The United States Territories. Map of the 39th Parallel Arc.

All images in this exhibition are reproduced online with the permission of the American Congress of Surveying and Mapping, unless otherwise noted.

Surveying

Mr. Clifton's Neck Land becomes George Washington's "River Farm"

George Washington, the first president of the United States, was trained as a surveyor and practiced in western Virginia in the early years of his career. In 1760 and 1766, he prepared two manuscript plats of land he had recently purchased, later known as the River Farm, adjacent to his ancestral home of Mount Vernon. These two maps are examples of colonial-era plantation maps.

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Mount Vernon and River Farm, 1793

Over the course of his life, Washington transformed Mount Vernon from a simple homestead to an 8,000-acre working plantation. Washington exchanged nearly thirty letters with Arthur Young, a British agricultural supporter, in an attempt to refine and improve his farming methods. This map, originally prepared in 1793, documents Washington's five farms (Union, Dogue Run, Muddy Hole, Mansion House, and River Farm) and the crops under cultivation on each.

George Washington (1732-1799). A map of General Washington's farm of Mount Vernon from a drawing transmitted by the General. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (2A) [Digital ID# ct000367]

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Mount Vernon and River Farm, 1859

Following Washington's death in 1799, the Mount Vernon estate was divided among Washington's heirs. This map, intended to show land ownership rather than accurately delineated boundary lines, is based on a combination of previous plats and surveys performed in the 1850s.

W. Gillingham. Map of George Washington's Land at Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, Virginia, 1850. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (3) [Digital ID# ct001459]

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A Partial View of Washington's River Farm, 1920

Eventually, much of the land owned by George Washington transferred to other owners. This item is a map of a portion of Washington's River Farm based on a survey by Joseph Berry, whose plats have served as a basis for many of the modern surveys in Fairfax County, and documents boundary lines for a conveyance of two parcels to Colonel James A. Drain. This survey is among the first subdivisions of this parcel that was once part of George Washington's estate.

Plat Showing Property of Col. Jas. A. Drain, Fairfax County, Virginia, 1920. Alexandria, Virginia: Fairfax County Land Archives, Library of Congress (4). This image is reproduced online with the permission of R.C. Fields and Associates. [Digital ID# ctr00014]

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A Partial View of Washington's River Farm, 1937

Land transactions and subdivision of existing parcels are typically accompanied by plats documenting the new boundary lines. This plat, based on a 1937 survey by Lincoln Mackey, shows a portion of Col. James A. Drain's property depicted in the 1920 plat.

Plat of Part of the Property of Col. James A. Drain, Fairfax County, Virginia, January 9, 1937. Alexandria, Virginia: Fairfax County Land Records Archives, Library of Congress (5). This image is reproduced online with the permission of R.C. Fields and Associates. [Digital ID# ctr00015]

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A Partial View of Washington's River Farm, 1995

Created in 1995 in accordance with Fairfax County, Virginia regulations, this plat documents the further subdivision of a portion of Col. James A. Drain's parcel. By the end of the twentieth century, technological advancements in both measurement and cartography, along with time-honored evidence analysis procedures, led to the creation of more accurate and detailed plats.

Record Plat of Riverview at Mount Vernon, Mt. Vernon District, Fairfax County, Virginia, May 1, 1995. Alexandria, Virginia: R.C. Fields, Jr. and Associates, 1995, Library of Congress (6). This image is reproduced online with the permission of R.C. Fields and Associates. [Digital ID# ctr00011]

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A Partial View of Washington's River Farm, 1999

Owners of individual parcels or subdivided lots may use survey plats in conjunction with obtaining a mortgage, selling the property, or obtaining a building permit for improvements. This map is an example of the further subdivision of a lot created by the 1995 plat and represents the further evolution of survey plats.

Plat Showing Resubdivision of Lot 12, Riverview at Mount Vernon, Mt. Vernon District, Fairfax County, Virginia, November 5, 1999. Alexandria, Virginia: R.C. Fields, Jr. and Associates, 1999, Library of Congress (7). This image is reproduced online with the permission of R.C. Fields and Associates [Digital ID# ctr00012]

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An Orthophotographic Map

Orthophotographic maps are created by modifying traditional aerial photographs and may be especially useful for viewing physical features of large geographic areas. This map gives an overview of the vicinity of the Col. James A. Drain property, once George Washington's River Farm, depicted in the preceding items.

