Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis & Clark and the Revealing of America

Prologue

  • Martin Waldseemüller (c.1470-1518/21). Universalis Cosmographia Secundum Ptholomaei Traditionem et Americi Vespucii Aliorque Lustrationes [Map of the world naming “America”], Strassburg: 1507. Woodcut map, with emendation. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (1)
  • Sebastian Münster (1488-1552). Cosmographei, 1550. Color woodcut map [in virtual presentation]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (1A)
  • Battista Agnese (1514-1564) [Portolan atlas of nine charts and.a world map], ca. 1544. Atlas, manuscript map on vellum [in virtual presentation]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (2)
  • Jan Jansson (1527-1664). America Septentrionales, 1653. [California as an Island]. Hand-colored engraved map in [virtual presentation]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (3)
  • Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598). “Americae Sive Novis Orbis” in Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Atwerpie: Apud A. C. Diesth, 1570. Atlas, hand-colored map [in virtual presentation]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (4)
  • Robert Sayer (1725-1794). A New Map of North America with British, French, Spanish, Dutch, & Spanish dominions on that Great Continent. London: [ca. 1750]. Hand-colored engraved map in [virtual presentation]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (4A)

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Before Lewis and Clark

Beyond the Allegheny Mountains

  • John Mitchell (1711-1768). Map of British and French Dominions in North America, with Roads, Distances, Limits, and Extent of the Settlements by Jno. Mitchell, d.f. with improvements. . Amsterdam: I. Covens and C. Mortimer, ca. 1755. Hand-colored engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (6)
  • John Farrer (1590-1657). A Map of Virginia Discouvered to Ye Hills, 1651. Hand-colored engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (7)
  • Peter Jefferson (1707/08-1757) and Joshua Fry (1700-1754). A Map of the Most Inhabited Part of Virginia Containing the Whole Province of Maryland with Part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina, 1751. Hand-colored engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (8)
  • “Map of the Country about the Mississippi. Drawn by Chegeree (the Indian) Who Says He Has Travelled through the Country,” 1755. Pen and ink manuscript map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (8A)
  • William Crawford (1732-1782). “Plat of a Survey of 2,314 Acres of Land” [Drawn for George Washington]. Manuscript map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (8B)
  • Benjamin Rittenhouse (1740-1825). Surveyor's compass with case, ca. 1885-1796. Wood and brass. Courtesy of Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History, Behring Center, Washington, D.C. (9A)
  • Gunter chain [belonged to John Johnson (1771-1841), Surveyor General of Vermont]. Steel and brass. Courtesy of Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History, Behring Center, Washington, D.C. (9B)

The Spanish Entrada into the Southwest

  • Eusebio Kino (1644-1711). “Via Terrestis in California . . . Anno 1698 ad annum 1701” in Der Neue Welt-Bott . . . . Vol. 1, pt. 2. Augspurg und Grätz: 1726-1758. Engraved map. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (9D)
  • José de Urrútia (1728-1800) and Nicolás de Lafora (b.ca. 1730). “Mapa, que comprende la Frontera, de los Dominos del Rey, en la America Septentrionale . . . ,” 1769. Manuscript map in 4 sheets. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (10)
  • Silvestre Vélez de Escalante, copied by José Cortes. “Diario y derrotero de los nuevos descubimientos de tierras a los rumbos N. N. OC.OC. del Nuevo Mexico. . . .” Manuscript diary. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (11)
  • Bernando de Miera y Pacheco. “Plano Geografico de los Descubrimientos . . . .” 1778. Manuscript map. Courtesy of Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven (12)
  • Antonio Veléz y Escalante. “Derrotero hecho por Antonio Vélez y Escalante. Misionero: para mejor conocimiento de las Misiones, pueblos de Indios y Presidios que se hallan en Camino de Monterrey a Santa Fé de Nuebo México,” 1777. Hand-colored manuscript map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (13)
  • Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) “Carte du Mexique,” in Atlas Geographicque et Physique du Royaume de la Nouvelle Espagne. Paris: 1811. Engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (14)
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) to Alexander von Humboldt, June 9, 1804. Manuscript letter [seeking information on the Southwest]. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (15)

