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  • Harrison's Landing, Va. : Showing Union line of defence [sic].

    Harrison's Landing, Va. : Showing Union line of defence [sic].

    Shows the location at Harrison's Landing, along the James River, of the camps of the U.S. Army of the Potomac after the Seven Days' Battles, 25 June-1 July 1862. Includes Berkeley and Westover plantations in Charles City County, Va.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-07-02
  • Position of Union Army at Cedar Creek Union position and plan of battle.

    Position of Union Army at Cedar Creek Union position and plan...

    However, what initially appeared to be an overwhelming success quickly turned to a rout when the Union forces were redeployed and launched a successful counterattack that drove the Confederates back across the Shenandoah to Fisher's Hill, with heavy losses of men, equipment and supplies. Map shows troop locations along the Strasburg Pike on either side of Cedar Creek, and along the north fork of ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • The Investment of Petersburg, Va. Shewing [sic] battlefield of 5 Forks and Hatcher's Run, Friday March 31st, Saturday April 1st & Sunday April 2nd 1865.

    The Investment of Petersburg, Va. Shewing [sic] battlefield o...

    Shows the area surrounding Petersburg on the Appomattox River with all major transportation lines noted. Union forces under Grant are opposed by Lee's Confederates. Five Forks is to the left of the image; Port Walthall to the upper right: Ream's Station is in the lower right; and Dinwiddie Court House is at the bottom center.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1865-03-31
  • Plan of Union and Rebel position at Yorktown Va.

    Plan of Union and Rebel position at Yorktown Va.

    Shows the area between the Warwick River and Yorktown to the north and Wormsley Creek to the south that was the Confederacy's first line of defense against McClellan's advance up the Virginia Peninsula. The location of the road to Warwick Court House is also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04-12
  • Plan of position of the 12th Corps and part of the 3rd Corps, covering the ground in front of Chancellorsville during May 2nd and 3rd 1863.

    Plan of position of the 12th Corps and part of the 3rd Corps,...

    Shows the locations of the U.S. Army of the Potomac's XII Corps (under Slocum) and III Corps (under Sickles) during Hooker's campaign to circumvent Lee's defenses at Fredericksburg by circling to the west and attacking his flank. Splitting his army, Lee left half to face Union forces at Fredericksburg and moved half to confront Hooker at the Wilderness, an area of dense second-growth forest ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-05-02
  • Vicksburg Missp. and the Rebel batteries 1863.

    Vicksburg Missp. and the Rebel batteries 1863.

    Shows the western theater of the war, focusing on Vicksburg. The Vicksburg & Jackson, and Vicksburg & Texas railroads are indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863
  • Plan of works erected at Centreville, Va., by Union forces. Under direction of Genl. Barnard Chief Engineer of Department of Washington.

    Plan of works erected at Centreville, Va., by Union forces. U...

    Map shows the area surrounding Centreville in Fairfax County , Va., and includes the locations of abandoned Confederate fortifications on the outskirts of the town.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox - Barnard, J. G. (John Gross)
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Plan of the Battle of Cedar Mountain, Virginia, August 9th, 1862.

    Plan of the Battle of Cedar Mountain, Virginia, August 9th, 1...

    The newly-organized Union Army of Virginia under Gen. John Pope had as its mission to draw Lee's focus and forces away from the defense of Richmond. To that end, the army began moving toward Gordonsville in July, planning to approach the Confederate capital from the north. Realizing the seriousness of his position, with McClellen in front of him and Pope on his left flank, ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-08-09
  • Map of Harrison's Landing, James River, Virginia.

    Map of Harrison's Landing, James River, Virginia.

    Shows the locations along the James River of the camps of the U.S. Army of the Potomac after the Seven Days' Battles, 25 June-1 July 1862. Also shows locations of Berkeley and Westover plantations in Charles City County, Va.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Genl. Q. A. Gillmore's line of earthworks in front of Fort Wagner, Morris Island, S.C., July 1863

    Genl. Q. A. Gillmore's line of earthworks in front of Fort Wa...

    Map depicts the siege of Fort Wagner, Morris Island, Charleston Harbor, S.C. Details include the locations of swamps, marshes, and sand ridges, and the elaborate earthworks and trenches constructed by Union troops under Gen. Q. A. Gillmore as they prepared to lay siege to the fort.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863
  • Plan of the Battle of Dranesville Va Decr 20th 1861.

    Plan of the Battle of Dranesville Va Decr 20th 1861.

    Shows Dranesville, Fairfax County, Va., and the area to the north. The locations of the Leesburg Turnpike, Centreville Road and Chain Bridge Road are indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861-12-20
  • Map shewing [sic] advance of 6th Army Corps (Genl. John Sedgwick U.S.A.) to assist Gen. Hooker at Chancellorsville.

    Map shewing [sic] advance of 6th Army Corps (Genl. John Sedgw...

    In January of 1863 Joseph Hooker replaced Ambrose Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac. His first order of business was to dislodge R. E. Lee from his position outside of Fredericksburg. Hooker envisioned a two-prong approach, with half his army attacking on Lee's left, while the other half, under the command of John Sedgwick, made a diversionary attack across the Rappahannock ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863
  • Map showing the defenses of the Mississippi below New Orleans and Farragut's attack 24 April 1862.