Ortho Map. Fairfax County, Virginia: Department of Information Technology, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Mapping Services, 2004, Library of Congress (8) [Digital ID# ctr00016]

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Video

Maps In Our Lives - Requires free RealOnePlayer from www.real.com external link
Running Time: 2 minutes
Produced by: Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.

The following maps are featured:

  • Plat Showing Resubdivision of Lot 12, Riverview at Mount Vernon, Mt. Vernon District, Fairfax County, Virginia, November 5, 1999. Facsimile map. Alexandria, Virginia: R.C. Fields, Jr. and Associates, 1999 (7)
  • Record Plat of Riverview at Mount Vernon, Mt. Vernon District, Fairfax County, Virginia, May 1, 1995. Facsimile map. Alexandria, Virginia: R.C. Fields, Jr. and Associates, 1995 (6)
  • W. Gillingham. Map of George Washington's Land at Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, Virginia, 1850. Facsimile map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (3)
  • George Washington (1732-1799). A map of General Washington's farm of Mount Vernon from a drawing transmitted by the General, [1801]. Facsimile map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (2A)
  • George Washington (1732-1799). A plan of my farm on Little Hunting Creek & Potomack River, [1766]. Facsimile map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (2)
  • A plan of Mr. Clifton's neck land platted at a scale of 50 poles to the inch by TH 1755 & copied by GW, 1760. Facsimile map. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (1)

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A Hydrographic Survey of New Orleans Riverwalk

In addition to surveys of boundary lines, surveyors provide many other types of services. Among these are topographic maps showing the slope or contours of the land, and the physical features on the land. A specific type of topographic surveying that shows the contours of land under water is called hydrographic surveying. This hydrographic survey map was created to assist an accident investigation on the Mississippi River at New Orleans, Louisiana.

New Orleans Riverwalk Ship Collision Site Survey. Float Observations and Hydrographic Survey of December 22 & 23, 1996. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Hydro Consultants, Inc, 1997, Library of Congress (8A) [Digital ID# ctr00017]

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Geographic Information Systems

A GIS Map of Fairfax County

This Geographic Information System (GIS) map shows a variety of "layers" within the digital file for a portion of Fairfax County, Virginia. Such maps are used for land planning, emergency services routing, utilities inventory, and many other purposes. Each "layer" of data can be viewed independently, or as a composite. The inset shows an area in the vicinity of Washington's River Farm shown in maps 5, 6, and 7. Because the information in a GIS is digital, it can be transferred through the internet.

Multiple Layers: GIS in Action-Fairfax County, VA. Fairfax County, Virginia, Department of Information Technology, GIS and Mapping Services, Library of Congress (8B) [Digital ID# ctr00018]

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Cartography

A Map of the Travels of Frederick P. Beierle

Cartography: Thematic

The use of a map to complement newspaper articles provides a telling and controversial story of the expansive travels of the article's subject, Frederick P. Beierle, a nuclear waste entrepreneur.

The Travels of Fredrick P. Beierle. Entrant: Philadelphia Enquirer. Outstanding Achievement, 1983. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (9) [Digital ID# ctr00019]

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Northwest Orient Route Map

Cartography: Recreation and Travel

Although national and world maps have become commonplace in in-flight magazines, this map demonstrates the early use of map projection to depict global routes and origin/destination points. The depiction of an elevation and vegetation surface data modeling provides the passengers with a sense of the terrain over which they are flying.

Northwest Orient Route Map. Entrant: R.R. Donnelly Cartographic Services. Outstanding Achievement, 1984. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (10) [Digital ID# ctr00020]

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Brazil-Venezuela Boundary Study Map

Cartography: Reference

This map, which illustrates a U.S. Department of State international boundary study, demonstrates the crucial role of cartography in legal and foreign policy matters. Rivers are the only physical feature shown in detail, because the boundary is largely defined by watersheds.