Exploration of the Missouri River

  • James Mackay (ca. 1759-1822). Notes on Indian tribes, St. Louis. Manuscript document. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (16)
  • Joseph Nicolett (1786-1843) James Mackay and John Evans. Manuscript map [Map of the Missouri River, from the 44th to 47th degrees of latitude] ca. 1839. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (17)
  • Anonymous (Spanish). [map of North America from Mississippi to the Pacific], ca. 1797-1800. Manuscript map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (18)
  • James Mackay (c.1759-1822) and John Evans, drafted by Nicolas de Finiels. [Map of Missouri River and Vicinity from Saint Charles, Missouri, to Mandan Villages of North Dakota], 1797-98. Manuscript map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (19)
  • Georges Henri Victor Collot (1752-1805). “Plan of St. Lewis with the Project of the intrenched Camp French” in Voyage dans l'Amérique septentrionale. Paris: Arthus Bertrand, 1826. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (19A)
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826). Notes on the State of Virginia. Philadelphia: Pritchard and Hall, 1788. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (22)

British Passage to the Pacific

  • George Vancouver (1758-1798). “A Chart Shews Part of the Coast of N. America . . . . ” from A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific ocean, and Round the World. London: 1798. Engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (63)
  • Peter Pond (1740-1807). “Map Shewing the Communication of the Lakes and the Rivers between Lake Superior and Slave Lake in North America,” [1785] from Gentleman's Magazine, March 1790. Engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (23)
  • Joseph Ingraham (1762-1800). “A Canoe of Nootka Sound” Journal with watercolor drawings, 1790-1792. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (24A)
  • S. Smith after John Webber. “A View of the Habitations in Nootka Sound” in James Cook (1728-1779). A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean . . . for Making Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere. London: W. Strahan, 1784. Engraving. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (24)
  • Ac ko mok ki (The Feathers), reduced by Peter Fidler (1769-1822). “An Indian Map of the Different Tribes, that Inhabit the East and West Side of the Rocky Mountains . . . ,” 1801. Manuscript map. Courtesy of Hudson's Bay Company Archives, Archives of Manitoba (25)
  • Alexander MacKenzie (1764-1820). Voyages from Montreal 1801, on the River St. Laurence through the continent of North America to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans,. . . London: Printed for T. Cadell, et. al., 1801. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (26)
  • Aaron Arrowsmith (1750-1823). A map exhibiting all the new discoveries in the interior parts of North America. London: A. Arrowsmith [1802]. Hand-colored engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (27)
  • Jonathan Carver (1710-1780). “A Man and Woman of the Naudowessie” in Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America, 1766, 1767 and 1768. London: C. Dilly, 1781. Hand-colored engraving. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (28)
  • Jonathan Carver (1710-1780). “Heads of the Oregon/Great River of the West” from Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America, 1766, 1767 and 1768. London: 1781. Engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (28A)

Louisiana Purchase

  • Lt. Ross . Course of the River Mississippi, from the Balise to Fort Charles. London: Robt. Sayer, 1772. Hand-colored engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (28B)
  • James Monroe (1758-1831) to James Madison (1751-1836), May 14, 1803. Manuscript letter. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (29)
  • Treaty between the United States and France, April 29, 1803. Manuscript document. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (30)
  • National Intelligencer and Washington Advertiser. “Washington City, Monday, July 4—Official” Newspaper. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (31)
  • James Wilkinson (1757-1825). Orderly Book, December 20, 1803. Manuscript journal. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (32)
  • An Account of Louisiana. Washington: 1803. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (33A)
  • Samuel Lewis (ca. 1753-1822). “Louisiana” in Aaron Arrowsmith, New and Elegant General Atlas. Philadelphia, 1804. Engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (34)
  • James Akin. “The PRAIRIE DOG Sickened at the Sting of the HORNET or a Diplomatic Puppet exhibiting his Deceptions,” Newburyport, Massachusetts: ca. 1804. Etching with watercolor. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (35)
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) to Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809). Memorandum announcing Purchase, July 15, 1803. Manuscript. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (37)

