Brown v. Board at Fifty: “With an Even Hand”

A Century of Racial Segregation, 1849-1950

  • Margaret Crittenden Douglass. Educational Laws of Virginia; The Personal Narrative of Mrs. Margaret Douglass, a Southern Woman, Who Was Imprisoned for One Month in the Common Jail of Norfolk, under the Laws of Virginia, for the Crime of Teaching Free Colored Children to Read. Page 2. Boston: John P. Jewett and Co., 1854. General Collections, Library of Congress (1).
  • Charles Sumner. Equality Before the Law: Unconstitutionality of Separate Colored Schools in Massachusetts. Washington: F. & J. Rives & Geo. A. Bailey, 1870. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (1F).
  • Stephen Field to Salmon Chase. June 30, 1866. Page 2. Holograph letter. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (2C).
  • Phillip B. Kurland. Landmark Briefs and Arguments of the Supreme Court of the United States: Constitutional Law. Volume 13. Arlington, Virginia: University Publications of America, Inc., 1975. Law Library, Library of Congress (3). Available from LexisNexis®, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc.
  • Platform adopted by the National Negro Committee, 1909. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (8). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Albert Pillsbury to NAACP Secretary Mary White Ovington. July 26, 1910. Typed letter. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (9). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • In the Supreme Court of the United States, October Term, 1916 [no.231] Charles H. Buchanan v. William Warley. Pamphlet. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (14). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Broken school bus in Louisa County, Virginia [Digital ID # ppmsca-05512]; School building in Louisa County, Virginia [Digital ID# ppmsca-#05513]; School building in Camden, Massachusetts [Digital ID # ppmsca-05511; Group of African American students in Seat Pleasant, Maryland [Digital ID# cph 3e02156]; and an elementary school in Hurlock, Maryland, ca. 1935 [Digital ID# cph 3c26579]. Gelatin silver prints. Visual Materials from the NAACP Records. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (20.3, 20.4, 20.1, 20.2, and 20A). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Charles H. Houston (1895-1950), ca. 1940. Gelatin silver print. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (26E).
  • Walter White, NAACP Executive Secretary, with attorneys Charles Houston, James G. Tyson, Leon A. Ransom, and Edward P. Lovett, 1933. Gelatin silver print. Visual Materials from the NAACP Records. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (22). Courtesy of the NAACP.

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  • William Hastie, Chairman of the National Legal Committee, NAACP, n.d. Gelatin silver print. Visual Materials from the NAACP Records. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (22B). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Thurgood Marshall and Charles Houston with their client Donald Gaines Murray during court proceedings, ca. 1935. Gelatin silver print. Visual Materials from the NAACP Records. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (28). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Nathan R. Margold. Preliminary Report to the Joint Committee Supervising the Expenditure of the 1930 Appropriation by the American Fund for Public Service, [1931]. Page 2. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (21). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Memorandum for the Joint Committee of the NAACP and the American Fund for Public Service, Inc. from Charles H. Houston, October 26, 1934. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (25). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Conrad O. Pearson to NAACP Executive Secretary Walter White reporting on the progress of the Hocutt v. Wilson case, March 31, 1933. Typed letter. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (22A). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Charles H. Houston to Walter White reporting on the progress of Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, May 24, 1938. Autograph letter. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (33). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Arthur Spingarn. Gelatin silver print. Visual Materials from the NAACP Records. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (11A). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Thurgood Marshall to Arthur B. Spingarn and Walter White concerning the founding of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, July 27, 1939. Memorandum. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (36). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • George W. McLaurin, 1948. Gelatin silver print. Visual Materials from the NAACP Records. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (47). Digital ID# cph 3c16927. Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Robert Carter (right), Heman Sweatt (center), and NAACP Administrator Roy Wilkins (left) during a press conference interview at the NAACP's New York City headquarters, ca. 1950. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (43).

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  • Complete Text of U. S. Supreme Court Decisions: The Henderson Case, The McLaurin Case, The Sweatt Case. Pittsburgh: The Pittsburgh Courier, 1950. Pamphlet. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (46). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Cole, photographer. Twentieth Annual Session of the NAACP in Cleveland, Ohio, June 26, 1929. Gelatin silver print. Visual Materials from the NAACP Records. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (19). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Marion Post Wolcott, photographer. African American School House near Summerville, South Carolina, 1938. Gelatin silver print. FSA-OWI Photograph Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (26). [digital ID# br0026a].