Brazil-Venezuela Boundary. Entrant: Bill Hezlep, Michelle Picard, and Sandra Shaw, Office of the Geographer, U.S. Department of State. Outstanding Achievement, 1985. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (11) [Digital ID# ctr00021]

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Relief of the Surface of the Earth Map

Cartography: Thematic

Margo Edwards's relief map of the earth's surface is one of the earliest examples of the use of the computer in generating maps. The data was compiled using different sources. Hue and saturation were controlled by depth and elevation; color intensity was controlled by shaded relief.

Relief of the Surface of the Earth Entrant: Margo Edwards, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Outstanding Achievement and Best of Category, 1985. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (12) [Digital ID# ctr00022]

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California Population and Ethnic Distribution Map

Cartography: Thematic

Two thematic elements, population and ethnic distribution, are shown side by side to create a powerful demographic portrait of California.

California Population and Ethnic Distribution. Entrant: Greg Hanzel and Keith Ryden, California State University, Department of Geography. Non-winning submission, 1986. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (13) [Digital ID# ctr00023]

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A Map of the North Cascades

Cartography: Recreation and Travel

Professor Heinrich C. Berann (1915-1999) was renowned for his ability to combine a European painting tradition with modern cartography to produce his unique panoramic maps of various landscapes. Born and trained in Austria, Berann honed his technique in producing panoramas during the 1940s. His dramatic work was sought after by a number of mapping firms, including the U.S. National Park Service, the National Geographic Society, and Mairs Geographischer Verlag. The North Cascades map is an excellent example of modern cartographic techniques used to create visual effects, such as relief.

North Cascades Entrant: National Park Service, U.S. Department of Interior. Non-winning submission, 1986. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (15) [Digital ID# ctr00025]

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Town of Pickering, Street Map and Facility Guide

Cartography: Thematic

Designed as a guide and directory, this map uses contrasting colors to display information of use to residents and prospective visitors to the town of Pickering, within the greater Toronto area of Ontario, Canada. Indexes and symbols are conveniently located adjacent to the map, and insets of detailed points of interest are included in the design.

Town of Pickering, Street Map and Facility Guide. Entrant: G. Bowlet and L. Burrett. Outstanding Achievement, Thematic Category, 1986. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (16) [Digital ID# ctr00026]

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Map of the Capitol Building

Cartography: Reference

This map is used by the blind and visually impaired when touring the Capitol Building. It provides a spatial understanding of the structure of the limited access areas available to the public. Maps for the blind are designed to emphasize line work and reduce the complexity of the information presented. Tactile maps, such as this one, are created using a series of raised dots (Braille) and embossed features, making the map perceptible to the sense of touch and creating spatial awareness in the user's mind.

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Map of the Capitol Building. Entrant: Joseph W. Wiedel, University of Maryland, Department of Geography. Best of Category, 1987. Tactile map. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (17)

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Fire Control Dispatch Map

Cartography: Thematic

The map provides a visual understanding of the location and the range of fire control assistance throughout the state of Washington. It emphasizes the vast range of forested areas in the state and uses industry-specific cartographic symbolization to be used with fire control location instruments.

Fire Control Dispatch Map. Entrant: Washington State Department of Natural Resources. Non-winning submission, 1987. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (18) [Digital ID# ctr00028]

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New York Helicopter Route Chart

Cartography: Thematic

This map uses technical aeronautical data to guide helicopter flight in the densely populated metropolitan area of New York City. It is especially effective in defining small aircraft space amid a maze of national and international airports servicing the region.

New York Helicopter Route Chart. Entrant: Interagency Air Cartographic Committee (Department of Commerce, Dept. of Defense, Federal Aviation Administration). U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service. Non-winning submission, 1987. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (19) [Digital ID# ctr00029]

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Aerial View of the High Himalaya, Mount Everest

Cartography: Thematic Reference

This map features an aerial view of Mount Everest the Himalaya mountains, which successfully incorporates a digital terrain model and satellite imagery containing light reflective data. This light reflective data was then used to create a vegetation coverage, also presented in this map. It is the result of a joint project of the National Geographic Society and the Henry S. Hall Jr., Everest Fund of the Museum of Science, Boston. Swissair Photo+Survey Ltd., and the Swiss Federal Institute of Topography performed most of the cartographic work.