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Lewis and Clark

Diplomacy

  • Pipe tomahawk (Shoshone). Iron, wood, leather, beads, wool, velveteen, ermine, eagle feather, brass tacks, and hawk bells. Courtesy of the National Museum of the American Indian (39)
  • United States Mint. [Thomas Jefferson peace medal], 1801. Silver. Courtesy of the Oklahoma State Museum of History, Oklahoma City (41)
  • Indian certificate, 1803. Printed document, silk ribbon, sealing wax. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (43)
  • William Clark (1770-1838). “Speech to the Yellowstone Indians,” 1806. Manuscript document. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (44)
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) to “Native American Chiefs of Several Native American Tribes of the Lower Missouri River Undertake an Expedition to the United States, January 43, 1806”. Manuscript speech. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (45)
  • [Speech of the] “Osages, Missouri, Otos, Panis, Cansas, Ayowais, & Sioux Nations to the president of the U.S. & to the Secretary of War, January [4], 1806”. Manuscript document in the hand of the clerk, endorsed by 14 tribal representatives. Courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia (46)
  • Calumet pipe and stem (Plains/Great Lakes) ca. 1800-1805. Catinite lead, wood, ivory-billed woodpecker head, wood duck, dyed horsehair, deer hair, quills, cotton, bast fiber, wool, silk, shell beads. Courtesy of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Boston (48A,B)
  • Speeches of Indian Chiefs, October-November 1804. Manuscript document [recorded by William Clark]. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (49)
  • Nesting kettle (English), late eighteenth century. Copper. Courtesy of the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul (50)
  • Indian gift [blue and white seed beads], late 1700s. Courtesy of the North Dakota Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center, Washburn (51)
  • Indian gift [corn mill], eighteenth century. Silver, wood. Courtesy of Colonial Williamsburg (52)
  • Blunderbuss, ca. 1760. Metal, wood. Courtesy of the National Museum of American History, Behring Center, Washington, D.C. (53)
  • War club (Dakota), pre-1870. Wood, iron, brass tacks, leather, quills, hair. Courtesy of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia (54)
  • Karl Bodmer (1809-1893). “Scalp Dance of the Minatarres” [Hidatsa] from Reise in das innere Nord-America in den Jahren 1832 bis 1834. Koblenz: 1839-41. Hand-colored lithograph. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (54C)
  • Jefferson's cipher for the Lewis and Clark expedition, 1803, with sample message “I am at the head of the Missouri. All well, and the Indians so far friendly.”. Manuscript document. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (55)
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826). Message to Congress, January 18, 1803. Manuscript document. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (56)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Meriwether Lewis, June 20, 1803. Letter press copy of Manuscript letter [instructions for the Corps of Discovery]. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (57)

