Peninsula Campaign, March-July 1862.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-03
  • Route of troops and wagon trains from Warrenton Jnct. to Kettle Run

    Route of troops and wagon trains from Warrenton Jnct. to Kett...

    Shows the area of Fauquier County, Va., between Greenwich and Bristoe to the north and Warrenton Junction to the south on the eve of 2nd Bull Run. The location of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad is also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-08-27
  • The line of the Rappahannock, 30th April 1863 Showing position of Union and Rebel armies at and near Fredericksburg, Va.

    The line of the Rappahannock, 30th April 1863 Showing positio...

    This map shows the location of the two armies on the eve of the Chancellorsville Campaign. Union Gen. Hooker has moved his forces via Kelly's Ford into position south of the Rappahannock near Chancellorsville, Va., to launch what he believes will be a rear attack on Gen. R. E. Lee's Fredericksburg stronghold. Meanwhile Federal forces under Sedgwick continue a diversionary frontal assault on Fredericksburg. ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-04-30
  • Plan of the Battle of Winchester, Va. Fought September 19th, 1864.

    Plan of the Battle of Winchester, Va. Fought September 19th, ...

    Detail of Winchester, Va., and environs includes roads, railroads, creeks, mills, fords, and the locations of the Confederate Signal Station, "Millroy's Forts," Milltown, Kernstown, Stephenson's Depot, and Greenwood Church. The Confederate line, with Early commanding, is in front of Winchester. Union forces under Gen. Sheridan are shown east of the town, while the Union cavalry is located to the north at Stephenson's Depot. The ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-09-19
  • Plan of the Rebel prison pen at Savannah Georgia, Lt. S. R. Davis, C.S.A., Commandant, Sept. 1864.

    Plan of the Rebel prison pen at Savannah Georgia, Lt. S. R. D...

    Detailed drawing of a Confederate prison camp in Savannah, Ga.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-09
  • Attack and capture of Fort Donelson, Tenn. by Genl. U.S. Grant U.S.A.

    Attack and capture of Fort Donelson, Tenn. by Genl. U.S. Gran...

    Shows troop locations around Fort Donelson, Tenn., on the Cumberland River, as the Union army prepared to attack.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-02-14
  • Map of Falls Church and vicinity of Lewinsville, Virginia : shewing [sic] Union picket lines October 30th 1862.

    Map of Falls Church and vicinity of Lewinsville, Virginia : s...

    Map shows the area surrounding Falls Church in Fairfax County, Va. The Loudoun & Hampshire Railroad is also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-10-30
  • Plan of Union and Rebel position at Yorktown Va.

    Plan of Union and Rebel position at Yorktown Va.

    Shows the area between the Warwick River and Yorktown to the north and Wormsley Creek to the south that was the Confederacy's first line of defense against McClellan's advance up the Virginia Peninsula. The location of the road to Warwick Court House is also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04-12
  • Plan of the Battle of Fair Oaks or Seven Pines, Va. Fought 31st May 1862.

    Plan of the Battle of Fair Oaks or Seven Pines, Va. Fought 31...

    Shows the distribution of troops during battle, with majority of McClellan's forces northeast of the Chickahominy River and the Confederates under Joseph E. Johnston attacking the two Union corps on the south side of the river. Map indicates locations of 9 Mile Road and Old Williamsburg Road, the Richmond and York River Railroad, and Confederate defenses, chiefly felled trees. Edwin V. Sumner's route of ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Position of Union and Rebel armies near Chancellorsville May 4th 1863

    Position of Union and Rebel armies near Chancellorsville May ...

    Map shows the location of troops in the area surrounding Chancellorsville, Va. The main focus of the map is the troops under Union General Hooker located to the north along the Rapidan River as well as the Confederates under Lee and Stuart to the south and west.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-05-04
  • Vicinity of Winchester and Harper's Ferry, Va.

    Vicinity of Winchester and Harper's Ferry, Va.

    Detail of a printed map of Winchester, Va., and environs, with annotations and additions by Sneden. Additions include inclusion of roads, notes about and dates of battles and skirmishes, location of the point where the Confederate army recrossed the Potomac River following the Battle of Gettysburg, and note that the town of Winchester changed hands [46] times during the war.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Map showing position of Union and Rebel armies and Jackson's flank march during 2nd Battle of Bull Run, Aug. 28th to 31st, 1862.

