Thomas Jefferson

Life and Labor at Monticello

Life in the Piedmont

  • Peter Jefferson and Joshua Fry.
    A Map of the Most Inhabited Part of Virginia. . . . ,
    1755. Reproduction of map.
    Geography and Map Division (1)
  • Jane Pitford Braddick Peticolas (1791–1852).
    View from Monticello Looking Toward Charlottesville,

    1827. Copyprint of watercolor on paper. Courtesy of Monticello/Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, Inc. (8a)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Memorandum Book, 1773. Bound manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (38a)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Crop Rotation Plan, undated. Manuscript plan.
    Manuscript Division (10)
  • Thomas Jefferson, Martha Jefferson, and Anne Cary Randolph. Memorandum Book,
    1768–1769, 1772–1782, 1805–1808. Bound manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (14)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Marquis de Chastellux, November 26, 1782. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (14a)

Life at Monticello

  • Thomas Jefferson to Martha Jefferson, December 11, 1783. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (72)
  • Lucy, ca.1845. Copyprint of daguerreotype. Courtesy of Mason County Museum,
    Maysville, Kentucky (12)
  • James Hemings. Inventory, February 20, 1796. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (70)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Bowling Clarke, September 21, 1792, and Thomas Jefferson to
    Randolph Jefferson, September 25, 1792. Manuscript letters.
    Manuscript Division (109)
  • Madison Hemings. "Life Among the Lowly, No. 1," Pike County Republican, March 13, 1873.
    Reproduction of newspaper article.
    Courtesy of Ohio Historical Society, Columbus (11)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Promise of Freedom, September 15, 1793. Reproduction of manuscript.
    Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston (108)
  • Les Schofer. View of Poplar Forest. Color photograph.
    Courtesy of the Corporation for Jefferson's Poplar Forest (8c)
  • Isaac Jefferson, 1845. Copyprint of daguerreotype.
    Courtesy of the Tracey W. McGregor Library of American History, Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library, Charlottesville (16)
  • Hair of Thomas Jefferson, 1826.
    Manuscript Division (13)
  • Jane Pitford Braddick Peticolas. View of the West Front of Monticello, c. 1827. Copyprint of watercolor on paper.
    Courtesy of Monticello/Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, Inc. (8b)
  • Ivory note pages owned by Thomas Jefferson.
    Courtesy of Monticello, Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, Inc. (65)
  • Thread case, c. 1770. Manuscript Division (81)

World of Books

  • Thomas Jefferson to John Trumbull, February 15, 1789. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (18)
  • Thomas Jefferson, literary commonplace book, 1750s–1770s. Bound manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (24)
  • Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, June 10, 1815. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (217)
  • Memoirs of a Monticello slave, Isaac Jefferson, as dictated to Charles Campbell, 1847. Reproduction. Courtesy of Tracy W. McGregor Library of American History, Special Collections Department University of Virginia Library (17)
  • G[eorge] Carter.The Genius of Liberty, July 3, 1798. Fredericksburg, Virginia. Reproduction of newspaper.
    Serial and Government Publications Division (23)
  • Monticello Joinery. Five-sided walnut book stand, ca.1810.
    Courtesy of Monticello, Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, Inc. (22)
  • Charles Willson Peale, designer. Polygraph machine modern reproduction made by Wilman Spawn, c. 1974.
    Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution (59)

Creating a Virginia Republic

Seeking An Ideal Republic

  • Reports of Cases Determined in the General Court of Virginia. Charlottesville: 1829.
    Law Library (36)
  • Capitol of Virginia. Richmond, undated. Copyprint of engraving.
    Prints and Photographs Division (98)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Draft Bill for Proportioning Crimes and Punishment, 1777–1779. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (61)
  • The Virginia Gazette, Williamsburg, September 14, 1769. Reproduction of newspaper.
    Courtesy of the Virginia Historical Society, Richmond (37)
  • A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, printed for the Consideration of the People, 1779.
    Reproduction of broadside.
    Courtesy of the trustees of the Boston Public Library (66)