Geography

  • William Clark (1770-1838). [Sketch of the Confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers and Environs]. Map in journal. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (59)
  • William Clark [Clatsop Maps] 1805. Copyprint of manuscript maps. Courtesy of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven (59A)
  • Sitting Rabbit (Hidatsa). Detail of Map of the Missouri River. Copyprint of map painted on canvas. Courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, Bismark (59C)
  • William Clark (1779-1838). [Route map 16 October 16-19, 1804], copy of original map, 1833. Copyprint of manuscript map. Courtesy of the Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha (59D.1)
  • W. & S. Jones Holburn, London [patented 1788] Sextant. Brass, wood, silver. Courtesy of the National Museum of American History, Behring Center (60)
  • Nevil Naskeklyne. Tables Requisite to be Used with the Nautical Ephemeris for Finding the Latitude and Longitude at Sea. London: William Richardson, 1781. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (61)
  • Nicholas King (1771-1812) after William Clark. “A map of part of the continent of North America: between 35th and 51st degrees of north latitude, and extending from 89 degrees of west longitude to the Pacific Ocean, compiled from the authorities of the best informed travelers by M. Lewis,” 1805. Manuscript map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (62)
  • Nicholas King, with annotations by Meriwether Lewis. “Tracing of western North America showing the Mississippi, and the Missouri for a short distance above the Kansas, Lakes Michigan, Superior, and Winnipeg, and the country onwards to the Pacific” with annotations in the hand of Meriwether Lewis, 1803. [carried as far as Mandan village]. Engraved map with annotations in pen and ink. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (64)
  • Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809) after David Thompson (1770-1857). “Bend of the Missouri Long. 101i25-Lat. 47i32 by Mr. Thomson [sic] Astronomer to the N.W. Company in 1798”. Manuscript map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (64A)
  • Magnet, ca. 1802. Iron, paint. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (65)
  • Compass on chain. Brass, jasper, glass, paint. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (66)
  • William Clark. “A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track” from History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark, to the Sources of the Missouri, thence Across the Rocky Mountains and Down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean, 1814. Samuel Lewis, copyist; Samuel Harrison, engraver. Engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (67)
  • William Clark. “Plan of the Northwest Frontier from Governor Clarke” [ca. 1813]. Manuscript map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (67A)
  • Nicholas Biddle and Paul Allen. History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark, to the Sources of the Missouri, thence Across the Rocky Mountains and Down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean. Philadelphia: Bradford and Innskeep, 1814. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (67B)
  • William Clark. [Drawing of Northwest Coast canoe with carved figures at each end,] February 1, 1806. Copyprint of journal entry. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St Louis (68)
  • Robert Frazer (d. 1837). “A Map of the discoveries of Capt. Lewis & Clark from the Rocky Mountain and the River Lewis to the Cap of Disappointment Or the Columbia River At the North Pacific Ocean By observation of Robert Frazer” 1807. Manuscript map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (69)
  • Nicholas King after Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. “Map of the Continent of North America . . .” [as corrected by the celestial observations of M. Lewis and Clark during their tour of discoveries in 1805], ca. 1806. Copyprint of manuscript. Courtesy of the Boston Athenaeum, Boston (70)

Animals

  • Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809). “Shield killed a hare of the prarie . . .”. Journey entry, September 14, 1804. Courtesy of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia (40)
  • Specimen of a “Lewis woodpecker” [collected ca. 1806]. Preserved skin and feathers. Courtesy of Harvard University Museum of Comparative Zoology, Boston (71)
  • Bear effigy pipe bowl (Sioux, Osage or Pawnee), pre-1830s. Catlinite. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (72)
  • Patrick Gass. “Bear Pursuing his Assailant” in A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery . . . Philadelphia: Mathew Carey, 1810. Wood engraving. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (72A)
  • Patrick Gass. “Captain Clark and his men shooting bears,” in A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery . . . Philadelphia: Mathew Carey, 1810. Copyprint of wood engraving. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (72B)
  • Rifle, post 1809, lock by Rogers & Brothers, Philadelphia. Steel barrel, iron fittings, German silver plates, tiger maple stock. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (73)
  • George Catlin (1796-1872). Bear Dance of the Sioux, 1832 [printed 1844]. Hand-colored lithograph. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (74)
  • William Clark (1770-1838). Head of a Vulture (California condor), February 17, 1806. Copyprint of journal illustration. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St Louis (74A)
  • Sally bag with condors (Wasco), pre-1898. Twine, corn husk. Courtesy of the Oregon Historical Society, Portland (75)
  • Buffalo effigy pipe (Sioux) pre-1872. Catinite, wood. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (76)
  • Coyote headdress (Teton Sioux). Pelt, feathers, canvas, wool, hawk bell. Courtesy of the National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, D.C. (78)