    Map showing the defenses of the Mississippi below New Orleans...

    Map shows the Confederate fortifications at Fort Jackson under Gen. Duncan, Fort St. Philip and the Union fleet along the Mississippi River. This map, also shows the positions of Union ships under Farragut, who captured the strategic port of New Orleans, thereby providing the Federal army access to the Mississippi River.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04-24
  • Route from Manassas to Centreville, August 28th to 31st.

    Route from Manassas to Centreville, August 28th to 31st.

    Depicts the path General Samuel Heintzelman took during August 23rd to 31st from Manassas Junction in Prince William County, Va., traveling toward Centreville in Fairfax County, Va., directly before and during the Second Battle of Manassas or Bull Run.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-08-28
  • Plan of the battle of Fisher's Hill, Virginia. Fought September 22nd, 1864.

    Plan of the battle of Fisher's Hill, Virginia. Fought Septemb...

    Despite a strong natural defensive position near Fisher's Hill, south of Strasburg, Va., Early's Confederates were overwhelmed by Sheridan's greater numbers. Map shows the flanking movement led by Crook as well as the position of the Union forces just prior to their frontal assault. The detail of the distribution of the Confederate forces was contained on that portion of the map that is missing.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-09-22
  • Position of army at Centreville Va. 31st August

    Position of army at Centreville Va. 31st August

    Another view of Pope's Army of Virginia just prior to the Battle of Chantilly, the last engagement of the Second Bull Run Campaign.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-08-31
  • Map of the Potomac River, Va. : from Alexandria to below the Occoquan.

    Map of the Potomac River, Va. : from Alexandria to below the ...

    Regional map of the lower Potomac River in Virginia, including Alexandria and Fairfax Court House. The Loudoun & Hampshire Railroad is also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Second battle field at Bull Run

    Second battle field at Bull Run

    Shows the Union forces under Gen. John Pope and the Confederates under Gen. Robert E. Lee on the 29th, 30th, and 31st of August 1862 in an area of Virginia defined by the towns of Chantilly to the north, Manassas Junction to the South, Centreville to the east and Gainesville to the west.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-08-29
  • Plan of the Battle of the Wilderness, Va. : May 5th to 12th.

    Plan of the Battle of the Wilderness, Va. : May 5th to 12th.

    While labelled the Battle of the Wilderness (May 5-6), this map depicts troop locations and movements during engagements in the days immediately following as both armies met at Spotsylvania Court House (May 8-12) and Union forces under Grant made slow but steady progress moving southeast toward the James River and their ultimate goal, Richmond. This map encompasses the Rapidan River to the northeast, and ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-05-05
  • Map of Popes [sic] campaign in northern Virginia, August 1862.

    Map of Popes [sic] campaign in northern Virginia, August 1862.

    Shows the line of march of the Confederate Army and of the Union Army of Virginia as commanded by John Pope during the 2nd Bull Run Campaign, June-September 1862.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Plan of the Battle of Carnifex Ferry, West Virginia.

    Plan of the Battle of Carnifex Ferry, West Virginia.

    Carnifex Ferry is located on the Gauley River east of the town of Gauley Bridge. Floyd's Confederate forces are positioned with their backs to the Gauley River, and the Union is shown attacking chiefly in the center and on the left.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861-09-25
  • Map of the field of operations, November 1863.

    Map of the field of operations, November 1863.

    Map shows the area between Culpeper Courthouse and Orange Courthouse including the location of Federal troops under Meade in Union-held towns and along the Rappahannock River. On November 7th, the Union army began its advance across the Rappahannock River at Rappahannock Station. The map also indicates the location of Confederate strongholds along the Rapidan River.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863
  • Revised plan of battle of Malvern Hill, July 1st, 1862 (official).

    Revised plan of battle of Malvern Hill, July 1st, 1862 (offic...

    Details the action of July 1, 1862, with most of the major Confederate forces under the command of Stonewall Jackson, D. H. Hill, and Magruder, identified in their location north of Malvern Hill, and all the Union troops due south of the Confederates, notably including Berdan's sharpshooters and the troops of Heintzelman, under whom Sneden served, Couch, Morell, and others.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-07-01
  • Plan of approaches to the Vicksburg Mine.

    Plan of approaches to the Vicksburg Mine.

    Shows Brig. Genl. Hickenlooper's design for the trenches approaching Vicksburg, Miss., for the placement of the explosives detonated on 25 June.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-07-01
  • Battle of Five Forks 31st March and April 1st 1865 Copy of official plan by Col. W. H. Paine U.S. Engrs.

    Battle of Five Forks 31st March and April 1st 1865 Copy of of...

    Map shows the area five Five Forks, Va., near Hatcher's Run in Diwiddie County. March 30, 1865 General Sheridan's troops engaged Pickett's army at Dinwiddie courthouse and the next day pursued General Pickett who was withdrawing to Five Forks. The Federal attacks overwhelmed the enrenchments, and the Confederates abandoned their efforts to protect the Southdside Railroad.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox - Paine, William H.
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1865-03-31
  • Plan of Fort Magruder, Battlefield of Williamsburg, Virginia. Sketched the day after the battle 6th May 1862.