    Map showing position of Union and Rebel armies and Jackson's ...

    Fortunately, Pope's forces retained control of Henry House Hill, thereby allowing the bulk of his army to retreat safely across Bull Run toward Centreville. As part of Lee's plan to interrupt Pope's line of communications, he sent Jackson in a flank movement around the Union Army to take up a position between it and Centreville; Jackson chose the vicinity of Sudley Mountain. As the ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-08-28
  • Capture of Mobile, Alabama

    Capture of Mobile, Alabama

    A regional view of Mobile and environs, encompassing Mobile, Blakely, Spanish Fort, Alabama City, Williamsburg, Fort Morgan, Fort Gaines, and Fort Orwell. Also shows defenses of Mobile Bay, including use of torpedoes (mines), spikes, and sunken logs. The city of Mobile was abandoned by the Confederates on the night of April 11-20th, 1865.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Plan of attack on Marie's Heights, Fredericksburg, Va. or 2nd Battle of Fredericksburg. By Maj. Genl. John Sedgwick with 6th Army Corps, Sunday, May 3rd, 1863.

    Plan of attack on Marie's Heights, Fredericksburg, Va. or 2nd...

    Illustrates the placement of Union and Confederate forces during the Chancellorsville Campaign of April-May, 1863, culminating in the battle of Chancellorsville fought May 1-4, 1863. This map focuses on the Sunday, May 3rd, action, which is referred to by Sneden as "Second Fredericksburg."

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-05-03
  • Rebel defences [sic] of Mobile shewing [sic] Union attack April 3rd-9th 1865 on Spanish Fort.

    Rebel defences [sic] of Mobile shewing [sic] Union attack Apr...

    Map shows route taken by Union Admiral Farragut in August 1864 as well as that in March 1865, when his fleet provided naval support to land forces under Frederick Steele and E.R.S. Camby. Camby captured Spanish Fort and Blakely, across the bay from Mobile, entering that city on April 18. This map pays attention to the Confederates use of spikes and torpedoes (naval mines) ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1865-04-03
  • The battle of Fair Oaks, Va., 2nd Day's battle, Sunday June 1st, 1862

    The battle of Fair Oaks, Va., 2nd Day's battle, Sunday June 1...

    Shows the area of Henrico County, Va., between Cold Harbor and White Oak Swamp. The Chicahominy River and the Richmond & York River Railroad are indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-06-01
  • Skirmish at Auburn, Va., Oct. 14th, 1863

    Skirmish at Auburn, Va., Oct. 14th, 1863

    Map shows route of Union army (32nd and 38th New York Infantry Regiments, 10th Massachusetts Infantry and others) along the road from Bristoe Station to Warrenton, Va., when the column was attacked by part of A.P. Hill's forces. Shows road lined by stone walls as it crosses Cedar Creek, passes the McCormack farm house, and turns north toward Greenwich.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-10-14
  • Map of Warrenton Junction, Orange and Alexandria R.R., Virginia shewing destruction of R.R. by enemy, October 1863.

    Map of Warrenton Junction, Orange and Alexandria R.R., Virgin...

    Illustrates the position in October 1863 in Fauquier County, Va., of the Union 3rd Army Corps under General William Henry French. The Union troops were near Warrenton Junction along the Orange and Alexandria Railroad. This was part of the Bristoe Campaign, 9 October-9 November 1863, during which the rail line was destroyed by the

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-10
  • Plan of action at Devaux Neck South Carolina. December 9th 1864.

    Plan of action at Devaux Neck South Carolina. December 9th 1864.

    Devaux Neck is a peninsula formed by the Tulfinney and Coosawatchie rivers as they branch off the Broad River. The peninsula is crossed by the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. This map, in closer detail than the one on p. 196, shows the skirmish between Confederate forces protecting the railroad and Union forces (the 127th New York Regiment under Gen. E. E. Potter) hoping to ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-12-09
  • Plan of the 1st Battle of Bull Run Virginia 21st July 1861. Topography from U.S. Engineers official map.

