• Launching a stranded schooner from the docks /

    Launching a stranded schooner from the docks /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 24Sept1900; D18562. Camera, Albert E. Smith. Duration: 1:07 at 16 fps. From Edison films catalog: During the terrific storm all of the light craft along the dock front was lifted out of the water and washed up into the streets, many of them being carried for miles inland. This subject shows a number of boatmen who have banded together to ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1900
  • General Lee's procession, Havana /

    General Lee's procession, Havana /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 20Jan1899; 7259. Duration: 1:24 at 22 fps. From Edison films catalog: A magnificent view of the Prado, from the balcony of the United States Club. The procession is headed by a troop of horsemen. Prominent among them is General Lee. Then come the soldiers, file after file and company after company; filling the broad avenue from curb to curb and ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1899
  • Scenes in San Francisco, [no. 2] /

    Scenes in San Francisco, [no. 2] /

    Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Company; 19May1906; H77926. Duration: 2:20 (part 1) and 2:25 (part 2) at 15 fps. Camera, Otis M. Gove. Photographed: May 9, 1906. Location: San Francisco, California. This film is a compilation of panoramas filmed in the ruins of downtown San Francisco and outlying refugee camps following the 1906 earthquake and fire. The film dates from Wednesday, May 9, 1906. ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1906
  • Searching ruins on Broadway, Galveston, for dead bodies /

    Searching ruins on Broadway, Galveston, for dead bodies /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 24Sept1900; D18566. Camera, Albert E. Smith. Duration: 0:52 at 16 fps. From Edison films catalog: This shows the heart of one of the tremendous drifts in the east end of Galveston. Hundreds of dead bodies are concealed in these immense masses, and at the time the picture was taken the odor given out could be detected for miles. The subject ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1900
  • U.S. cruiser "Olympia" leading naval parade  /

    U.S. cruiser "Olympia" leading naval parade /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 7Nov1899; 72835. Original main title lacking. DLC Duration: 3:12 at 16 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC One of 20 films advertised in Edison films catalog no. 94, under the category "Dewey Doings." From the catalog: We equipped eight parties ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1899
  • Observation train following parade /

    Observation train following parade /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 3Sept1898; 52051. Original main title lacking. DLC Date is copyright and production date; unable to verify if work was ever actually released. Duration: 0:30 at 24 fps. Materials listed originate from the print chosen best copy for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From The Phonoscope, October 1898, p. 15: There were two freight ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1898
  • Troops at evacuation of Havana /

    Troops at evacuation of Havana /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 20Jan1899; 7258. Duration: 2:28 at 18 fps. From Edison films catalog: The troops are turning into the Prado from a side street, where stands a triumphal arch erected by the Cubans; but which Gen. Brooke, the Military Governor of Cuba, would not permit to be finished, as he allowed no demonstrations of any kind. The soldiers are the First Texas ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1899
  • Reviewing the "Texas" at Grant's Tomb /

    Reviewing the "Texas" at Grant's Tomb /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 3Sept1898; 52048. Original main title lacking. DLC Camera, J. Stuart Blackton and/or Albert E. Smith. Duration: 1:35 at 20 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From Edison films catalog: Shows every detail of the "Texas" as she passes Riverside Park. ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1898
  • Funeral of Hiram Cronk /

    Funeral of Hiram Cronk /

    Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Co.; 25May1905; H61323. Duration: 3:51 at 15 fps. Camera, G.W. "Billy" Bitzer. Photographed May 17-18, 1905. Location: Brooklyn, New York, N.Y. The film shows a city thoroughfare lined with crowds of people watching a military parade. The first group to come into view is a marching band [Frame: 0120], then a large formation of soldiers in the uniform of ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1905
  • Exploded gas tanks, U.S. Mint, Emporium and Spreckels Bld'g /

    Exploded gas tanks, U.S. Mint, Emporium and Spreckels Bld'g /

    Copyright: no reg. Duration: 2:15 at 15 fps. This film is a spectacular pan of the downtown area of San Francisco as seen from south of Market Street. The location among low ruins was ideal to view the tall ruined buildings along and north of Market Street. Since the facade of St. Patrick's Church is not visible in the pan, the film is probably ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1906
  • Panorama of wreckage of water front /

    Panorama of wreckage of water front /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 24Sept1900; D18560. Camera, Albert E. Smith. Duration: 0:59 at 16 fps. From Edison films catalog: This picture shows the remains of one of the docks, several freight cars being piled one upon the other, while the most interesting part of the picture shows two schooners literally smashed one into the other, forming a most picturesque mass of wreckage. 40 feet. ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1900
  • Scenes in San Francisco, [no. 1] /