    Plan of Fort Magruder, Battlefield of Williamsburg, Virginia....

    Shows the area surrounding Confederate Fort Magruder just south of in Williamsburg, Va. Details include the network of ravines and slashed trees extending the width of the Peninsula used by the Confederate Army as part of its defenses.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-05-06
  • Plan of action at Devaux Neck South Carolina. December 9th 1864.

    Plan of action at Devaux Neck South Carolina. December 9th 1864.

    Devaux Neck is a peninsula formed by the Tulfinney and Coosawatchie rivers as they branch off the Broad River. The peninsula is crossed by the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. This map, in closer detail than the one on p. 196, shows the skirmish between Confederate forces protecting the railroad and Union forces (the 127th New York Regiment under Gen. E. E. Potter) hoping to ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-12-09
  • Plan of battles of Kelly's Ford and Rappahannock Station, Virginia : both fought Novr. 7th, 1863.

    Plan of battles of Kelly's Ford and Rappahannock Station, Vir...

    The map shows the area surrounding the Rappahannock River as it runs from north to south; the Orange & Alexandria Railroad is also indicated. The battles of Rappahannock Bridge and Kelly's Ford were part of the Bristoe Campaign.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-11-07
  • The Union assault on the Rebel works Lee's Mill Va.

    The Union assault on the Rebel works Lee's Mill Va.

    Shows the fortifications of the Union and Confederate forces on opposite sides of the Warwick River in Warwick County [now city of Newport News], Va., at the time of the engagement Lee's Mill, also known as Burnt Chimneys.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04-16
  • Battle of Malvern Hill showing Magruder's 1st attack June 30th

    Battle of Malvern Hill showing Magruder's 1st attack June 30th

    Shows the area of Malvern Hill, Henrico County, Va., where McClellan's retreating army made a final stand, effectively ending the Seven Days' Battles.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-06-30
  • Blockade of the Potomac - by Rebels, winter of 1861

    Blockade of the Potomac - by Rebels, winter of 1861

    Shows the Potomac River with the Confederate forces located near Cockpit Point, Prince William County, Va.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Map of Devaux Neck on Broad River, South Carolina.

    Map of Devaux Neck on Broad River, South Carolina.

    Devaux Neck is formed by the Tulfinny River and Coosawatchie River as they branch off the Broad River. The Peninsula is crossed by the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. Map shows rebel forces protecting the railroad while Union forces, the 127th NY under Gen. Edward E. Potter, advance up the peninsula.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-12-08
  • Plan of Genl Q. A. Gillmore's position on Morris Island, Charleston S.C.

    Plan of Genl Q. A. Gillmore's position on Morris Island, Char...

    Shows the progression of earthworks constructed to allow Union forces to approach Fort Wagner. Gillmore's troops reached the ditch surrounding the fort on September 6. The Confederate forces abandoned the fort during the night.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Plan of the Battle of Winchester, Va. Fought September 19th, 1864.

    Plan of the Battle of Winchester, Va. Fought September 19th, ...

    Detail of Winchester, Va., and environs includes roads, railroads, creeks, mills, fords, and the locations of the Confederate Signal Station, "Millroy's Forts," Milltown, Kernstown, Stephenson's Depot, and Greenwood Church. The Confederate line, with Early commanding, is in front of Winchester. Union forces under Gen. Sheridan are shown east of the town, while the Union cavalry is located to the north at Stephenson's Depot. The ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-09-19
  • The Rebel works at Howard's Bridge Virginia April 4th 1862.

    The Rebel works at Howard's Bridge Virginia April 4th 1862.

    Shows the fortifications of the Confederate forces at Howard's Bridge on the banks of the Poquoson River, which succeeded in slowing McClellan's advance up the Peninsula.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04-04
  • Blockade of the Potomac. Map showing Union and Rebel batteries January 1862. The Rebels evacuated all their batteries night of 4th March 1862.

    Blockade of the Potomac. Map showing Union and Rebel batterie...

    "The Rebel troops and batteries were commanded by Genl. Holmes, C.S.A. during the blockade which lasted from Decr 1861 to 9th March 1862." -- Page caption. Color coding shows location of Union and Confederate forces. NOTE: Researchers will be served a color photocopy of this diary image. Relief shown by hachures. This item is from the collections of the Virginia Historical Society; please contact ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Map shewing [sic] march of the [U.S.] Army from Harrison's Landing or Westover to Williamsburg, Virginia, 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th August.

    Map shewing [sic] march of the [U.S.] Army from Harrison's La...

    Illustrates the path McClellan's troops took in August 1862 after their July encampment at Harrison's Landing ended. The 1st Corps under Fitz-John Porter, the 6th Corps under Sedgwick, and the 4th Corps under Keyes are shown traveling due east from Charles City Courthouse across the Chickahominy River toward Williamsburg while the 3rd Corps under Heintzelman travels on a northeastern route from Charles City Courthouse ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-08-15
  • Plan of the battle of Malvern Hill, Virginia. Fought June 30th and July 1st, 1862.