The Role of Education

  • Thomas Jefferson to Richard Price, January 8, 1789. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (60)
  • Report of the Committee of Revisors Appointed by the General Assembly of Virginia in MDCCLXXVI. Richmond: 1784. Pamphlet.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (64)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Nathaniel Burwell, March 14, 1818. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (73)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Robert Pleasants, 1796. Fragment of manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (74)
  • Hannah to Thomas Jefferson, November 15, 1818. Reproduction of manuscript.
    Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston (71)

University of Virginia

  • Thomas Jefferson to William Roscoe, December 27, 1820. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (75)
  • Thomas Jefferson. South Elevation of the Rotunda, begun 1818, completed March 29, 1819.
    Ink and pencil drawing.
    Courtesy of the Thomas Jefferson Architectural Drawings, University Archives, Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library (77)
  • Henry Schenck Tanner after a drawing by Benjamin Tanner. "Village Design of University
    of Virginia," 1826. Detail of University of Virginia map by Herman Böÿe, 1827. Reproduction.
    Courtesy of the Tracy W. McGregor Library of American History, Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library (76)
  • Detroit Publishing Company.Serpentine Wall, U Va., 1905. Copyprint.
    Prints and Photographs Division (76a)

Benjamin Banneker

  • Benjamin Banneker. Benjamin Bannaker's New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia Almanac, or Ephemeris, For the Year of our Lord 1795. Wilmington, Delaware, 1795.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (78)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Banneker, August 30, 1791. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (79)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Henri Grégoire, February 25, 1809. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (80)

The Rise of Science

  • Thomas Jefferson. Notes on the State of Virginia. Philadelphia: Pritchard and Hall, 1788.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (88)
  • Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, July 19, 1788. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (83)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Report on Magalonyx Jeffersoni, ca. 1797-99. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (94)

Natural History and Science

  • George Louis Leclerc. Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux. 10 vols. Paris: de l'Imprimerie Royale, 1770–1783.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (85)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Comte de Buffon, October 1, 1787. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (86)
  • Charles Willson Peale, Exhumation of the Mastodon, 1806–1808. Copyprint of oil on canvas.
    Courtesy of the Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore (92)
  • James Akin after a chalk drawing by W.S. Jacobs. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 4 (1799). Copyprint of engraving.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (94a)

Declaration of Independence

Influential Precedents

  • Thomas Jefferson. Instructions to Virginia's Delegates, 1774.
    Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (39)
  • George Mason and George Washington. Fairfax County Resolves, 1774. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (40)
  • George Mason and Thomas Ludwell Lee. Draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights, 1776. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (41)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Draft of Virginia Constitution, 1776. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (45)

The Fragment

  • Thomas Jefferson. Draft fragment of the Declaration of Independence, 1776, Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (48)

The Rough Draft

  • Thomas Jefferson. Draft of Declaration of Independence, 1776. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (49)
  • Harper's Weekly, April 7, 1883. Reproduction of journal page.
    Prints and Photographs Division (43)
  • Edward Savage and/or Robert Edge Pine. Congress Voting the Declaration of Independence, c. 1776. Copyprint of oil on canvas.
    Courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania (53)
  • Currier and Ives. The Declaration Committee, New York, 1876. Copyprint of lithograph.
    Prints and Photographs Division (56)