Brown v. Board of Topeka, Kansas

  • Notebook recording data concerning the Doll Test, 1940-1941. Kenneth B. Clark Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (61).
  • Gordon Parks, photographer. Dr. Kenneth Clark conducting the “Doll Test” with a young male child, 1947. Gelatin silver print. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (62).
  • Marjory Collins. Reading lesson in African American elementary school in Washington, D.C., 1942. Gelatin silver print. FSA-OWI Photograph Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (57C).
  • Sample Doll Test data sheet, n.d. Kenneth B. Clark Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (64).
  • Testimony of Expert Witnesses at Trial of Clarendon County School Case Direct Examination by Robert L. Carter, May 29, 1951. Transcript. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (57).
  • U. S. Supreme Court Records and Briefs, 1954 Term. Supreme Court Records and Briefs. Law Library, Library of Congress (57B).
  • Brief of the Attorneys for the Plaintiffs (Charles E. Bledsoe, Charles Scott, Robert L. Carter, Jack Greenberg, and Thurgood Marshall) in the case of Oliver Brown, . . .delivered in the United States Court for the District of Kansas, June 1951. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (54). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Opinion and Finding of Fact for the case of Oliver Brown, et al. v. Board of Education Topeka, Shawnee County, Kansas, et al. Delivered in the United States Court for the District of Kansas, 1951. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (55). Courtesy of the NAACP.

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  • Trial Memorandum from Jack Greenberg concerning the Wilmington school case, October 11, 1951. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (58).
  • United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. Final Decree, [1952]. Typed memorandum. Kenneth Clark Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (59).
  • Brief for Appellants in the cases of Brown v. Board of Education: Oliver Brown, et al. v. Board of Education, Kansas et al.; . . . in the United States Supreme Court-October Term, 1953. Washington: GPO, 1953. Pamphlet. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (73). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Ike with John W. Davis at the Herald Trib Forum 10/21, 1952. Photograph. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (73A).
  • Waiting for courtroom seats, 1953. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (74). Digital ID# cph 3c13498.
  • Three lawyers confer at the Supreme Court, 1953. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (98).
  • U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 1953. Photograph. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (102).
  • George E. C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James M. Nabrit congratulating each other, 1954. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (99). [Dig ID # cph 3c11236].
  • The Russell Daily News (Russell, Kansas). Monday, May 17, 1954. Enlarged version. Historic Events Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (84).
  • William Coleman to Felix Frankfurter, August 5, 1949. Typed memorandum with handwritten notes. Felix Frankfurter Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (48).

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  • Earl Warren to members of the Court, May 7, 1954. Typed memorandum. Earl Warren Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (80).
  • William Douglas to Earl Warren, May 11, 1954. Holograph letter. Earl Warren Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (81A).
  • Harold H. Burton to Earl Warren, May 17, 1954. Holograph letter. Earl Warren Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (82).
  • Felix Frankfurter to Earl Warren, May 17, 1954. Holograph letter. Earl Warren Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (82B).
  • Earl Warren's reading copy of Brown opinion, May 17, 1954. Earl Warren Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (83).
  • Mrs. Nettie Hunt and daughter Nikie on the steps of the Supreme Court, 1954. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (97). Digital ID # cph 3c27042.
  • Thurgood Marshall explains segregation ruling to the press, 1955. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (104).
  • Anson Phelps Stokes to Channing Tobias, Chairman of the NAACP, offering congratulations on the NAACP's victory in Brown v. Board of Education. Telegram. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (96). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • William L. Patterson, Executive Secretary of the Civil Rights Congress, to Walter White congratulating White on the NAACP's victory in Brown v. Board of Education, May 17, 1954. Typed letter. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (95). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • The Crisis magazine: A Record of the Darker Races. Volume 61, no. 6 (June-July, 1954). General Collections, Library of Congress (92).

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  • Louis L. Redding of Wilmington, Delaware, and Thurgood Marshall, General Counsel for the NAACP, conferring at the Supreme Court, during recess in the Court's hearing on racial integration in public schools, 1955. Gelatin silver print. Visual Materials from the NAACP Records Photograph. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (111). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Felix Frankfurter's draft decree in Brown II. April 8, 1955. Page 2. Typescript with emendations. Felix Frankfurter Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (107).
  • Raymond F. Tilzey. The Elementary School District Boundaries for the City of Topeka 1955-1956. Printed Map. Earl Warren Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (109).
  • Ralph McGill to Earl Warren, June 1, 1955. Typed letter. Earl Warren Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (113A).
  • Lee Hagood to Simon Sobeloff, September 29, 1955. Typed letter. Earl Warren Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (116A).
  • Time magazine. September 19, 1955. Cover. General Collections, Library of Congress (115). Courtesy of Time-Life Pictures, Getty Images.
  • Thomas J. O'Halloran. School integration, Barnard School, Washington, D.C., 1955. Gelatin silver print. U.S. News & World Report Magazine Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (202).