    Plan of the 1st Battle of Bull Run Virginia 21st July 1861. T...

    Shows the area between Sudley Springs and Centreville to the north and New Market to the south. The location of the Warrenton Turnpike is also included.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861-07-21
  • The U.S. forts and batteries near Alexandria Va. Sept 1862 showing Fort Lyon with extended works.

    The U.S. forts and batteries near Alexandria Va. Sept 1862 sh...

    Shows the locations of Union fortifications surrounding Alexandria, Va., including forts Lyon and Ellsworth in Fairfax County. The locations of Hunting Creek and the Potomac River are also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-09
  • Plan of the First Battle of Bull Run, Virginia. July 21st 1861.

    Plan of the First Battle of Bull Run, Virginia. July 21st 1861.

    Map shows the area surrounding Bull Run including Centreville and New Market, Va.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861-07-21
  • Map of Charleston Harbor with Morris Island and James, Broad, Folly, and Cole's Islds. : showing the position of the Union and Rebel forts and batteries & & November and December 1863.

    Map of Charleston Harbor with Morris Island and James, Broad,...

    Regional map of Charleston Harbor extending along the Atlantic Coast from Sullivan's Island just north of the harbor entrance to St. John's and Kiawah islands to the south. Indicates the presence of Union warships off the coast and places along the coastline where the Union has established a foothold.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-11
  • Copy of official plan of the siege of Fort Pulaski. Cockspur Island. Savannah Georgia April 1862 : by Union forces under Genl Gillmore and Hunter.

    Copy of official plan of the siege of Fort Pulaski. Cockspur ...

    Shows a detailed drawing of Fort Pulaski on Cockspur Island and the other Confederate fortifications on Long Island in the middle of the Savannah River. Union fortifications on Big Tybee Island are also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04
  • Gettysburg July 2nd The Union and Rebel forces in the cemetery.

    Gettysburg July 2nd The Union and Rebel forces in the cemetery.

    While purporting to depict a meeting of Union and Confederate forces at Cemetery Hill, this map instead shows in detail the disposition of Union forces on Cemetery and Culp's hills. Of greater interest is the indication of the location of Sickles's 3rd Corps along the Emmitsburg Road on the morning of July 2nd, and their new position at the base of Little Round Top ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-07-02
  • Map shewing [sic] movements of Union and Rebel armies and Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia from April 27th to 4th May 1863.

    Map shewing [sic] movements of Union and Rebel armies and Bat...

    In this regional view of the Chancellorsville Campaign, the Wilderness appears in the upper left, the confluence of the Rapidan and Rappahannock rivers in the upper right, and Fredericksburg and Falmouth, located on opposite sides of the Rappahannock, are at the bottom. Time notations attempt to trace the movements of various units over the course of the campaign.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-04-27
  • Plan of the battle of Savage's Station, Virginia, fought Sunday, 29th June 1862 /

    Plan of the battle of Savage's Station, Virginia, fought Sund...

    Concerns the Battle of Savage's Station, Henrico County, Va., which was one of the Seven Days' Battles, 26 June-1 July 1862.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-06-29
  • Map of the position at Turner's Gap. South Mountain.

    Map of the position at Turner's Gap. South Mountain.

    Shows the area between Turner's Gap and Boonsboro, Md., on September 14, 1862, as the Confederate forces advanced on Harper's Ferry and the Union Army moved to head them off at South Mountain.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-09-14
  • Battle of Hanover Court House, Virginia, May 26, 1862

    Battle of Hanover Court House, Virginia, May 26, 1862

    Shows the area around Hanover Court House, Va., sight of a skirmish between Union and Confederate forces as McClellan's advance up the Virginia Peninsula continued its slow pace. In this depiction, the Pamunkey River is located to the north, and the Richmond & Pamunkey Turnpike is also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-05-26
  • Topographical map of Washington, D.C., and vicinity. Showing the Union forts and defences built 1861-3.

    Topographical map of Washington, D.C., and vicinity. Showing ...