The Final Document

  • [In Congress, July 4, 1776. A Declaration By the Representatives of the United States of America, In General Congress Assembled.] [Philadelphia: John Dunlap, July 4, 1776]. Broadside with broken at lines 34 and 54 with text below line 54 missing.
    Manuscript Division (51)
  • James Trenchard after a painting by Charles Willson Peale. A NW View of the State House in
    Philadelphia
    in Columbian Magazine, 1787. Copyprint of engraving.
    Rare Book & Special Collections Division (44)
  • George Heap under the direction of Nicholas Scull, surveyor general of Pennsylvania. Prospect of the City of Philadelphia, 1768. Copyprint of map and engraving.
    Prints and Photographs Division (6)
  • John C. McRae after Johnannes A. Oertel. Pulling down the statue of George III by the "Sons of Freedom," at the Bowling Green, City of New York, July 1776.
    New York : Published by Joseph Laing, [ca. 1875]
    Copyprint of engraving.
    Prints and Photographs Division (52)
  • The Manner in Which the American Colonies Declared Themselves Independent of the King of England, Throughout the Different Provinces, on July 4, 1776. Copyprint of etching.
    Prints and Photographs Division (57)

The Aftermath

  • Thomas Jefferson. Draft ofDeclaration of Independence, 1776. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (50)
  • Richard Henry Lee to Thomas Jefferson, July 21, 1776. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (54)
  • The Goddess of Liberty with a Portrait of Thomas Jefferson, Salem, Massachusetts, January 15, 1807. Copyprint of painting.
    Courtesy of Yale University Art Gallery, the Mabel Brady Garvan Collection (32)
  • Benjamin Randolph after a design by Thomas Jefferson. Portable writing desk, Philadelphia, 1776.
    Courtesy of the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (30)
  • Probably by William Cowan. Silver pen, Richmond, Virginia, c.1824.
    Courtesy of the Monticello, Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, Inc. (31)
  • Lord Kames (Henry Home). Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion. Two parts. Edinburgh: R. Fleming, for A. Kincaid and A. Donaldson, 1751.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (34)
  • Algernon Sidney. Discourses Concerning Government by Algernon Sidney with his Letters,
    Trial Apology and some Memoirs of His Life. London: Printed for A. Millar, 1763.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (35)
  • Cornelius Tiebout.Thomas Jefferson: President of the United States, Philadelphia, 1801. Copyprint of engraving.
    Prints and Photographs Division (95)

Establishing a Federal Republic

Toward a Federal Constitution

  • Thomas Jefferson to William Smith, November 13, 1787. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (105)
  • Thomas Jefferson to James Currie, January 28, 1786. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (115)
  • Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, December 20, 1787.
    Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (106)
  • The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution. Vol. 1. New York: J. and A. McLean, 1788.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (127)
  • Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin. Plan for Great Seal, 1776. Copyprint of design.
    Prints and Photographs Division (100)

Erecting a Federal Edifice

  • After an engraving by Cornelius Tiebout. Federal Hall. Copyprint of lithograph.
    Prints and Photographs Division (130)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Plan of the Federal District, 1791. Manuscript map.
    Manuscript Division (102)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Advertisement for a Capitol, c. March 6, 1792. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (103a)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Opinion on a National Bank, 1791. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (129)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Draft of Manual of Parliamentary Practice, c. 1799–1801. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (134)
  • Charles Willson Peale. Thomas Jefferson, Philadelphia, 1791. Copyprint of oil on canvas.
    Courtesy of Independence National Historical Park Collection, Philadelphia (128)
  • Gilbert Stuart. George Washington, 1796. Copyprint of oil on canvas in the collection of the United States Architect of the Capitol.
    Prints and Photographs Division (132B)

National Partisan Politics

  • Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, July 7, 1793. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (116)
  • Thomas Jefferson, Draft of theKentucky Resolutions, November 16, 1798. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (135)
  • Freneau'sNational Gazette, Philadelphia: November 14, 1791.
    Serial and Government Publications Division (118)
  • James T. Callender.History of the United States for 1796, Philadelphia, 1797.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (119)
  • The Richmond Recorder, September 1, 1802.
    Courtesy of the Virginia State Library, Richmond (117a)
  • Artist unknown. The Providential Detection, 1797–1800. Copyprint of lithograph.
    Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts (136)