The Aftermath

  • Mrs. Rosa Parks being fingerprinted in Montgomery, Alabama, 1956. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (119).
  • Rosa Parks's arrest record. December 5, 1955. Page 2. Frank Johnson Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (118).
  • Tom P. Brady. Black Monday. Winona, Mississippi: Association of Citizens' Councils, 1955. General Collections, Library of Congress (120).
  • University of Alabama Students burn desegregation literature, 1956. Gelatin silver print. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (121A).

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  • Thurgood Marshall and Arthur Shores. February 29, 1956. Gelatin silver print. World Wide photos. Visual Materials from the NAACP Records. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (123). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Telegram. NAACP Executive Secretary Roy Wilkins to Herbert Brownell concerning the expulsion of Autherine Lucy, February 7, 1956. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (121). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Thomas J. O'Halloran, photographer. Clinton, Tennessee, school integration conflict, 1956. Gelatin silver print. U.S. News & World Report Magazine Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (125C). Digital ID # ppmsca 03093.
  • Integrated classroom in Nashville, 1957. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (125A).
  • School Dilemma—Youths taunt Dorothy Geraldine Counts in Charlotte, North Carolina, 1957. Gelatin silver print. Visual Materials from the NAACP Records. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (125B). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Warren K. Leffler, photographer. An integrated classroom at Anacostia High School, Washington, DC, 1957. Gelatin silver print. U.S. News & World Report Magazine Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (201).
  • Cecil Layne, photographer. Little Rock Nine and Daisy Bates pose in living room. ca. 1957-1960. Gelatin silver print. Visual Materials from the NAACP Records. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (128). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • U.S. Troops escort African American students from Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas. October 3, 1957. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (130B).
  • Charles Mingus. “Fables of Faubus.” Holograph music manuscript, ca. 1957. Charles Mingus Collection. Music Division, Library of Congress (131). “Fables of Faubus” by Charles Mingus, published by the Jazz Workshop, Inc. Courtesy of Sue Mingus.

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  • Daisy Bates to Roy Wilkins on the treatment of the Little Rock Nine. December 17, 1957. Page 2. Typed letter. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (127). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • “Segregation's Citadel Unbreached in 4 Years,” Washington Observer, Sunday, May 11, 1958. Enlarged version. Newspaper map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (140). Copyright 1958, Washingtonpost.Newsweek Interactive. and the Washington Post. All Rights Reserved.
  • Ruby Bridges, 1960. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram and Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (148). Digital ID # cph 3c26460.
  • School Desegregation Spreads Through South. Associated Press Newsfeatures. October 16, 1961. Newspaper map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (152).
  • The Birmingham News (Birmingham, Alabama). Monday, October 1, 1962. Enlarged version. Newspaper. Historic Events Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (158).
  • Norman Rockwell to John A. Morsell. December 3, 1963. Typed letter. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (155). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • Look magazine, January 14, 1963. Centerfold. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (175).
  • John A. Morsell, Assistant to NAACP Executive Secretary to President John F. Kennedy requesting the assistance of the federal government in the case of James Meredith. September 21, 1962. Page 2. Typed letter. NAACP Records. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (156). Courtesy of the NAACP.
  • James Meredith and NAACP lawyers Cosnstance Baker Motley and Jack Greenberg, 1962. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (157B).
  • Phil Ochs. “The Ballad of Oxford, Mississippi.” Broadside 15, (November 1962). New York: 1962. American Folklife Center, Library of Congress (157).
  • Warren K. Leffler, photographer. Governor George Wallace attempting to block integration at the University of Alabama, 1963. Gelatin silver print. U.S. News & World Report Magazine Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (174A). Digital ID # ppmsca 04294.

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  • Warren K. Leffler, photographer. Students entering Foster Auditorium to register at the University of Alabama. June 11, 1963. Gelatin silver print. U.S. News & World Report Magazine Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (174B).
  • Summit Conference on Civil Rights. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (204).
  • Newport Broadside: Topical Songs at the Newport Folk Festival. Vanguard, 1964. Album cover. Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division, Library of Congress (205).
  • We Shall Overcome!: Documentary of the March on Washington. Folkways, 1964. Album cover. Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division, Library of Congress (209).
  • Life magazine. September 6, 1963. Cover. General Collections, Library of Congress (217). Courtesy of Leonard McCombe, Time-Life Pictures, Getty Images.
  • Greer Brothers. “ We Don't Dig No Busing,” (Busing Song). Houston: Don Music Company, 1973. Record. Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division, Library of Congress (176A).
  • Bob Dylan. The Times They Are A-Changin'. Columbia , 1964. Album cover. Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division, Library of Congress (206).
  • William O. Douglas, [May 1964]. Draft per curiam opinion. William O. Douglas Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (203).
  • Thomas J. O'Halloran, photographer. Students arriving at the Free School #2 in Farmville, Prince Edward County, Virginia, 1963. Gelatin silver print. U.S. News & World Report Magazine Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (203A).
  • Harry Briggs, Jr., Linda Brown Smith, Spottswood Bolling, Jr., and Ethel Louise Belton Brown during press conference, 1964. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram and Sun Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (224).
  • Save Brown v. Board of Education, 2003. Poster. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (220).