    Plan of the battle of Malvern Hill, Virginia. Fought June 30t...

    "The position of Union forces at Malvern Hill was on the West. Overlooking Warren were 36 guns having full sweep of the Valley and over the River Road. These batteries were [Stephen Hinsdale] Weed's NYork battery, Edwards', Carlisle's, Smead's and Voegele's. To these later in the day were added the siege guns 1st Conn. Artillery under Col. Robert O. Tyler[,;] these were placed on ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-06-30
  • Position of Union Army

    Position of Union Army

    Map shows the location of Union troops in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia poised to begin McClellan's Peninsular Campaign, March 1862. Among the landmarks noted are the location of McClellan's headquarters in Hampton from 23 March to 4 April 1862; the route of reconnaissance by Smith and Fitz-John Porter in the vicinity of Yorktown, Va., 27 March; and McClellan's new headquarters on the ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-03-08
  • Skirmish at Auburn, Virginia, Octr. 14th 1863

    Skirmish at Auburn, Virginia, Octr. 14th 1863

    This map depicts a minor skirmish near Catlett's Station, Fauquier County, Va., part of the Bristoe Campaign. Union forces, including the 20th Indiana, 3rd Maine, and 40th New York regiments, are arrayed on a hill overlooking Cedar Run, opposed by forces under the command of A. P. Hill and including Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry battalion, located across the Groveton Road.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-10-14
  • [Map of the First Battle of Bull Run]

    [Map of the First Battle of Bull Run]

    Shows the movement of the Union and Confederate forces as their positions changed over the course of July 21, 1861, during the First Battle of Bull Run. Sneden illustrates the battle over the countryside in Prince William and Fairfax counties, Va.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Map showing the investment and siege of Savannah, Georgia by Genl Sherman's army Decr 1864.

    Map showing the investment and siege of Savannah, Georgia by ...

    Regional view of Savannah, Ga., with the many landforms (rivers, sounds, swamps, islands) noted as well as the locations of forts Jackson and Pulaski. The Savannah & Gulf Railroad, Georgia Central Railroad, and Ogeechee Canal are also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864
  • Map showing position of Union Army at Pittsburg Landing before and after the battle 6th and 7th April 1862.

    Map showing position of Union Army at Pittsburg Landing befor...

    Depicts troop positions during the Battle of Shiloh, Tenn. Shows the area of Owl Creek to the north and the location of Pittsburg Landing, along the Tennessee River, to the south.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04-06
  • Map shewing [sic] retreat of Union Army from Savage's Station to White Oak Swamp, Va. : the position of Army after crossing morning of 30th June 1862, 7 a.m.

    Map shewing [sic] retreat of Union Army from Savage's Station...

    Bottom margin: "The swamp was 8 miles long and 3 miles wide." Key across the bottom margin indicates the symbols for positions of the Union and Confederate armies, including infantry, cavalry, and artillery. Farms, homes, and churches are included as well as all major roads and waterways. NOTE: Researchers will be served a color photocopy of this diary page. This item is from the ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-06-30
  • Battle of Chantilly Va.

    Battle of Chantilly Va.

    Shows the area between Chantilly to the north and Bull Run to the south where Pope massed his troops prior to their retreat back to Washington. The location of Centreville and Fairfax Station are also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-09-01
  • Capture of forts [sic] Henry ... Tennessee By U.S. Grant, January 1862.

    Capture of forts [sic] Henry ... Tennessee By U.S. Grant, Jan...

    Shows Confederate Fort Henry on the Tennessee River. The entire site was to include the fort on the low ground near the edge of the river with an entrenched camp (Fort Heiman) on a high plateau immediately above it. The work was not completed and on the day of the Union attack the river had partially flooded the fort site. Realizing the futility of ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Battle of the Antietam.

    Battle of the Antietam.

    Conveys the placement of Union and Confederate forces in Washington County, Md., around Sharpsburg during the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-09-17
  • Plan of Andersonville Prison, Georgia 1864.

    Plan of Andersonville Prison, Georgia 1864.

    Shows dimensions, layout, outbuildings and immediate surroundings of Andersonville Prison Camp, Georgia.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864
  • Official map of the Union works in front of Yorktown, Va.

    Official map of the Union works in front of Yorktown, Va.

    Shows the vicinity of Yorktown, Va., including Union batteries located along the Warwick Court House Road. Also shows the Confederate barricade made up of abatis, palisades, slashings of trees, felled trees, and dams that flooded low-lying areas. The Union army, under Gen. McClellan, prepared to lay siege to Yorktown as part of its advance up the Virginia Peninsula toward the Confederate capital of Richmond.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox - Heine, William
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Route of 3rd Corps from Cattlet's [sic] to Greenwich, Va.

    Route of 3rd Corps from Cattlet's [sic] to Greenwich, Va.

    The maps shows the location of the Union III Corps under Sickles and Confederate troops under A.P. Hill between Catlett's Station and Manassas Junction, Va. The Manassas Gap and the Orange and Alexandria railroads are also indicated, and also shown is the location of the skirmish that took place at Auburn earlier in the day.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-10-14
  • The Battle of Antietam, Septr. 16th-17th, 1862.