    Detail from a printed map of the Potomac River region of Maryland and Virginia, and including Washington, D.C., which Sneden has annotated to show the locations of Union forts and picket lines.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861-18
  • Plan of Fort Lyon on Eagle Hill above Alexandria, Va.

    Plan of Fort Lyon on Eagle Hill above Alexandria, Va.

    Shows a detailed drawing of Union Fort Lyon located on Eagle Hill in Fairfax County, Va. This fort was the headquarters for Major General Samuel Peter Heintzelman, U.S.A.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • The Rebel defences [sic] of Savannah, Georgia, 1864

    The Rebel defences [sic] of Savannah, Georgia, 1864

    Printed map of Savannah, Ga., and environs indicating rivers and creeks, swamps and marshes, cultivated and flooded fields, and names of selected landowners. Annotations by Sneden highlight the positions of Union and Confederate forces and show the direction of Confederate General Hardee's retreat on the night of December 20th, 1864.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Map showing retreat of Union Army 13th and 14th Oct. 1863 from Culpeper to Warrenton Junction.

    Map showing retreat of Union Army 13th and 14th Oct. 1863 fro...

    Map shows an area of central Virginia bordered by Gainesville to the north, Orange Court House to the south, Luray Gap to the west, and Bristoe to the east. With Lee's Army of Northern Virginia on the offensive, it's target Manassas and Washington, Union Gen. Meade had no choice but to pull back to protect the Federal capital.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-10-13
  • The Pursuit of the rebel army, April 6th-8th, 1865, and Battle of Sailor's Creek, Va.

    The Pursuit of the rebel army, April 6th-8th, 1865, and Battl...

    In this detail from an unidentified printed map, Sneden depicts the area between Rice's Depot and Jetersville, Va. Named after Sailor's Creek that runs through Prince Edward, Amelia and Nottoway Counties, this engagement of the Appomattox Campaign was fought April 6, 1865. The Confederates sustained heavy losses (7-8,000) before withdrawing to Highbridge, and several generals, including Ewell, were captured.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1865-04-06
  • Genl. Thomas' new position 20th Septr. 3 p.m.

    Genl. Thomas' new position 20th Septr. 3 p.m.

    Map shows location of Union and Confederate troops between Missionary Ridge and West Chickamauga Creek. After Confederates succeeded in breaking through the Union lines, the bulk of the Union forces retreated toward Chattanooga. Union Gen. George H. Thomas and his men held onto a tenuous position on Snodgrass Hill and repulsed assault after assault.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-09-20
  • Map of the Battle of Gettysburg showing positions held July 1st & 3rd 1863.

    Map of the Battle of Gettysburg showing positions held July 1...

    In this image Sneden compares troop locations during the first day of the battle with those on the third day. One obvious observation is that the Confederate forces have succeeded in pushing the Union line back to the more easily held hills south of the town.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-07-01
  • Gettysburg in peace

    Gettysburg in peace

    Printed map on which Sneden has indicated the places where his unit (the 40th New York) saw action on the battlefield.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863
  • Plan of the Battle of Mechanicsville or Beaverdam Creek, Virginia : fought June 26th 1862, 3 to 5 p.m.

    Plan of the Battle of Mechanicsville or Beaverdam Creek, Virg...

    Shows the area of Hanover County near Beaverdam Creek, oriented with the Chickahominy River to the south and the Mechanicsville Road to the north. Here, on the second day of the Seven Days' Battles, the Confederate forces launched an assault on the Federal troops, forcing them to retreat from Mechanicsville toward Gaines' Mill.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-06-26
  • Plan shewing [sic] the Rebel concentrated assault on the 3rd Corps, July 2nd

    Plan shewing [sic] the Rebel concentrated assault on the 3rd ...

    Map depicts the situation just prior to Union Gen. Daniel Edgar Sickles' having ordered his 3rd Corps into an advanced position on a ridge overlooking the Emmitsburg Road, unknowingly exposing his left flank. Confederate forces under Longstreet and Hill attacked him, overwhelming the Union position and forcing the troops back, thereby succeeding in forming a wedge between the 2nd and 3rd Corps. Sickles was ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-07-02
  • Ft. Fisher shewing [sic] Union attack, Jany 15th 1865 From survey made after surrender by U.S. Engineers.