Aerial View of the High Himalaya, Mount Everest Entrant: National Geographic Society. Professional, Thematic Outstanding Achievement, 1988. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (20) [Digital ID# ctr00030]

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University of Oregon Campus at Night Map

Cartography: Thematic

This map is designed to draw attention to the lighted walks and emergency call boxes on the University of Oregon's Eugene campus. Shades of gray and incandescent yellow simulate a nighttime atmosphere, a departure from most campus reference maps that primarily feature buildings. The plan to light campus walkways achieves two goals: it creates a safer environment for those who use the campus after dark ,and it preserves a park-like atmosphere of the landscaped areas of campus.

University of Oregon Campus at Night. Entrant: University of Oregon InfoGraphics Laboratory, Department of Geography. Non-winning submission, 2004. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (21) [Digital ID# ctr00031]

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Rockford Urbanized Area Transit Systems Map

Cartography: Recreation and Travel

Saturated color combinations and variations in line design are used here to accentuate the bus transit system of Rockford, Illinois. Cartographers emphasize functionality in the map's design by including directional symbols to points of interest, such as hospitals, health care, retirement, and extended care facilities, perhaps targeting a demographic group that may use the transit system.

Rockford Urbanized Area Transit Systems. Entrant: Northern Illinois University, Department of Geography, Laboratory for Cartography and Spatial Analysis. Non-winning submission, 1991. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (22) [Digital ID# ctr00032]

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Middle East/Africa School Map

Cartography: Reference

Maps used for primary and secondary education, like this one by the Nystrom Maps, often use bold colors, simple line styles, and prominent type fonts to emphasize geographic, political, climatic, and cultural features. These cartographic techniques eliminate clutter from the map presentation and facilitate learning.

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  • Middle East/Africa. Entrant: Nystrom Maps. Middle East Non-winning submission, 1992. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (23) [Digital ID# ctr00033a]

  • Middle East/Africa. Entrant: Nystrom Maps. Africa Non-winning submission, 1992. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (23) [Digital ID# ctr00033a, ctr00033b]

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The Air War in the Pacific Map

Cartography: Thematic

The inventive use of a perspective projection and graduated flow lines highlight this spatial and temporal picture of the major air battles and maneuvers in the Pacific Ocean during World War II. On one map, a sequence of events portrays the Army Air Force's role in this military theater.

The Air War in the Pacific. Entrant: Larry Bowring, Bowring Cartographic. Non-winning submission, 1993. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (24) [Digital ID# ctr00034]

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Carmen Sandiego Game Board

Cartography: Thematic

This popular children's geography board game combines a colorful, geographically correct map of the United States, with whimsical illustrations of the geographic features that "Carmen Sandiego" and her "V.I.L.E. Henchmen" steal in the course of the game.

Carmen Sandiego Game Board. Entrant: Eureka Cartography. Non-winning submission, 1993. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (25) [Digital ID# ctr00027]

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Map of Hurricanes of the North Atlantic, 1886-1993

Cartography: Thematic Reference

History, science, and climate are presented in this map that depicts the paths, impact, and frequency of more than a century of major hurricanes along the eastern seaboard of the United States. The appearance of such related data on a single map assists long-term weather planners and emergency organizations in predicting the paths of future hurricanes in the region.

Hurricanes of the North Atlantic, 1886-1993. Entrant: Jerome J. King IV, University of North Carolina-Charlotte. Student Entry, Best Map Design, Student Category, 1993. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (26) [Digital ID# ctr00035]

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Map of the Caucasus Region

Cartography: Reference

The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 created a set of newly emerging countries and a new geopolitical map of Eurasia. Developed by the Office of the Geographer of the U.S. Department of State, this map shows a multicultural and multiethnic region of the Caucasus.

Caucasus Region. Entrant: Leo Dillon, Office of the Geographer, U.S. Department of State Best of Category, 1994. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (27) [Digital ID# ctr00036]

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National Geographic Map of Alaska

Cartography: Thematic

The National Geographic Society's incorporation of illustration with relief cartography portrays the grandeur and uniqueness of the Alaskan landscape in relation to towns, highways, and parks. Regarded as pioneering map illustrators, the National Geographic Society frequently adopts this techniques in maps produced as part of its exploration studies. This Alaska map was included as a supplement to the May 1994 issue of the National Geographic magazine.