Dressed in Courage

  • Richard Rugg Gorget, London, ca. 1783. Silver. Courtesy of William H. Guthman Collection (47)
  • Reproduction of infantry captain's uniform. Textile. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (79)
  • War shirt, with bib collar (Blackfeet), 1843. Antelope skin, quillwork. Courtesy of the Alabama Department of History and Archives, Montgomery (80)
  • Washakie war robe (Shoshone), pre-1897. Paint on deer hide. Courtesy of the National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, D.C. (81)
  • William Woollett after a painting by Benjamin West The Death of General Wolfe. London: Woollett, Boydell & Ryland, 1776. Engraving. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (81B)
  • Spontoon (American/ Fort Ticonderoga), 1775-80. Steel, wood, iron. Courtesy of the Collection of the Fort Ticonderoga Museum, New York (81A)
  • Animal claw necklace (Teton Sioux), mid-nineteenth century. Bear claws, hide. Courtesy of the National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, D.C. (82)

Plants

  • Lupinus sericens Pursh, silky lupine [collected by Lewis at Camp Chopunnish, on the Clearwater River, Idaho, June 5, 1806]. Herbarium sheet mounted on board. Courtesy of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England (83)
  • Camassia quamash (Pursh), [“Collected by Lewis at Weippe Prairie, in present-day Idaho, June 23, 1806. Stewart”]. Herbarium sheet. Courtesy of Academy of Natural Sciences, Ewell Sale Stewart Library, Philadelphia (84)
  • Frederick Pursch (1774-1820). “Clarkia pulchella” in Flora Americae Septentrionalis or a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America. 2 vols. London: White, Cochrane, and Co., 1814. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (85)
  • Tourniquet, early nineteenth century. Brass, leather, and iron. Courtesy of the Mutter Museum, College of Physicians of Philadelphia (86)
  • Lancet, early nineteenth century. Tortoise shell, steel. Courtesy of the Mutter Museum, College of Physicians of Philadelphia (87)
  • Clyster syringe, late eighteenth century. Pewter, wood. Courtesy of the Mutter Museum, College of Physicians of Philadelphia (88)
  • Mortar and pestle (Plateau), prehistoric Stone. Courtesy of the Maryhill Museum of Art, Goldendale, Washington (89A,B)
  • Parfleche (Sahaptin), early nineteenth century. Parfleche hide, pigment. Courtesy of The National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, D.C. (90)
  • Benjamin Rush (ca. 1745-1813) to Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809). “Rush's Rules of Health,” June 11,1803. Manuscript document. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (91)
  • William Clark (1770-1838). Cure for “hooping cough,” early 1800s. Manuscript note. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (92)
  • Sweetgrass braid (Lakota), 1953. Sweetgrass and string. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (93)
  • Drum (Northern Plains), 1800s. Wood and hide. Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis (94)
  • Root digging bag (Plateau), pre-1898. Hemp. Courtesy of the Maryhill Museum of Art, Goldendale, Washington (95)
  • Flat bag (Plateau). Cornhusk, dogbane. Courtesy of the Maryhill Museum of Ar, Goldendale, Washington (96)
  • Basket (Plateau), pre-1940. Cedar bark. Courtesy of the Maryhill Museum of Art, Goldendale, Washington (97)

