Library of Congress > Collections with Maps > Hotchkiss Map Collection


The Hotchkiss Map Collection contains cartographic items made by Major Jedediah Hotchkiss (1828-1899), a topographic engineer in the Confederate Army. Hotchkiss made detailed battle maps primarily of the Shenandoah Valley, some of which were used by the Generals Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson for their combat planning and strategy. Several of the maps have annotations of various military officers, demonstrating their importance in the military campaigns. The collection also includes maps made or used by Hotchkiss during his post-war years, including maps with information about railroads, minerals and mining, geology and history, most of which focus on Virginia and West Virginia, but also cover other states and even the world.

The collection consists of 341 sketchbooks, manuscripts, and annotated printed maps, the originals of which reside in the Library of Congress' Geography and Map Division. A Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file was created to view the Hotchkiss maps in KML2.2; the zipped file (KMZ) is 41MB.

In 1948, an outstanding collection of American Civil War maps was purchased by the Library of Congress from Mrs. R. E. Christian, granddaughter of Major Jedediah Hotchkiss (1828-1899), a topographic engineer in the Confederate Army. Hotchkiss worked principally in the West Virginia and Virginia areas that he had toured during his earlier geological studies and made detailed battle maps. As annotations demonstrate, these maps were used by Generals Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson in planning their campaigns. Many of these maps were used to compile the War Department's definitive Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (2 vols.; Washington: Government Printing Office, 1891-95). One such map, Hotchkiss' masterpiece, [Map of the Shenandoah Valley], prepared at the request of Stonewall Jackson and presented to the Library by Mrs. Christian in 1964, shows the offensive and defensive points of the Shenandoah Valley from the Potomac River to Lexington, Virginia. Hotchkiss also filled several notebooks with topographic and strategic drawings. The collection includes maps drawn or used by Hotchkiss during his postwar career as a consulting engineer in Staunton, Virginia. The 341 sketchbooks, manuscripts, and annotated printed maps are described in the Hotchkiss catalog compiled by Clara Egli LeGear, which appears in the second edition of Civil War Maps: An Annotated List of Maps and Atlases in the Library of Congress prepared by Richard W. Stephenson.

This online presentation includes all the materials in the Hotchkiss Map Collection, some of which also appear in the American Memory collection: Civil War Maps, 1861-1865.

Rights and Access

The maps in the Hotchkiss Map Collection were published prior to 1922 (see catalog records that accompany each map for information regarding date of publication and source). The Library of Congress is providing access to these materials for noncommercial, educational, and research purposes and is not aware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17 of the United States Code) or any other restrictions in the Map Collection materials. Note that the written permission of the copyright owners and/or other rights holders (such as publicity and/or privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item.

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Credit Line: Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

Citing Primary Souces on the Teachers Page.

Photographic copies of maps from the Geography and Map Division are available through the Library of Congress Photoduplication Service. The reproductions in this collection are made from digital images. Digital reproductions in TIFF format are also available.

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