Alaska. Entrant: Robert E. Pratt, National Geographic Society. Best of Category, 1995. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (28) [Digital ID# ctr00037]

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National Geographic Map of Italy

Cartography: Reference

Type fonts, elevation shading, boundary delineation, composition, and color scheme are some of the many elements that are distinctive to the National Geographic Society's cartographic style. This format, common throughout the society's single map and atlas products, presents a distinctive and readily identifiable product of the National Geographic Society.

Italy. Entrant: Sally Summerall and John F. Shupe, National Geographic Society. Honorable Mention, 1995. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (29) [Digital ID# ctr00038]

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Relief Map of Crater Lake

Cartography: Recreation and Travel

Created for Crater Lake National Park, in Oregon, this map uses terrain and bathymetry modeling to inform park visitors of relief features of the lake. Created for the Crater Lake National Park in Oregon, this U.S. National Park Service map, designed by Tom Patterson, uses relief shading, landcover information extracted from aerial photographs, and bathymetry (depth) data to create a realistic visualization of the lake and surrounding terrain.

Relief Map of Crater Lake. Entrant: National Park Service Reference. Outstanding Achievement, 1996. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (30) [Digital ID# ctr00039]

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Cultural Map of Wisconsin

Cartography: Thematic

Designed as a companion to the state highway map of the state of Wisconsin, this map is a cartographic and cultural portrait of the state. The first state map of its kind, it includes significant historical sites, areas of ethnic importance, physical features and landscapes that have cultural importance, and other geographic features that contributes to a local sense of place. The project was led by David Woodward (1942-2004), who for many years was the Arthur H. Robinson Professor of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and editor of the History of Cartography.

Cultural Map of Wisconsin. Entrant: Onno Brouwer et al., University of Wisconsin Cartographic Lab. Outstanding Achievement, 1996. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (31) [Digital ID# ctr00040]

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Map of Metolius River--Black Butte and Green Ridge Oregon

Cartography: Recreation and Travel

The skillful presentation of physical terrain coupled with recreational information make this well-designed map a valuable national forest guide.

Metolius River--Black Butte and Green Ridge Oregon. Entrant: Imus Geographics. Best of Category, 1996. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (32) [Digital ID# ctr00041]

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Mapping Census 2000--The Geography of U.S. Diversity

Cartography: Book/Atlas

This atlas presents a synthesis of the basic patterns in U.S. population distribution in the last decade, drawing from the U.S. Census Bureau's Summary File. Most of the maps are choropleth maps that show numerical data by grouping and shading it into classes, such as states and counties. Choropleth maps are an easy way to visualize how a measurement varies across a geographic area. The eight different color schemes used throughout this atlas are based on color research by Cynthia A. Brewer, Associate Professor in Geography at the Pennsylvania State University, and are designed to optimize the readability of choropleth maps.

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  • Mapping Census 2000--The Geography of U.S. Diversity Cover - Page. Entrant: Cynthia A. Brewer and Trudy A. Suchan, United States Census Bureau. Honorable Mention, 2001. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (33) [Digital ID# ctr00042ab]

  • Middle East/Africa. Entrant: Ny strom Maps. Africa Non-winning submission, 1992. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (23) [Digital ID# ctr00033a, ctr00033b]

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Atlas of Oregon

Cartography: Book/Atlas

This atlas covers a wide array of information on the state of Oregon, including its history, demographics, geography, economy, politics, and wildlife. Researcher and general public alike can derive an enormous amount of pertinent data for understanding of the state's physical and cultural makeup from this single-source reference.

Atlas of Oregon. Entrant: William G. Loy, Stuart Allan, Aileen R. Buckley, and James E. Meacham, University of Oregon Press. Best of Category/Best of Show, 2001. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (34) [Digital ID# ctr00050]

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Countries of the World Map

Cartography: Reference

This map of the world uses the Robinson Projection, which shows distortions in areas and distances that results in a more natural visualization of the globe on a flat surface. The projection was created by Arthur H. Robinson (1915-2004). Robinson, under commission from Rand McNally, was a renowned scholar of geography and cartography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The National Geographic Society adopted the projection in 1988 and was used for their world maps for ten years. Robinson's equal-area projection has been widely used in textbooks and atlases over the past several decades.