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After Lewis and Clark

The Journeys of Zebulon Pike

  • Zebulon Pike (1779-1813). “An Account of a voyage up Mississippi River from St. Louis to its Source. . . August 9, 1805-April 30, 1806” [copied by Nicholas King]. Journal entry, September 23, 1805. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (99)
  • Zebulon Pike after Thomas Freeman. “Map of the Red River of Louisiana from the Spanish Camp when the Exploring Party of the U.S. Was Met by the Spanish Troops to Where it Enters the Mississippi,” 1806. Manuscript map. Courtesy of the National Archives, Washington, D.C. (100)
  • Zebulon Pike “Sketch of the Mississippi River”. Hand-colored manuscript map, [two sections of a four part map]. Courtesy of the National Archives, Washington, D.C. (102A, B)
  • Zebulon Pike “Santa Fe Trail”. Manuscript map. Courtesy of the National Archives, Washington, D.C. (103)
  • Zebulon Pike “Notebook of maps, traverse tables, and meterological observations,” 1805-1807. Journal with charts to “date, course, no. distance . . .”. Courtesy of the National Archives, Washington, D.C. (104)
  • Zebulon Pike. “First Part of Capt'n Pike's Chart of the Internal Part of Louisiana” and “A Chart of the Internal Part of Louisiana”. in Expeditions to the Headwaters of the Mississippi River and through the Louisiana Territory into New Spain from 1805-1807. Engraved map with notations. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (105A, B)
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) to James Madison (1751-1836), August 30, 1807. Manuscript letter. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (107)
  • Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) to Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), December 20, 1811. Manuscript letter. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (107A)
  • Thomas Jefferson to Alexander von Humboldt, December 6, 1813. Manuscript letter. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (107B)
  • Zebulon Pike. An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana, to the sources of the Arkanasaw, Kans, La Platte, and Pierre Juan, Rivers; . . . . Philadelphia: C. & A. Conrad, 1810. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (108)

Long Expedition to the Central and Southern Plains

  • Stephen H. Long (1784-1864). “Country Drained by the Mississippi” [western and eastern sections] in Edwin James. Account of the Expedition from Pittsburg to the Rocky Mountains: Performed in the years 1819-1820 . . . Under the Command of Stephen H. Long. Philadelphia: 1822. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (109, 109A)
  • Titian Peale (1799-1885). Journal entry, June 21, 1819. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (110)
  • Titian Peale [Riverside, with small view of “Western Engineer”], 1819-1820. Watercolor. Courtesy of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia (111)
  • Titian Peale [Lavender blossoms], August 3, 1820. Watercolor, pencil. Courtesy of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia (111A)
  • Titian Peale [Bison Hunt], 1820 [February]. Watercolor, ink. Courtesy of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia (111B)
  • Titian Peale “Ottoes (Siouan Indian),” May 1820. Watercolor. Courtesy of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia (111C)
  • Titian Peale [Sandhill crane] March 1820. Watercolor. Courtesy of the American Philosophical Society , Philadelphia (111D)
  • Titian Peale [Shell] May 1819. Watercolor. Courtesy of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia (111E)
  • Samuel Seymour (1796-1823). “View of Chasm through which the Platte issues from the Rocky Mountains” and “Distant View of the Rocky Mountains” in Edwin James (1797-1861). Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains: Performed in the Years 1819-20 . . . Under the Command of M. Stephen H. Long from the Notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, Other Gentlemen of the Exploring Party. Philadelphia: H.C. Carey and I. Lea, 1822 (1823). Hand-colored engravings [frontispieces]. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (112A, B)
  • Thomas Say (1787-1834). American Entomology: or Descriptions of the Insects of North America. [3 volumes]. Philadelphia: 1824. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (113A, B, C)
  • James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851). The Prairie. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea & Carey, 1827. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (114)

The Fur Trade

  • Albert Gallatin (1761-1849). “Map of th Indian Tribes of North America about 1600 A.D. along the Atlantic, & about 1800 A.D. Westwardly” from Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society. Vol II. Cambridge: 1836. Hand colored engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (20)
  • Pierre Jean de Smet (1801-1873). [Map of the Upper Great Plains and Rocky Mountains Region], 1851. Manuscript map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (131)
  • David Burr (1803-1875). Map of the United States of North America with Parts of the Adjacent Countries. London: 1839. Hand-colored engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (132)
  • Washington Irving (1783-1859) The Rocky Mountains, or Scenes and Incidents . . .. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea, & Blanchard, 1837. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (133)
  • Benjamin Bonneville (1796-1878). “Map of the Territory West of the Rocky Mountains” [from Washington Irving The Rocky Mountains western portion]. Engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (133A)
  • Alfred Jacob Miller Trappers. Watercolor. Courtesy of the Joslyn Museum, Omaha (134A)
  • Zenas Leonard (1809-1857). Narrative of the Adventures . . . written by Himself. Clearfield, PA: D.W. Moore, 1839. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (135)
  • Battiste Good (1821-ca. 1907). Dakota Brulé Winter Count [1230-1907], ca. 1907. Watercolor, pen, and ink on paper. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (135A)