    The Battle of Antietam, Septr. 16th-17th, 1862.

    In this detail from a printed map, Sneden shows the movement of the Lee's Confederate line at the battle of Antietam. On September 16 the Confederates are shown east of Sharpsburg. On September 17, after a day of intense fighting, the Confederates have pulled back slightly to just outside the town of Sharpsburg. On September 18 they are shown moving toward Shepherdstown, W. Va.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-09-16
  • Plan of Battle of Malvern Hill Va. Fought 1st July 1862.

    Plan of Battle of Malvern Hill Va. Fought 1st July 1862.

    Shows the terrain surrounding Malvern Hill in Henrico County, Va., the sight of the last of the Seven Days' Battles.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-07-01
  • Capture of forts [sic] ... Donelson, Tennessee By U.S. Grant, January 1862.

    Capture of forts [sic] ... Donelson, Tennessee By U.S. Grant,...

    This map shows the area surrounding Fort Donelson, Tenn., including the Cumberland River, the town of Dover, and Fort Henry Road, and includes the locations of confederate earthworks as well as roads, buildings, woods, and creeks.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Plan of Andersonville Prison or "Camp Sumter," April, 1864.

    Plan of Andersonville Prison or "Camp Sumter," April, 1864.

    Illustrates the layout of Andersonville Camp, as Sneden refers to the prison, and the surrounding area where Confederate guard troops of the 1st Florida Battery were stationed including the headquarters of Captain Henry Wirz, roads in and out, topographical features such as swampland, a graveyard presumed to be connected with the prison, and "Anderson Village." Sneden revised this map and it is available as ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864
  • Union army's march on Gettysburg from Frederick, Md.

    Union army's march on Gettysburg from Frederick, Md.

    Regional view shows paths taken by different segments of the Union army on a march from Frederick, Md., to Gettysburg, Pa., as well as the location of the Confederate army units in the vicinity. The Union troops were under the commands of Reynolds, Howard, Sickles, Slocum, Hancock, Sykes and Gregg.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-06-30
  • Plan of Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Va.

    Plan of Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Va.

    At this midpoint in the Spottsylvania Campaign (May 7-20), Union forces under Grant and Confederate forces under Lee were facing off to the south and east of Spottsylvania Court House. On May 12, Grant ordered Hancock to assault Ewell's position in the "mule's shoe" salient. This map attempts to depict the action during that assault. It shows Ewell's position at the start of the ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-05-12
  • Map of Hampton to Howard's Bridge, Virginia.

    Map of Hampton to Howard's Bridge, Virginia.

    The area depicted includes the York River to the north, the James River to the south and the Hampton/Five Points area to the east.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-03-27
  • Map shewing [sic] movements of Union and Rebel armies and Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia from April 27th to 4th May 1863.

    Map shewing [sic] movements of Union and Rebel armies and Bat...

    In this regional view of the Chancellorsville Campaign, the Wilderness appears in the upper left, the confluence of the Rapidan and Rappahannock rivers in the upper right, and Fredericksburg and Falmouth, located on opposite sides of the Rappahannock, are at the bottom. Time notations attempt to trace the movements of various units over the course of the campaign.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-04-27
  • Plan of the Battle of Honey Hill, South Carolina, November 30th, 1864.

    Plan of the Battle of Honey Hill, South Carolina, November 30...

    Map shows the Confederate earthworks, as well as the location of Union forces at Honey Hill near Grahamville, in Jasper County, S.C. Sherman sent 5,500 Union troops under J.G. Foster inland to secure a foothold on the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. They were met by 1,400 Confederates, heavily entrenched, and forced to withdraw.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-11-30
  • Map of siege of Fort Pulaski : Savannah River Georgia. 1862.

    Map of siege of Fort Pulaski : Savannah River Georgia. 1862.

    Shows the location of Jones Island, Turtle Island and Daufuskie Island on the north edge of the Savannah River and Querns Island, Wilmington Island and Big Tybee Island to the south, also indicated is the location of Fort Pulaski on Cockspur Island in the middle of the Savannah River.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Plan of the battle of Mine Run, Virginia : fought Monday 30th Novr. 1863.

    Plan of the battle of Mine Run, Virginia : fought Monday 30th...

    Meade's intention was to cross the Rapidan River at Germanna Ford, travel west toward Orange Court House, and force Lee from his position in Orange County, just south of river. Alerted to these movements, Lee deployed his forces in strong defensive positions along Mine Run. There being no feasible point of attack, Meade withdrew his forces to winter quarters at Culpeper. Details on this ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-11-30
  • Plan of the Battle of Fredericksburg.

    Plan of the Battle of Fredericksburg.

    Map is oriented with the Rappahannock River to the top (actually, north/northeast) and the Massaponax River [now Creek] to the right (actually, south). Shows the field of action for the first Battle of Fredericksburg, December 12-13, 1862.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-12-12
  • The Battle of South Mountain Md. showing positions at Fox's and Turner's Gaps, Sept. 14th 1862.

    The Battle of South Mountain Md. showing positions at Fox's a...