Countries of the World. Entrant: Allan Cartography, Inc., and Raven Maps and Images. Honorable Mention, 2002. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (35) [Digital ID# ctr00043]

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Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities

Cartography: Thematic

Intended to support conservation efforts in the Philippines, this map captures the country's diverse tropical expanse and its biological complexity.

Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities Entrant: Mark Denil, Conservation International. Professional Thematic, Non-winning submission, 2003. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (36) [Digital ID# ctr00044]

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North American Natural Gas System Map

Cartography: Thematic

This map of the North American natural gas system is the most comprehensive map of this type available. With the emergence of natural gas hubs and the increasing variety of gas transport options available to shippers, effective analysis of the gas industry requires a geographically comprehensive understanding of the pipeline grid and the markets it serves. Among the map's many features are 355,800 miles of existing and proposed natural gas pipelines, of all diameters, labeled and colored by ownership and sized by pipeline diameter.

North American Natural Gas System. Entrant: Claude Frank, The McGraw-Hill Companies. Honorable Mention, 2003. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (37) [Digital ID# ctr00045]

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Dynamap: Manhattan

Cartography: Recreation and Travel

This travel map of midtown and downtown Manhattan was produced using a printing process that superimposes several images onto one sheet with a lenticular lens--a series of small biconvex lenses (lenticules) that refract light at different angles. Simulating a "layering effect" characteristic of a geographic information system (GIS), the map makes it possible to change one's line of sight to reveal such geographic information as the subway system, street network, and neighborhood boundaries.

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Dynamap: Manhattan. Entrant: Ian White, Urban Mapping LLC. Best of Category, 2004. Dynamap. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (38)

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The Great American Sports Atlas, Sports Illustrated

Cartography: Thematic

In this atlas from Sports Illustrated, geographic analysis effectively identifies the areas of the United States and Canada that produce great sports athletes. This type of analysis is an inventive and informative approach to sports statistics.

The Great American Sports Atlas, Sports Illustrated. Entrant: Alex Tait and James Miller, International Mapping. Magazine cover Honorable Mention, 2004. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (39) [Digital ID# ctr00046a]
This image is reproduced online with the permission of the cartographer

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The Okanagan Wine Industry Map

Cartography: Thematic

This map tells the story of the Okanagan Wine Industry in British Columbia by incorporating multivariate pictographic symbols, information graphics, and statistics into a small and compositional format. Historical and geographic information is used to explain why wineries are located where they are and how they relate to climate, soil, and geography.

The Okanagan Wine Industry. Entrant: Jared Wiedmeyer, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Student Entry, National Geographic Society Award, printed, 2004. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (40) [Digital ID# ctr00047]

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The Iran Country Profile

Cartography: Reference

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) produces a number of world maps and maps of particular regions that are useful for those seeking a quick review of a place or a variety of data on a country. These maps, such as this one of Iran, can be freely used by the public.

Iran Country Profile. Central Intelligence Agency. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (41) [Digital ID# ctr00048]

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Geodesy

Global Position System (GPS)

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally used by the U.S. Armed Services, has become a valuable tool for many technological and daily-life applications. The GPS constellation consists of 24 active satellites in 6 orbital planes located at an attitude of 20,200 kilometers. The satellites transmit signals to the earth's surface, where they are gathered by receivers. The data are then processed to provide highly accurate positioning relationships between the satellites and the receivers. The application of GPS data is dependent on a number of factors. Only data know as "survey grade" can be used for precise positioning.

Geodesy

Geodesy, which involves the determination of precise locations on the earth's surface, such as latitude and longitude, has been in use since mariners attempted at sea to determine their location by astronomical means. Today, with the introduction of the Global Positioning System (GPS), geodetic concepts help people determine their location in many ways. Shown is a variety of everyday uses for GPS technology, including hand-held receivers that assist hikers, and other GPS units that facilitate traffic routing, help golfers know where they are on the course, allow boaters and fishermen to explore waterways without the fear of getting lost, and direct travelers to their desired location.

Map of the 39th Parallel Arc

One of the first long-distance applications of geodesy in the United States was the 1871 survey along the 39th Parallel Arc, which lies near the north/south center of the country. An accurate determination of the line along the North 39 degree latitude established a central reference point for later surveys. The concept for such a system was the basis for the Public Lands System initiated after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and is still used today.

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