EAD (Encoded Archival Description ; Version 2002 Official Site)

Encoded Archival Description Tag Library, Version 2002

EAD Attributes: General Attributes

ABBR -- An abbreviation for a word or phrase that is expressed in an expanded form in the text; used for searching and indexing purposes. Available only in the <expan> element.

ACTUATE -- see Linking Attributes

ALIGN -- see Tabular Display Attributes

ALTHEAD -- An alternative short form of the heading element <head> that might be used, for example, to create a running header.

ALTRENDER -- The content of the element should be displayed or printed differently than the rendering established in a style sheet for other occurrences of the element. See also RENDER.

ARCROLE -- see Linking Attributes

AUDIENCE -- An attribute that helps control whether the information contained in the element should be available to all viewers or only to repository staff. Available for all elements except line break <lb>. The audience attribute can be set to "external" in <archdesc> to allow access to all the information about the materials being described in the finding aid, but specific elements within <archdesc> can be set to "internal" to reserve that information for repository access only. This feature is intended to assist application software in restricting access to particular information by explicitly coding data that is potentially sensitive or may otherwise have a limited audience. Special software capability may be needed, however, to prevent the export of an element marked "internal" when a whole finding aid is displayed in a networked environment. Values are:

  • external (default value)
  • internal

AUTHFILENUMBER -- A number that identifies the authority file record for an access term drawn from that authority file. If this attribute is used, the SOURCE attribute should also be used to identify the authority file.

CALENDAR -- System of reckoning time, such as the Gregorian calendar or Julian calendar. The value "gregorian" is the default. Available in <date> and <unitdate>. --

CERTAINTY -- The level of confidence for the information given in a <date> or <unitdate> element. For example:

<date certainty="approximate">1920</date>

CHAR -- see Tabular Display Attributes

CHAROFF -- see Tabular Display Attributes

COLNAME -- see Tabular Display Attributes

COLNUM -- see Tabular Display Attributes

COLS -- see Tabular Display Attributes

COLSEP -- see Tabular Display Attributes

COLWIDTH -- see Tabular Display Attributes

CONTINUATION -- For ordered lists, i.e., those with a TYPE attribute of "ordered," and optionally with a NUMERATION attribute, the CONTINUATION attribute specifies whether the list numeration is to continue with the numeration of the preceding list or start over. If this attribute is not present, starting over is implied. Values are:

  • continues
  • starts

COUNTRYCODE -- A unique code for the country in which the materials being described are held. Codes are to be taken from ISO 3166-1 Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries, column A2. Available in <eadid> and <unitid>.

COUNTRYENCODING -- The authoritative source or rules for values supplied in the COUNTRYCODE attribute in <eadid> and <unitid>. Available only in <eadheader>, the COUNTRYENCODING attribute should be set to "iso3166-1."

DATECHAR -- Term characterizing the nature of dates, such as dates of creation, accumulation, or modification. Available only in <unitdate>.

DATEENCODING -- The authoritative source or rules for values provided in the NORMAL attribute in <date> and <unitdate>. The DATEENCODING attribute should be set to "iso8601."

ENCODINGANALOG -- A field or element in another descriptive encoding system to which an EAD element or attribute is comparable. Mapping elements from one system to another may help build a single user interface that can index comparable information in bibliographic records and finding aids. The mapping designations may also help a repository harvest selected data from a finding aid to build a basic catalog record. When possible, subfields as well as fields should be specified, e.g., subfields within MARC fields. If the RELATEDENCODING attribute in <ead>, <eadheader>, or <archdesc> is not used to identify the encoding system from which fields are specified in the ENCODINGANALOG attribute, then include the system designation in ENCODINGANALOG.


    <corpname encodinganalog="MARC 110">Waters Studio</corpname>
<archdesc relatedencoding="MARC">
        <persname encodinganalog="100$a$q$d$e" source="lcnaf">
            Waters, E. C. (Elizabeth Cat), 1870-1944, photographer

ENTITYREF -- see Linking Attributes

ERA -- Period during which years are numbered and dates reckoned, such as A.D. or C.E. The value "ce" is the default.