    This very detailed map shows South Mountain, Turner's and Fox's gaps, and their relationships to Boonsboro and Frost town, Md. The locations of roads and buildings, many identified by owner, are included.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-09-14
  • Battle of Lookout Mountain, Tennessee November 24th, 1863.

    Battle of Lookout Mountain, Tennessee November 24th, 1863.

    Oriented with the Tennessee River to the top and the East Tennessee Railroad to the east, image gives details of the difficult terrain surrounding the Confederate position on Lookout Mountain. Dotted lines show the directions of the Union attack and the Confederate retreat.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Position of Union Army April 5th and 6th 1862

    Position of Union Army April 5th and 6th 1862

    Shows the area of Wormsley Creek to the north and Poquoson River to the south as McClellan's forces prepared to launch the siege of Yorktown, Va. The locations of Howard's Bridge across the Poquoson and the road from Yorktown to Hampton are also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04-05
  • Plan of the Battle of Glendale or Frazier's Farm. Virginia. 30th June 1862 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Genl Heintzelman and Sumner commanding.

    Plan of the Battle of Glendale or Frazier's Farm. Virginia. 3...

    Shows the area of Henrico County that includes White Oak Creek and White Oak Swamp.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-06-30
  • The Rebel defences of Charleston Harbor S.C., August 1863

    The Rebel defences of Charleston Harbor S.C., August 1863

    Map shows Charleston, S.C., the Confederate forts, the Union works surrounding Fort Wagner and the position of the Union monitor fleet in the harbor off of the coast. This view shows the Union attacks on Confederate fortifications lining the harbor, and on the city itself. The locations of artillery batteries and their ranges and targets are indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863
  • Plan of the Rebel position at Howard's Bridge, April 4th 1862.

    Plan of the Rebel position at Howard's Bridge, April 4th 1862.

    The map shows the area of the lower peninsula around Howard's Bridge, including the Confederate works on the north side of the Poquosin River.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04-04
  • Plan of Second Battle of Bull Run Va. : position at 6 p.m. August 30th 1862.

    Plan of Second Battle of Bull Run Va. : position at 6 p.m. Au...

    Shows the area between Sudley Springs to the north and the Manassas and Gainesville Road to the south. The locations of the Warrenton Turnpike and the Manassas Gap Railroad are also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-08-30
  • The Union army encampment at Hampton, Virginia Showing picket lines and Fortress Munroe [sic].

    The Union army encampment at Hampton, Virginia Showing picket...

    Shows the landmarks in the area around Union-occupied Hampton, Va., including the Poor Farm, the Female Seminary, Buckrow's house, Hickman's farm, and "Fox Hill," the home of J. Fox.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Plan of the First Battle of Bull Run, Virginia. July 21st 1861.

    Plan of the First Battle of Bull Run, Virginia. July 21st 1861.

    Map shows the area surrounding Bull Run including Centreville and New Market, Va.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861-07-21
  • Capture of Mobile, Alabama

    Capture of Mobile, Alabama

    A regional view of Mobile and environs, encompassing Mobile, Blakely, Spanish Fort, Alabama City, Williamsburg, Fort Morgan, Fort Gaines, and Fort Orwell. Also shows defenses of Mobile Bay, including use of torpedoes (mines), spikes, and sunken logs. The city of Mobile was abandoned by the Confederates on the night of April 11-20th, 1865.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Position of both armies, August 30th - 4 to 5 p.m.

    Position of both armies, August 30th - 4 to 5 p.m.

    Shows the area between Bull Run and the Sudley Road in Prince William County, Va., just before the Federal army retreat.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Plan of Fort Fisher and vicinity, North Carolina. Plan of second attack, January 15th, 1865.

    Plan of Fort Fisher and vicinity, North Carolina. Plan of sec...

    The first assault on Fort Fisher was made in December 1864 by Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, who withdrew when he realized a direct assault on the fort would be costly, and that Confederate reinforcements were only a few miles away. The second assault, led by Gen. Alfred Howe Terry, used a large naval force to bombard the fort before landing 8,000 assault troops. Two ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-12-15
  • Battle of Antietam, Md.

    Battle of Antietam, Md.

    In this extremely detailed map, Sneden indicates the locations of roads, bridges, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, houses, barns, ploughed fields, and the Antietam Iron Works. The Union and Confederate signal stations are also noted. The line of battle is located east of the town of Sharpsburg on September 16; encompassing the town on September 17 (after the actual battle); and to the west ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Fort Wagner. Morris Island

    Fort Wagner. Morris Island

    In July 1863, Union Generals Gillmore and Dahlgren hoped to take Fort Wagner, on Morris Island in Charleston Harbor, in order to gain a vantage point from which to launch an attack on the city of Charleston. Strongly defended, the first Union assaults (July 10th and 18th) resulted in extremely high casualties. Gillmore began formal siege operations and had reached to base of the ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863
  • Plan of attack on Marie's Heights, Fredericksburg Va. By Maj. Genl. John Sedgwick, USA, with the 6th Army Corps. Sunday May 3rd 1863.

    Plan of attack on Marie's Heights, Fredericksburg Va. By Maj....