The Second American Revolution

  • Thomas Jefferson to Spencer Roane, September 6, 1819. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (137)
  • Thomas Jefferson. First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1801. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (138)
  • Thomas Jefferson. "Sixth Annual Message to Congress," December 2, 1806. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (112)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Rev. Samuel Miller, January 23, 1808. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (113)
  • Charles Jansen.Stranger in America, 1807. Copyprint of frontispiece.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (146)
  • James Akin. "A Philosophic Cock," Newburyport, Massachusetts, c. 1804. Hand-colored aquatint.
    Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts (140)
  • Nicholas King. [Thomas Jefferson's plans for Pennsylvania Avenue], March 12, 1803. Manuscript sketch.
    Manuscript Division (141)
  • William Leney after a drawing by Elkanah Tisdale in [Richard Alsop and Theodore Dwight], The Echo, with Other Poems. New York: Porcupine Press by Pasquin Petronius, 1807. Copyprint of engraving.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (142)
  • William Birch. Washington in 1801. Copyprint of watercolor.
    Prints and Photographs Division (145)

The West

Western Wondering

  • Thomas Jefferson. Autobiography manuscript, 1821. Manuscript. Manuscript Division (152)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Marquis de Chastellux, June 7, 1785. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (153)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Draft Report of the"COMMITTEE
    appointed to prepare a PLAN for the Temporary Government of the WESTERN TERRITORY,"

    March 1784. Broadside with annotations in the hand of Jefferson.
    Manuscript Division (154)
  • Frederick Edwin Church. The Natural Bridge, Virginia, 1852. Copyprint of oil painting.
    Courtesy of the Bayly Art Museum, University of Virginia, Charlottesville (150)
  • H.D. Pursell. A Map of the United States of N. America in Bailey's Pocket Almanac.
    Philadelphia, 1786. Copyprint of engraving.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (155)

Western Explorations

  • Thomas Jefferson to James Monroe, January 10, 1803. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (163)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Meriwether Lewis, June 20, 1803. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (168)
  • Patrick Gass. A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery, Under the
    Command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clarke. . . .
    Page 1 - Page 2 Philadelphia: Matthew Carey, 1812. Engravings.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (174, 175)
  • James Akin. "The PRAIRIE DOG Sickened at the Sting of the HORNET or a Diplomatic Puppet exhibiting his Deceptions," Newburyport, Massachusetts. c. 1806. Copyprint of etching with watercolor.
    Prints and Photographs Division (167)
  • Nicholas King. Map of Western North America, with annotations by Meriwether Lewis, 1803.
    Reproduction.
    Geography and Map Division (171)
  • Ford P. Kaiser. "Transfer of Louisiana," in James W. Buel, ed., Louisiana and the Fair. 10 vols.
    St. Louis: World's Progress Publishing Co., 1904. Copyprint of engraving.
    Prints and Photographs Division (180)

Western Realities

  • Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Smith Barton, September 21, 1809. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (177a)
  • Peter S. Du Ponceau. "Affinities of the Nottoway language with the Iroquois Dialects," July 13, 1820. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (177b)
  • Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, June 11, 1812. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (178)
  • Thomas Jefferson to John Holmes, April 22, 1820. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (159)
  • Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, April 27, 1809. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (149)

A Revolutionary World

The French Republic

  • Thomas Jefferson to Tench Coxe, June 1, 1795. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (181)
  • "De par le Roy." Thomas Jefferson's passport upon his return from France. Signed by King Louis XVI, Versailles, September 18, 1789. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (189)
  • Mather Brown. Thomas Jefferson, London,1786. Copyprint of oil on canvas.
    Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution;
    Bequest of Charles Francis Adams (182)
  • After Joseph Boze's painting of Marie Paul Yves Roch Gilbert de Motier, marquis de Lafayette,
    Paris, 1789. Copyprint of oil on canvas.
    Prints and Photographs Division (185)
  • François Nicolas Martinet. InDescription Historique de Paris, 1779. Copyprint of engraving.
    Courtesy of the Bibliothèque Nationale (187)
  • Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert de Motier, marquis de Lafayette. Declaration of the Rights of Man, 1789. Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (184)
  • Thomas Jefferson to William Short, January 3, 1793. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (190)