    Ft. Fisher shewing [sic] Union attack, Jany 15th 1865 From su...

    Map shows area surrounding forts Fisher, Buchanan and Anderson near Smithville, N.C. Fort Fisher, located on the peninsula formed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Cape Fear River, was the primary target of the Union assault. Details include locations of Confederate batteries, abatis, spikes, palisades, and ditches, and arrows showing the direction of the advance of the various Union forces.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1865-01-15
  • Skirmish at Auburn, Virginia, Octr. 14th 1863

    Skirmish at Auburn, Virginia, Octr. 14th 1863

    This map depicts a minor skirmish near Catlett's Station, Fauquier County, Va., part of the Bristoe Campaign. Union forces, including the 20th Indiana, 3rd Maine, and 40th New York regiments, are arrayed on a hill overlooking Cedar Run, opposed by forces under the command of A. P. Hill and including Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry battalion, located across the Groveton Road.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-10-14
  • Attack on Ft. Pulaski Savannah, Georgia, April 1862.

    Attack on Ft. Pulaski Savannah, Georgia, April 1862.

    Shows a section of the Savannah River with Long Island (containing an unnamed Confederate battery) and Cockspur Island (containing Fort Pulaski). Also shows the Union position on Big Tybee Island.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04
  • Plan showing positions of Union and Rebel armies 8th and 9th April 1865, to the surrender of Lee 2nd Corps at Cumberland Church.

    Plan showing positions of Union and Rebel armies 8th and 9th ...

    This detail of an unidentified printed map has annotations by Sneden showing the locations of troops surrounding Appomattox Courthouse, April 9th, 1865. Union forces identified include Sheridan's 9th Corps, Humphrey's 2nd Corps, and Sheridan's Cavalry. Also indicated (on original printed map) are names of property owners.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1865-04-08
  • Plan of Yorktown, Virginia : showing the Rebel works after the evacuation, May 4th, 1862.

    Plan of Yorktown, Virginia : showing the Rebel works after th...

    Shows the street plan of Yorktown and the fortifications surrounding the town following the Confederate removal up the Peninsula. The York River and the town of Gloucester Point are also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-05-04
  • The defenses of Richmond, 1864

    The defenses of Richmond, 1864

    Shows the fortifications surrounding Richmond including, Brook Run to the north, and Harrison's Landing to the south. The James River and major roads and railroad lines are also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864
  • The Investment of Petersburg, Va. Shewing [sic] battlefield of 5 Forks and Hatcher's Run, Friday March 31st, Saturday April 1st & Sunday April 2nd 1865.

    The Investment of Petersburg, Va. Shewing [sic] battlefield o...

    Shows the area surrounding Petersburg on the Appomattox River with all major transportation lines noted. Union forces under Grant are opposed by Lee's Confederates. Five Forks is to the left of the image; Port Walthall to the upper right: Ream's Station is in the lower right; and Dinwiddie Court House is at the bottom center.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1865-03-31
  • Blockade of the Potomac - by Rebels, winter of 1861

    Blockade of the Potomac - by Rebels, winter of 1861

    Shows the Potomac River with the Confederate forces located near Cockpit Point, Prince William County, Va.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Plan of the Rebel attack on Washington, D.C., July 11th and 12th, 1864.

    Plan of the Rebel attack on Washington, D.C., July 11th and 1...

    As a diversionary measure to take some of the pressure off of besieged Petersburg, Confederate forces under Jubal Early launched a northern offensive beginning in late June 1864. After stops near Harper's Ferry and Shepherdstown, W. Va., and Frederick and Baltimore, Md., they reached the outskirts of Washington, D.C., by July 11. Reconnaissance showed the Union had begun some intensive reinforcement, so an attack ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-07-11
  • Contours of Union forts on south side of Potomac, 1862 [map].

    Contours of Union forts on south side of Potomac, 1862 [map].

    This map shows the names and configurations of Union fortifications on the Virginia side of the Potomac River in 1862, and in some cases lists the name of the regiment that built the structure.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Chancellorsville, May 2, 1863, showing Stonewall Jackson's great flank movement

    Chancellorsville, May 2, 1863, showing Stonewall Jackson's gr...