    Area depicted includes the Rappahannock River to the northeast, Taylor Hill to the northwest and Deep Run to the south. The Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad is also indicated. As part of Gen. Hooker's plan to drive the Confederate Army back toward Richmond, Gen. Sedgwick was to undertake a diversionary attack across the Rappahannock River toward the Confederate entrenchments above Fredericksburg. On May 3rd, having ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863
  • Chancellorsville, Va. Position of armies 3rd May 1863 at 8 a.m. to 5 1/2 p.m.

    Chancellorsville, Va. Position of armies 3rd May 1863 at 8 a....

    The map shows Union troops to the east near the Chancellor House and Confederate soldiers under Stuart to the west near Dowdall's Tavern, Va. At daybreak on May 3, Jackson's corps, now under Early's command, seized a low hill overlooking Chancellorsville from which they were able to shell the Union forces. With the Confederate forces attacking on several sides, the Union line formed an ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-05-03
  • Plan of Rebel redoubt and barracks [at] "Camp Misery" : surveyed April 11th 1862.

    Plan of Rebel redoubt and barracks [at] "Camp Misery" : surve...

    Layout of "Camp Misery," a Confederate fort on the Virginia Peninsula located in a swampy area on the Ship Point road. The camp was evacuated on April 5th, 1862, as Union forces began their siege of Yorktown.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04-11
  • Map of Falls Church and vicinity of Lewinsville, Virginia : shewing [sic] Union picket lines October 30th 1862.

    Map of Falls Church and vicinity of Lewinsville, Virginia : s...

    Map shows the area surrounding Falls Church in Fairfax County, Va. The Loudoun & Hampshire Railroad is also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-10-30
  • The attack on Harper's Ferry Va., by Jackson, September 14th and 15th, 1862

    The attack on Harper's Ferry Va., by Jackson, September 14th ...

    Shows the area of convergence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers that marks the border of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Details include the location of Union forces in the town of Harper's Ferry and Confederate forces on Maryland Heights across the Potomac.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-09-14
  • The defenses of Richmond, 1864

    The defenses of Richmond, 1864

    Shows the fortifications surrounding Richmond including, Brook Run to the north, and Harrison's Landing to the south. The James River and major roads and railroad lines are also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864
  • Map showing position of Union and Rebel armies, 28th to 30th Aug. 1862. Genl. Pope's Campaign.

    Map showing position of Union and Rebel armies, 28th to 30th ...

    Shows the region surrounding Bull Run in Virginia, extending from the town of Centreville in the northeast to Brentsville in the southwest.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-08-28
  • Plan of Battle of Savage's Station Va.

    Plan of Battle of Savage's Station Va.

    Depicts the locations of troops and landmarks during the Battle of Savage's Station, one of the Seven Days' Battles. Shows the area of Henrico County between the Chickahominy River and White Oak Swamp. The Richmond and York River Railroad is also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-06-29
  • Map shewing [sic] country opposite Harrison's Landing, Va., and position of [U.S.] Army.

    Map shewing [sic] country opposite Harrison's Landing, Va., a...

    Shows the location along the James River between Petersburg and Harrison's Landing, Va., of the camps of the U.S. Army of the Potomac after the Seven Days' Battles, 26 June-1 July 1862. Positions of U.S. gunboats are indicated along the James River as well as Confederate strongholds and positions of the Cavalry.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Map shewing [sic] movements of Union and Rebel armies from 30th June to 13th July 1863.

    Map shewing [sic] movements of Union and Rebel armies from 30...

    Covers parts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, focusing on the Gettysburg area south through Sharpsburg and Frederick City, Md., and ending around Harpers Ferry, Va. [now W.Va.]. At the end of June 1863, Union and Confederate troops were moving towards Gettysburg, Pa. The conflict at Gettysburg was fought July 1-3 with Confederate troops retreating south after that time. Sneden includes dates at various locations ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-06-30
  • Second Battle of Bull Run sunset 5 p.m. Aug 30 1862.

    Second Battle of Bull Run sunset 5 p.m. Aug 30 1862.

    Shows the area between Bull Run to the north and the Manassas and Gainesville Road to the south. The location of Warrenton Turnpike and the Manassas Gap Railroad are also indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-08-30
  • Map showing route taken by Mosby with his prisoners, Nov. 27th-29th, 1863.

    Map showing route taken by Mosby with his prisoners, Nov. 27t...

    In this detail from an unidentified printed map, Sneden has traced the circuitous route he and other prisoners captured by Mosby's Guerillas during the Mine Run Campaign followed from near Rappahannock Station, Va., to Woodville, down the Blue Ridge Valley, through Madison Court House and on to Gordonsville. Sneden has annotated the map with the names and locations of many of the small communities ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-11-27
  • The 2nd Battle of Bull Run, Va., August 1862. Map showing position of the Union and Rebel forces, August 26th, 1862 at 7 p.m.

    The 2nd Battle of Bull Run, Va., August 1862. Map showing pos...