St. Domingue (Haiti)

  • Thomas Jefferson to James Monroe, November, 24, 1801. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (195)
  • James Monroe to Thomas Jefferson, December 8, 1801. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (195a)
  • Thomas Jefferson to James Monroe, January 13, 1803. Manuscript letter,
    Manuscript Division (196)
  • Pierre Touissant L'Overture. Copyprint of oil on canvas.
    Prints and Photographs Division (192)
  • Peter Pencil. "Intercourse or Impartial Dealings," 1809. Copyprint of etching and stipple with sepia ink.
    Courtesy of Harvard University, Boston (199)

Edges of Influence

  • Thomas Jefferson to Admantios Coray, October 31, 1823. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (204)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Madame de Staël, September 6, 1816. Manuscript letter with hand-drawn map of South America.
    Manuscript Division (200)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Tsar Alexander, June 15, 1804. Manuscript letter,
    Manuscript Division (205a)
  • Tsar Alexander to Thomas Jefferson, August 20, 1805. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division ( 205b)
  • Michel Sokolnicki (1760–1816) after Thaddeus Kosciuszko. Thomas Jefferson A Philosepher A Patriote and a Friend. Copyprint of colored aquatint.
    Prints and Photographs Division (203)
  • Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, September 4, 1823. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (202)

Legacy

Political Memoirs

  • Thomas Jefferson. Epitaph, c. March 1826. Illustrated Manuscript.
    Manuscript Division (207)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Manuscript memorandum, February 4, 1818.
    Manuscript Division (126)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Henry Lee, May 8, 1825. Manuscript letter
    Page 2
    Manuscript Division (213)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Roger Weightman, June 24, 1826. Manuscript letter, Page 2
    Manuscript Division (214)

The Canker of slavery

  • Thomas Jefferson to James Heaton, May 20, 1826. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (211)
  • Thomas Jefferson. Codicil to will, March 17, 1826. Reproduction of Manuscript.
    Courtesy of the Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library, on deposit from Albemarle County Circuit Court (110a)
  • Ellen Randolph Coolidge to Thomas Jefferson, August 1, 1825. Reproduction of Manuscript letter.
    Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston (209)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Ellen Randolph Coolidge, August 27, 1825. Reproduction of Manuscript letter.
    Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston (210)
  • Charlottesville Central Gazette. "Executor's Sale", January 13, 1827. Reproduction of newspaper.
    Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society, Boston (212)
  • Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, February 17, 1826. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (215)
  • Thomas Sully. Thomas Jefferson, 1821. Copyprint of oil on canvas.
    Courtesy of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia (216)
  • Thomas Jefferson and Martha Jefferson. Reproduction of Manuscript. 1782.
    Courtesy of James Monroe Law Office Museum, Fredericksburg, Virginia (26a)

Jefferson's Library

The Library

  • Thomas Jefferson to Samuel H. Smith, September 21, 1814.
    Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (219)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Milligan, February 27, 1815.
    Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (219a)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Samuel H. Smith, May 8,1815. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (221)
  • National Intelligencer, January 27, 1815.
    Serial and Government Publications Division (220)
  • Nicholas Trist. "Catalog of Library of Thomas Jefferson," 1823. Bound Manuscript.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (222)
  • Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, January 21, 1812. Manuscript letter.
    Manuscript Division (222b)
  • Marcus Tullius Cicero. M. Tulli Ciceronis Tusculanarum disputationum libri quinque . . . .
    Glasguae: Robertus Folis, 1744.
    Rare Book and Special Collections Division (28)

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