The Wilkes and Frémont Expeditions

  • Charles Wilkes (1798-1877). Map of the Oregon Territory by the U. S. Ex. Ex., 1841 . Hand-colored engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (116)
  • Charles Wilkes. Diary and letters for voyage in the Pacific and west coast, 1838-1842. Journal entry, August 6, 1841. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (117)
  • Charles Wilkes to Secretary of the Navy Abel Upshur, May 15 (1842). [describes the Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River]. Manuscript letterbook. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (118)
  • Charles Wilkes. Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. Philadelphia: C. Sherman & Son, 1858. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (119A-D)
  • Titian Ramsay Peale (1799-1885). Journal, October 19, 1841. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (120)
  • Titian Ramsay Peale Sutter's Fort, October 19, 1841. Watercolor. Courtesy of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia (120A)
  • Balsamorhiza deltoidea, Oregon, Nasqually [Nisqually]. Herbarium of the U.S. Exploring Expedition under the Command of Capt. Wilkes. Herbarium sheet. Courtesy of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. (120C)
  • Asclepias speciosa, Torr. Valley of the Sacramento, California. Herbarium of the U.S. Exploring Expedition under the Command of Capt. Wilkes. Herbarium sheet. Courtesy of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. (120D)
  • Charles L. Preuss(1803-1854). Journal entry, “Hights of Mountains,” 1843. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (122)
  • John Charles Frémont (1813-1890). “Pass in the Sierra Nevada of California”. in Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the Year 1842, and to Oregon and North California in the Years 1843-44. Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1845. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (123)
  • Theodore Talbot (1825-1862). Journal entry, August 5, 1843. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (125B)
  • John C. Frémont and Charles Preuss. Map of an Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the Year 1842 and to Oregon and North California in the Years 1843-1844. Engraved map with printed color and hand coloring. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (126)
  • Baker & Godwin. Col. Frémont planting the American standard on the Rocky Mountains. New York: 1856. Wood engraving. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (128)
  • Calycodemia fremontii, Gray [Frémont's expedition to California, 1845-1847]. Herbarium sheet. Courtesy of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. (129A)
  • Scutellaria antirrhinoides var. californica, Gray [from Frémont's expedition to California, 1845-1847]. Hebarium sheet. Courtesy of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. (129B)

Boundary Surveys

  • Oenothera primiveris, A. Gray subsc. primiveris. [Mexican Boundary Survey Collected Under the Direction of Major W. H. Emory, Commissioner Chiefly in the Rio Grande below Doñana by C. C. Parry, MD; J.M. Bigelow, MD; Mr. Charles Wright, and Mr. A. Schott]. Herbarium sheet. Courtesy of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. (136A)
  • Quercus oblongifolia, Torr. [Mexican Boundary Survey Collected Under the Direction of Major W. H. Emory, Commissioner Chiefly in the Rio Grande below Doñana by C. C. Parry, MD; J.M. Bigelow, MD; Mr. Charles Wright, and Mr. A. Schott]. Herbarium sheet. Courtesy of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. (136B)
  • William Emory (1811-1887). Report on the U.S. and Mexican Boundary Survey in U.S. Congressional Set/U.S. House Executive Document [3 volumes]. Washington, D.C.: 1857-1859. Law Library, Library of Congress (137A, B, C)
  • William Emory (1811-1887). Map no. 4, Boundary between the United States and Mexico Lithograph map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (138)
  • James Alden (1834-1922). Camp Mooyie (1 1/4 miles N. of 49th Parallel). Peak Bears N. 20 W., 1860. Watercolor. Courtesy of the National Archives, Washington, D.C. (138A)
  • James Alden Mooyie River Valley from Monument W. Side River Looking E. along the 49th Parallel, 1859. Watercolor. Courtesy of the National Archives, Washington, D.C. (138B)
  • James Alden View from Monument at Summit Looking W. Along 49th Parallel. Highest Peak Kintla Range Bears S. 25. W. Watercolor. Courtesy of the National Archives, Washington, D.C. (138C)
  • Archibald Campbell. Detailed maps of the North West Boundary from point Roberts to the Rocky Mountains . . . [British Columbia and Washington Territory]. [Washington, D.C.: ca. 1862]. Photo lithographic copies [two sheets]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (138D)
  • British Northwest Commission Boundary Survey. “Cutting the Boundary Line,” 1858-1861. “Astronomical Observation Tent” [showing Captain Charles Darrah and Asst.]. “Garry the Spokan Chief and three of his men”. Albumen prints. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (139A, B, D)