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  • Warren K. Leffler, photographer. Civil Rights March in Washington, D.C., 1963. Copyprint. U.S. News & World Report Magazine Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (225).
  • Bill Mauldin (1921-2003). “What is done in our classrooms today will be reflected in the successes or failures of civilization tomorrow.” Lindly C. Baxter, 1958. Ink, crayon, and white out over pencil on layered paper. Published in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, November 11, 1958. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (138). © Copyright 1958 by Bill Mauldin. Reproduced online courtesy of the Mauldin Estate.
  • Bill Mauldin (1921-2003). Inch by inch, 1960. Crayon, ink, blue pencil and white out over pencil on layered paper. Published in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, September 1, 1960. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (145). © Copyright 1960 by Bill Mauldin. Reproduced online courtesy of the Mauldin Estate.
  • Herb Block (1909-2001). I'm eight. I was born on the day of the Supreme Court decision, May 17, 1962. Ink, crayon, and opaque white over graphite underdrawing on layered paper. Published in the Washington Post, May 17, 1962. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (169). © 1962 by Herblock in the Washington Post.
  • Herb Block (1909-2001). If the government doesn't support separate-but-equal schools for our children, it's guilty of discrimination!, February 12, 1963. Ink, crayon, and opaque white over graphite underdrawing on layered paper. Published in the Washington Post, February 12, 1963. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (168). © 1962 by Herblock in the Washington Post.
  • Herb Block (1909-2001). “And remember, nothing can be accomplished by taking to the streets,” September 6, 1963. Ink, graphite, and opaque white over graphite underdrawing on layered paper. Published in the Washington Post, September 6, 1963. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (170). © 1963 by Herblock in the Washington Post.
  • Oliver W. Harrington (1912-1995). Dark laughter. Now I aint so sure I wanna get educated, 1963. Crayon, ink, blue pencil, and pencil on paper. Published in the Pittsburgh Courier, September 21, 1963. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (172). Courtesy of Dr. Helma Harrington. Digital ID # ppmsca-05518.
  • Vincent Smith (b. 1930). First Day of School, 1965. Etching (reprint, 1994). Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (178).
  • Herb Block (1909-2001). “ . . . One nation . . . indivisible . . . ,” February 22, 1977. Ink, graphite, and opaque white, with tonal film overlay. and porous point pen over graphite underdrawing on paper. Published in the Washington Post, February 22, 1977. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (182). © 1977 by Herblock in the Washington Post.
  • “High Court Voids School Segregation,” The Evening Star, Monday, May 17, 1954, front page. Newspaper collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (85).
  • “Pupil Segregation Banned,” Chicago Daily Tribune, Tuesday, May 18, 1954, front page. Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (86).

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  • “Supreme Court Outlaws Segregation in Schools,” Los Angeles Times, Tuesday, May 18, 1954, front page. Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (87).
  • “High Court Bans School Segregation; 9-to-0 Decision Grants Time to Comply,” New York Times, Tuesday, May 18, 1954, front page. Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (88).
  • “Kill Jim Crow Schools,” Chicago Defender, Saturday, May 22, 1954, front page. Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (88A).
  • “High Court Yields to Dixie-South Jubilant; No Date Set for Desegregation,” California Eagle, Thursday, June 2, 1955, front page. Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (114F).
  • Chester Commodore (1927-2004). Cartoon “Oops! There It Goes,” Chicago Defender, Saturday, June 11, 1955, p. 9. Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (114B).
  • Mary McLeod Bethune, “U.S. Will Make 'The Grade' In Integrating All Its Schools,” Chicago Defender, Saturday, June 4, 1955, p. 9. Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (114C).
  • “Capitol Spotlight by Louis Lautier-Spotlight on Supreme Court,” Washington Afro-American, Tuesday, June 7, 1955, p. 4. Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (114D).
  • “Marshall Explains High Court's School Decision,” Washington Afro-American, Tuesday, June 7, 1955, pp.1, 16. Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (114E).
  • “Nation's Press Praises Court's 'Go Slow' Edict,” Chicago Defender, Saturday, June 11, 1955, p. 7. Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (114A).
  • “Fate In Local Integration In Local Courts,” The Philadelphia Tribune, Saturday, June 4, 1955, p. 1. Newspaper Collection. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (114G).

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