    Below title: "Copy of Official Map Headquarters 3rd Corps. Drawn by R.K. Sneden, 40th N.Y. Vols. & Topog. Engineer. 3rd Army Corps." NOTE: Researchers will be served a color photocopy of this scrapbook image. Original scrapbook housed in the Museum Department of the Virginia Historical Society (1994.80.4-525) with restricted access. This item is from the collections of the Virginia Historical Society; please contact the ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-08-26
  • Map of Chattanooga & vicinity : showing Confederate and Union lines at the beginning of the battle of Nov. 23-25, 1863, and the route followed by Sherman in crossing from the North to the South of the Tennessee River on the night of Nov. 24.

    Map of Chattanooga & vicinity : showing Confederate and Union...

    Map shows the area surrounding Chattanooga on the Tennessee River. Troops of Union generals Hooker and Sherman are shown on the southern outskirts of town, and Confederate troops are located on Missionary Ridge.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-11-23
  • [Ge]ographical sketch of the city of Richmond, Virginia, with surrounding encampments, 1862.

    [Ge]ographical sketch of the city of Richmond, Virginia, with...

    Shows Confederate encampements and prisons in Richmond and south of the James River in Manchester and Spring Hill. Sneden has added an index listing the governenment buildings and the houses of important persons.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862
  • Battle at Dranesville, Va. Decr. 20th, 1861.

    Battle at Dranesville, Va. Decr. 20th, 1861.

    NOTE: Researchers will be served a color photocopy of this scrapbook image. Original scrapbook housed in the Museum Department of the Virginia Historical Society (1994.80.4-525) with restricted access. This item is from the collections of the Virginia Historical Society; please contact the institution for more information. This item is from the collections of the Virginia Historical Society; please contact the institution for more information. ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861-12-20
  • The battle of Fair Oaks, Va., 2nd Day's battle, Sunday June 1st, 1862

    The battle of Fair Oaks, Va., 2nd Day's battle, Sunday June 1...

    Shows the area of Henrico County, Va., between Cold Harbor and White Oak Swamp. The Chicahominy River and the Richmond & York River Railroad are indicated.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-06-01
  • Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse, Virginia showing attack on the salient angle May 12th.

    Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse, Virginia showing attack on...

    Shows the distribution of Confederate forces under the commands of Longstreet, Ewell, and Hill facing Union forces under Wright, Warren, Burnside, and Hancock, with special attention to Hancock's assault on Ewell's forces in the "Mule Shoe salient." Oriented with north to the upper left.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1864-05-12
  • 2nd Battle of Bull Run, Va. position of both armies, 6 p.m. Aug. 26th 1862, showing Jackson's flank march.

    2nd Battle of Bull Run, Va. position of both armies, 6 p.m. A...

    The map shows the area surrounding the Bull Run Mountains including Centreville and Kellysville, Va. As part of the Second Bull Run Campaign, Pope's U.S. Army of Virginia assigned to protect Washington, the Shenandoah Valley and draw Lee away from the defense of Richmond. Lee split his army, and Jackson's brilliant maneuvering thoroughly confused Pope, and allowed Longstreet to join with reinforcements. While Longstreet's ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-08-26
  • Battle of Pittsburg Landing. Tennessee

    Battle of Pittsburg Landing. Tennessee

    Depicts troop positions during the Battle of Shiloh, Tenn. Shows the area of Owl Creek to the north and the location of Pittsburg Landing along the Tennessee River to the south.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-04-06
  • Map of the Battle of Gettysburg, Penna. : showing positions held July 2nd 1863.

    Map of the Battle of Gettysburg, Penna. : showing positions h...

    This map shows the disposition of troops on this second day of the battle. The designation "5 p.m." appears slightly to the left of the title. As the fighting began late in the day and continued on well into the evening, this could be interpreted as a depiction of forces going into the second day of the battle.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox - Paine, William H.
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1863-07-02
  • Position of Union and Rebel armies at Fredericksburg, Decr. 1st 1862

    Position of Union and Rebel armies at Fredericksburg, Decr. 1...

    Map shows the area surrounding Fredericksburg, Va., including Spotsylvania Courthouse, Chancellorsville and Falmouth, during the Fredericksburg Campaign. This image shows the situation several days before the battle of Fredericksburg, on December 13th, during which Burnside ordered several futile attacks against Lee's forces. After losing over 12,000 men, the Federal forces withdrew on December 15th.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1862-12-01
  • Plan of the Battle of Fair Oaks or Seven Pines, Va. Fought 31st May 1862.

    Plan of the Battle of Fair Oaks or Seven Pines, Va. Fought 31...

    Shows the distribution of troops during battle, with majority of McClellan's forces northeast of the Chickahominy River and the Confederates under Joseph E. Johnston attacking the two Union corps on the south side of the river. Map indicates locations of 9 Mile Road and Old Williamsburg Road, the Richmond and York River Railroad, and Confederate defenses, chiefly felled trees. Edwin V. Sumner's route of ...

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861
  • Union forts on Maryland shore

    Union forts on Maryland shore

    Shows the names and configurations of Union fortifications on the Maryland side of the Potomac River in 1862, and in some cases the name of the regiment that built the structure. This appears to be a companion piece to the image on p. 43.

    • Contributor: Sneden, Robert Knox
    • Original Format: Maps
    • Date: 1861