Epilogue—Transcontinental Railroad Surveys

  • Asa Whitney. [Map Showing the Railroad Routes to Santa Fe . . .] from A Project for a Railroad to the Pacific. New York: 1849. Lithograph map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (140A)
  • [Pacific Railroad Surveys]. Reports of exploration and surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean. Made Under the Direction of the Secretary of War in 1853-[6]. (13 volumes) [for Senate; 33rd Congress, 2nd session-Washington: Beverly Tucker Printer, 1857; for House 33rd Congress, 2nd session- Washington: A.O.P Nicholson Printer, 1856; for House 36th Congress; 1st session-Washington: Thomas H. Ford Printer, 1860. Law Library and General Collections, Library of Congress (142-l, 141A)
  • G.[ouverneur] K. [emble] Warren (1830-1882). “Principal of Determinates of Longitude” [method of compiling map] in Memoirs to Accompany the Map of the Territory . . . from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, 1859. Washington: 1859. General Collections, Library of Congress (142)
  • G. K. Warren. Map of the Territory of the United States from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean, 1857 (or 8). [Compilation of Transcontinental Railroad routes]. Engraved map [printed color]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (143A,B)
  • George B. McClellan (1826-1885). Journal kept May 20-December 15, 1853. Journal entry, “Indian Names with Total Distance”. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (145)
  • J. F. Minter. Portrait of “Path Finder,” 1853 [George B. McClellan]. Pencil sketch in notebook July 18-October 17, 1853. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (146)
  • Gustavas Sohon (1825-1903). View of Fort Vancouver “Unfinished Study for Illustration in Gov. Stevens report”. Graphite on toned paper. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (148)
  • Gustavas Sohon, Cour d'Alene Mission Established by the Jesuit Fathers in the Rocky Mountains in 1842. Graphite on paper. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (149)
  • Currier & Ives Across the Continent. “Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way.” New York: [1868] Lithograph. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (151)
  • Union Pacific Railroad Company. Progress of Their Road. New York: Brown & Hewitt, Printer, 1867. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (155)
  • Report on the Impractibility of Building a Railroad. Washington, D.C.: Cornelius Wendell, Printer, 1856. Pamphlet. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (157)
  • Highway to the Pacific Grand National Central Highway. Speech of Mr. Benton. Washington, D.C.: Towers, printer, December 16, 1850. Pamphlet. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (158)
  • Go West over the Missouri Pacific or Atlantic & Pacific Railroad, via St. Louis. Broadside. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (166)
  • Andrew Joseph Russell (1830-1902). “Citadel Rock-Green River Valley” in F.V. Hayden. Sun Pictures of Rocky Mountain Scenery. New York: Julius Bien, 1870. Albumen silver print in album. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (168)
  • Mark Ruwedel (b. 1954). Union Pacific, Bridge at Green River after Russell. Gelatin silver print. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (169)
  • Horace Hull. “High water,” Illinois, 1907 [railroad image]. Copyprint of gelatin silver print. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (170A)

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