EXPAN -- The full form of an abbreviation or acronym in an element's text; used for indexing and searching purposes. Available only in the <abbr> element.

FINDAIDSTATUS -- The extent to which the encoded finding aid is a finished document. Available only in the <eadheader> element.

FRAME -- see Tabular Display Attributes

FROM -- see Linking Attributes

HREF -- see Linking Attributes

ID -- see Linking Attributes

IDENTIFIER -- A machine-readable unique identifier. Available in <eadid> and <unitid>.

LABEL -- A display label for an element can be supplied using this attribute when a meaningful label cannot be derived by the style sheet from the element name or when a heading element <head> is not available. This attribute is available in all <did> subelements.

LANGCODE -- The three-lettter code for the language in which an abstract is written <abstract>, for the language of the finding aid and the language of the materials <language>. The codes should be taken from ISO639-2b, as specified in the LANGENCODING attribute in <eadheader>.

langencoding -- Language encoding for EAD instances subscribes to ISO 639-2b Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages, so the LANGENCODING attribute value in <eadheader> should be "iso639-2b." The codes themselves are specified in the LANGCODE attribute in <abstract> or <language>, as appropriate.

LEVEL -- The hierarchical level of the materials being described by the element. This attribute is available in <archdesc>, where the highest level of material represented in the finding aid must be declared (e.g., collection, fonds, record group), and in <c> and <c01-12> (e.g., subgroup, series, file). If none of the values in the semi-closed list are appropriate, the value "otherlevel" may be chosen and the term specified in the OTHERLEVEL attribute. Values are:

  • collection
  • fonds
  • class
  • recordgrp
  • series
  • subfonds
  • subgrp
  • subseries
  • file
  • item
  • otherlevel

LINKTYPE -- see Linking Attributes

MAINAGENCYCODE -- A code in <eadid> compliant with ISO/DIS 15511 Information and Documentation International Standard Identifier for Libraries and Related Organizations (ISIL). Values should be supplied without the country code, which should be placed instead in the COUNTRYCODE attribute.

MARK -- For lists with a TYPE attribute value "marked," the MARK attribute may be used to provide a character(s) or character entity(ies) to mark each list entry. For example, a bulleted list:

<list type="marked" mark="&bull;">

MOREROWS -- see Tabular Display Attributes

NAMEEND -- see Tabular Display Attributes

NAMEST -- see Tabular Display Attributes

NORMAL -- A consistent form, usually from a controlled vocabulary list, of the content of the following elements can be provided to facilitate retrieval: <corpname>, <famname>, <function>, <genreform>, <geogname>, <name>, <occupation>, <persname>, <subject>, and <title>. In <date> and <unitdate>, the NORMAL attribute follows ISO 8601 Representation of Dates and Times, as specified in the DATEENCODING attribute in <eadheader>.

NUMERATION -- For lists with a TYPE attribute of "ordered," the NUMERATION attribute specifies the type of numeration. Values are:

  • arabic
  • upperalpha
  • loweralpha
  • upperroman
  • lowerroman

OTHERLEVEL -- The hierarchical level of the materials described in <archdesc>, <c>, <c01-12>, and <archdescgrp> can be specified when the semi-closed list in the LEVEL attribute (e.g., collection, fonds, series, etc.) does not contain an appropriate term. Set LEVEL to "otherlevel" and then supply the preferred term in the OTHERLEVEL attribute.

OTHERTYPE -- The TYPE attribute in <dsc> has a semi-closed list, of which one of the values is "othertype." If the format of the <dsc> is not one of the types in the semi-closed list, one can be specified in the OTHERTYPE attribute.