    This detail from a printed map shows the area around Chancellorsville, Va., including Wilderness Church to the west, the Rapidan River to the north, and the Plank Road to the south. Also indicated is the route taken by Stonewall Jackson's corps to Wilderness Tavern and the direction of their attack on the Union's exposed flank.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-05-02
  • Map of Chattanooga & vicinity : showing Confederate and Union lines at the beginning of the battle of Nov. 23-25, 1863, and the route followed by Sherman in crossing from the North to the South of the Tennessee River on the night of Nov. 24.

    Map of Chattanooga & vicinity : showing Confederate and Union...

    Map shows the area surrounding Chattanooga on the Tennessee River. Troops of Union generals Hooker and Sherman are shown on the southern outskirts of town, and Confederate troops are located on Missionary Ridge.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-11-23
  • Andersonville Prison

    Andersonville Prison

    Detailed plan of Andersonville Prison Camp, showing Sweetwater Lick to the north, and the Southwestern & Enfaula Railroad to the east. Shows the main forts, stockade and cemetery.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • [Map of the Potomac River].

    [Map of the Potomac River].

    Regional map of Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania showing the Potomac River and its tributaries.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Position of Union and Rebel forces, Oct. 14, 1863

    Position of Union and Rebel forces, Oct. 14, 1863

    Map shows Union troops on the road running parallel to the Orange and Alexandria railroad. Just past Bristoe Station, as Union troops crossed Broad Run, a Confederate battery emerged from woods north of the railroad. Next, Confederate skirmishers appeared on a hill overlooking the Union column. Finally, there were several Confederate charges. Union forces were able to return fire and, after several hours of ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-10-14
  • Plan of the battle of Five Forks, Va., April 1st 1865 : fought by 5th Army corps Genl Warren.

    Plan of the battle of Five Forks, Va., April 1st 1865 : fough...

    This map depicts the Five Forks area of Dinwiddie County, Va., where Confederate forces under Gen. George E. Pickett tried to hold off the Union advance on Petersburg and the important South Side Railroad. Included are Hatcher's Run, the Appomattox River, Petersburg, Dinwiddie Court House, and the Weldon Railroad. Union forces involved included Warren's Fifth Corps infantry and Sheridan's cavalry. Accused by Sheridan of ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1865-04-01
  • Plan of Andersonville Prison, Sumter Co., Georgia.

    Plan of Andersonville Prison, Sumter Co., Georgia.

    This is a revised plan showing the physical layout of Andersonville Prison in August 1864. This is a corrected drawing of his map cataloged as Mss5:1 Sn237:1 (v. 5, p. 451).

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-08
  • Plan of the Battle of Glendale or Frasier's Farm Va. Fought 30th June 1862.

    Plan of the Battle of Glendale or Frasier's Farm Va. Fought 3...

    Shows the area of Henrico County, Va., from White Oak Swamp to the north to Glendale to the south. This was the location of both the Battle of White Oak Swamp and the separate skirmish at Frazier's Farm, both part of the Seven Days' Battles.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-06-30
  • Map showing positions of Union and Rebel forces Septr 1861.

    Map showing positions of Union and Rebel forces Septr 1861.

    Depicts the area between Lewinsville, in Fairfax County, and Georgetown in the north, and Alexandria in the south. The location of the Loudoun and Hampshire Railroad is also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861-09
  • The Rebel entrenched position at Fredericksburg, Va. showing Hooker's flank march on Chancellorsville 3rd and 4th May 1863.

    The Rebel entrenched position at Fredericksburg, Va. showing ...

    Regional map of the Chancellorsville area encompassing Kelly's Ford in the upper left, Stafford in the upper right, and Spotsylvania Court House at the bottom. Indicates roads and railroads, fords, bridges, and inhabited buildings. Also, indicates the route taken by Hooker's Union forces across the Rappahannock River at Kelly's Ford with the intention of attacking Lee's Confederates at Chancellorsville from the west. Union General ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-05-03
  • Plan shewing [sic] entrenched position of Union army at Westover or Harrison's Landing, James River, Va., July and August 1862.

    Plan shewing [sic] entrenched position of Union army at Westo...

    As the action on the Virginia Peninsula wound down in July, McClellan moved his headquarters to Harrison's Landing on the James River, in Charles City County, Va.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-07
  • Map of Hampton to Howard's Bridge, Virginia.

    Map of Hampton to Howard's Bridge, Virginia.

    The area depicted includes the York River to the north, the James River to the south and the Hampton/Five Points area to the east.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-03-27
  • Plan of the battle of Gaine's Mill, Virginia fought June 27th, 1862.

    Plan of the battle of Gaine's Mill, Virginia fought June 27th...

    Concerns the Battle of Gaines Mill, Hanover County, Va., one of the Seven Days' Battles, 26 June-1 July 1862.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-06-27
  • Position of Union Army

    Position of Union Army

    Map shows the location of Union troops in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia poised to begin McClellan's Peninsular Campaign, March 1862. Among the landmarks noted are the location of McClellan's headquarters in Hampton from 23 March to 4 April 1862; the route of reconnaissance by Smith and Fitz-John Porter in the vicinity of Yorktown, Va., 27 March; and McClellan's new headquarters on the ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-03-08
  • Map showing the investment and siege of Savannah, Georgia by Genl Sherman's army Decr 1864.

    Map showing the investment and siege of Savannah, Georgia by ...

    Regional view of Savannah, Ga., with the many landforms (rivers, sounds, swamps, islands) noted as well as the locations of forts Jackson and Pulaski. The Savannah & Gulf Railroad, Georgia Central Railroad, and Ogeechee Canal are also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-12
  • Position Sunday May 3rd at 3 p.m.

    Position Sunday May 3rd at 3 p.m.

    The map depicts troops movements in the Chancellorsville area between 10 a.m. and 3 P.M. on May 3rd,1863. Union troops under generals Reynolds, Meade, Sickles and Slocum are located to the east between Chancellorsville and the Rappahannock River. Confederates troops under generals Stuart , McLaws, Rhodes and Anderson are located to the west near Dowdall's Tavern.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-05-03
  • Sketch of the manoeuvres [sic] on Antietam and Sharpsburg, Maryland. Septr 1862.

    Sketch of the manoeuvres [sic] on Antietam and Sharpsburg, Ma...

    Shows the area from Sharpsburg east to Frederick, Md., and the positions of Lee's Confederate army as it faced McClellan's forces. The map also shows Hagerstown south to the Potomac River. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-09
  • Map of Harrison's Landing, James River, Virginia.

    Map of Harrison's Landing, James River, Virginia.

    Shows the locations along the James River of the camps of the U.S. Army of the Potomac after the Seven Days' Battles, 25 June-1 July 1862. Also shows locations of Berkeley and Westover plantations in Charles City County, Va.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-07
  • Map of siege of Fort Pulaski : Savannah River Georgia. 1862.

    Map of siege of Fort Pulaski : Savannah River Georgia. 1862.

    Shows the location of Jones Island, Turtle Island and Daufuskie Island on the north edge of the Savannah River and Querns Island, Wilmington Island and Big Tybee Island to the south, also indicated is the location of Fort Pulaski on Cockspur Island in the middle of the Savannah River.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Georgia.

    Georgia.

    Shows railroad lines emanating south and east of Atlanta going toward Macon and Columbus, Ga., with a notation "125 miles from Atlanta to Andersonville [Prison]."

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Plan of Camp Lawton, or the rebel prison near Millen, Georgia ... November 1864.

    Plan of Camp Lawton, or the rebel prison near Millen, Georgia...

    Illustrates the fort and its defenses of abatis and rifle pits, the guard camp made of log houses, hospital and surgeon's quarters, commissary, quartermaster, officers' quarters, and prison stockade containing shanties, tents, cooking ovens, and sutler's quarters.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-11
  • New defenses erected at Centreville, Virginia

    New defenses erected at Centreville, Virginia

    Originally built by the Confederates and used for winter quarters in 1861-1862, the defenses around Centreville were also used by the Union Army to cover the retreat back to Washington after both 1st and 2nd Bull Run. When Lee began concentrating his forces around Culpeper in July 1863, and Meade, not to be outdone, moved his army to a position opposite them along the ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-09
  • The assault on the "Red Battery,"  April 25th, 1862 Yorktown, Va.