PARENT -- see Linking Attributes

PGWIDE -- see Tabular Display Attributes

PLACEMENT -- The location of the information in the <runner> element is displayed in print (foot or head) or as a digital watermark (background). Values are:

  • foot
  • head
  • background

PUBLICID -- A formal public identifier (FPI) in <eadid> that includes the owner name and an object name. Defined in ISO/IEC 9070:1991, the FPI is intended to be universally unique, with each owner name being unique, and each object name unique within the name domain controlled by the owner. --

RELATEDENCODING -- A descriptive encoding system, such as MARC, ISAD(G), or Dublin Core, to which certain EAD elements can be mapped using the ENCODINGANALOG attribute. RELATEDENCODING is available in <ead>, <eadheader>, and <archdesc>; the <eadheader> elements might be mapped to Dublin Core elements while the body of the finding aid (<archdesc>) might instead be mapped to MARC or ISAD(G).

RENDER -- The formatting of the content of an element is controlled for display and print purposes. Available in <emph>, <title>, and <titleproper>. See also ALTRENDER. Values are:

  • altrender
  • bold
  • doublequote
  • bolddoublequote
  • bolditalic
  • boldsinglequote
  • boldsmcaps
  • boldunderline
  • italic
  • nonproport
  • singlequote
  • smcaps
  • sub
  • super
  • underline

REPOSITORYCODE -- A unique code in <unitid> indicating the repository responsible for intellectual control of the materials being described. The code should be taken from ISO/DIS 15511 Information and documentation--International Standard Indentifier for Libraries and Related Oranizations (ISIL), as specified in the <eadheader> REPOSITORYENCODING attribute.

REPOSITORYENCODING -- The authoritative source or rules for values supplied in the MAINAGENCYCODE attribute in <eadid> and the REPOSITORYCODE attribute in <unitid>. Available only in <eadheader>, the REPOSITORYENCODING attribute should be set to "iso15511."

ROLE -- A contextual role or relationship for the person, family, corporate body, or geographic location within <persname>, <famname>, <corpname>, <geogname>, and <name>, elements. In linking elements such as <ptr>, information that explains to application software the part that a remote resource plays in a link.

ROWSEP -- see Tabular Display Attributes

RULES -- Name of the descriptive rules or conventions that govern the formulation of the content of the element.

SCRIPTCODE -- The four-letter code for the writing script used with a given language. The code should be taken from ISO 15924 Code for the Representation of Names of Scripts. Available in <language>.

SCRIPTENCODING -- The authoritative source or rules for values supplied in the SCRIPTCODE attribute in <language>. Available only in <eadheader>, the SCRIPTENCODING attribute should be set to "iso15924."

SHOW -- see Linking Attributes

SOURCE -- The source of the controlled vocabulary term contained in the element. Available in subelements of <controlaccess>, i.e., <corpname>, <famname>, <function>, <genreform>, <geogname>, <name>, <occupation>, <persname>, <physdesc>, <subject>, and <title>.

TARGET -- see Linking Attributes

TITLE -- see Linking Attributes

TO -- see Linking Attributes

TPATTERN -- see Tabular Display Attributes

TYPE -- The TYPE attribute is available for a number of elements; its characteristics vary depending on the element to which it applies. Some instances of TYPE have closed lists (e.g., <unitdate>), others have semi-closed lists (e.g., <dsc>), and most permit character data (CDATA) (e.g., <accessrestrict> and <physloc>). The semi-closed list in <dsc> contains a value of "othertype," which allows the specification of an appropriate value in the OTHERTYPE attribute. See individual element descriptions for specific uses for this attribute.

UNIT -- Any unit of measurement may be expressed in <dimensions>, <extent>, and <physfacet>.

URL -- An absolute (http://www.loc.gov/ead/ms99999.xml) or relative (ms99999.xml) Uniform Resource Locator. Available only in <eadid>.

URN -- A Uniform Resource Name intended to serve as a persistent, location-independent, resource identifier.

VALIGN -- see Tabular Display Attributes

XMLNS -- XML Namespace declaration for the EAD standard, which should be set to "urn:isbn:1-931666-00-8." Available only in <ead> and <eadgrp>, but must be manually activated.

XPOINTER -- see Linking Attributes