    The assault on the "Red Battery," April 25th, 1862 Yorktown,...

    Shows the area between the Warwick River to the west and the Warwick Road to the east as McClellan's forces attacked Confederate batteries on the Peninsula south of Yorktown, Va.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04-25
  • Map showing entrance to Mobile Bay and course taken by Union fleet.

    Map showing entrance to Mobile Bay and course taken by Union ...

    Map shows Confederate fortifications (Forts Powell, Gaines, Morgan) and the location of Union fleet in Mobile Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. On August 5, Union Admiral Farragut attempted to lead several ships into Mobile Bay, past formidable Confederate forts and the ironclad C.S.S. Tennessee. Despite the sinking by a mine of the U.S.S. Tecumseh, the Union fleet passed through the channel and engaged ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-08-05
  • Map of Devaux Neck on Broad River, South Carolina.

    Map of Devaux Neck on Broad River, South Carolina.

    Devaux Neck is formed by the Tulfinny River and Coosawatchie River as they branch off the Broad River. The Peninsula is crossed by the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. Map shows rebel forces protecting the railroad while Union forces, the 127th NY under Gen. Edward E. Potter, advance up the peninsula.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-12-08
  • Map showing the Chicahominy [sic] and James rivers and from Richmond to Harrison's Landing, Va.

    Map showing the Chicahominy [sic] and James rivers and from R...

    Shows the terrain over which the Peninsula Campaign was waged during March-June 1862.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-03
  • Skeleton map of battlefield of Bull Run Virginia : showing 1st battle at Blackburn's Ford.

    Skeleton map of battlefield of Bull Run Virginia : showing 1s...

    Shows area between Sudley Springs to the north and Manassas Junction to the south. Locations of railroads and Warrenton Turnpike are indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • The Battlefield of Williamsburg, Va. : fought 5th May 1862.

    The Battlefield of Williamsburg, Va. : fought 5th May 1862.

    Concerns the Battle of Williamsburg, Va., which was part of the Peninsula Campaign, March-June 1862.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-05-05
  • Plan of the Battle of Lookout Mountain. Fought November 24th-25th, 1863.

    Plan of the Battle of Lookout Mountain. Fought November 24th-...

    The northern end of Lookout Mountain is the center point of this image, with the town of Wauhatchie and Lookout Creek to the left and Chattanooga Creek to the right. The Union forces are shown in the vicinity of the Raccoon Mountains, with Hooker and Geary's flanking movements down the west side of Lookout Creek noted. Confederate forces are divided into three lines, the ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-11-24
  • Plan of Yorktown, Virginia ... April, 1862.

    Plan of Yorktown, Virginia ... April, 1862.

    Shows the area of the York River coastline from Windmill Creek to Wormsley Creek with particular attention to the landforms and defenses around Yorktown and the layout of streets and buildings within the town itself.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04
  • The Battle of Malvern Hill, Virginia

    The Battle of Malvern Hill, Virginia

    Shows the area of eastern Henrico County, Va., where the battle of Malvern Hill was fought. The landscape gave the Union forces a strong natural position from which to fend off the Confederate attack.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-07-01
  • The Rebel defences [sic] of Charleston, S.C., December 1864

    The Rebel defences [sic] of Charleston, S.C., December 1864

    Shows in detail the Confederate forts along the Ashley and Cooper rivers, as well as obstructions in Charleston Harbor. Also shows the burned district of Charleston, where Union prisoners of war were kept within range of Union guns.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-12
  • Plan of the Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., Decr. 13, 1862.

    Plan of the Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., Decr. 13, 1862.

    Map shows the region surrounding Fredericksburg, Va., including Marie's Heights outside of the city and Falmouth across the Rappahannock River. Due to Burnside's slow maneuvering of the Union forces, Lee was able to use the bluffs overlooking the river to his advantage. After sustaining heavy losses crossing the river, Burnside decided against renewed attacks and withdrew on the 15th of December.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-12-13