    Scenes in San Francisco, [no. 1] /

    Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Company; 19May1906; H77925. Duration: 2:14 at 15 fps. Camera, Otis M. Gove. Photographed: May 9, 1906. Location: Market and Mission streets, San Francisco, California. This film is a compilation of views and pans among the ruins of San Francisco after the earthquake and fire and dates from Wednesday, May 9, 1906. The film was shot in the downtown area ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1906
  • Wreck of the battleship "Maine" /

    Wreck of the battleship "Maine" /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 21Apr1898; 25323. Original main title lacking. DLC Camera, William Paley. Duration: 0:49 at 16 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From Edison films "war extra" catalog: Taken in Havana Harbor from a moving launch, and shows the wreck of the ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1898
  • McKinley and party /

    McKinley and party /

    Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Co.; 22Jan1903; H27386. Original main title lacking. DLC Probable release date from AFI cat.: film beginnings, 1893-1910, 1995. Duration: 0:51 at 16 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From the Biograph picture catalogue: 54 feet. This picture has been ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1898
  • 71st Regiment, Camp Wyckoff /

    71st Regiment, Camp Wyckoff /

    Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Co.; 16Apr1902; H16645. Original main title lacking. DLC Probable release date from AFI cat.: film beginnings, 1893-1910, 1995. Camera, F.S. Armitage. Duration: 0:50 at 18 fps. Materials listed originate from the print chosen best copy for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From the Biograph picture catalogue: 55 feet. Of the thousand and ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1898
  • Bird's-eye view of dock front, Galveston /

    Bird's-eye view of dock front, Galveston /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 24Sept1900; D18561. Camera, Albert E. Smith. Duration: 1:08 at 16 fps. From Edison films catalog: Showing dismantled cars, wrecked warehouses, schooners and tugs that had been stranded on the docks; also the tents that had been rigged up for the poor people who had been left entirely homeless. 75 feet. 11.25. Part of The Galveston Cyclone series (Edison films catalog): ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1900
  • Filipinos retreat from trenches /

    Filipinos retreat from trenches /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 5June1899; 37444. Original main title lacking. DLC Reenacted by the New Jersey National Guard. Duration: 0:51 at 24 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From Edison films catalog: An incident of the Battle of the Trenches at Candabar [sic]. The ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1899
  • General Wheeler and Secretary Alger /

    General Wheeler and Secretary Alger /

    Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Co.; 24Feb1903; H28551. Original main title lacking. DLC Probable release date from AFI cat.: film beginnings, 1893-1910, 1995. Duration: 0:23 at 16 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From the Biograph picture catalogue: 25 feet. This picture was taken ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1898
  • Secretary Long and Captain Sigsbee /

    Secretary Long and Captain Sigsbee /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 21Apr1898; 25335. Original main title lacking. DLC Camera, William Paley. Duration: 0:35 at 20 fps. Materials listed originate from the print chosen best copy for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From Edison films "war extra" catalog: Taken at Washington, in front of the Navy Department, and shows Secretary of the Navy Long and ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1898
  • San Francisco earthquake and fire, April 18, 1906 /

    San Francisco earthquake and fire, April 18, 1906 /

    Copyright: no reg. Duration: 3:39 (part 1), 2:59 (part 2), 3:13 (part 3), and 3:08 (part 4) at 15 fps. This film shows the aftermath of the San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906, and the devastation resulting from the subsequent three-day fire. The 8.3 magnitude earthquake struck at 5:12am and was centered along the San Andreas Fault, which slices through coastal California. Most ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1906
  • San Francisco disaster /

    San Francisco disaster /

    Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Co.; 19May1906; H77924. Duration: 2:42 at 15 fps. Camera, G.W. Bitzer. Photographed: May 5, 1906. Location: Studio, New York City. This film shows the partial burning of a small-scale model of downtown San Francisco in an early attempt at simulating the 1906 disaster. The model is seen in aerial view from above the South-of-Market district, looking northwest toward Market ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1906
  • U.S. troops and Red Cross in the trenches before Caloocan /

    U.S. troops and Red Cross in the trenches before Caloocan /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 5June1899; 37441. Original main title lacking. DLC Reenacted by the New Jersey National Guard. Duration: 0:41 at 24 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From Edison films catalog: Our troops have driven the Filipinos out of the trenches, and, after ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1899
  • 25th Infantry /

    25th Infantry /

    Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Co.; 21May1902; H17963. Original main title lacking. DLC Probable release date from AFI cat.: film beginnings, 1893-1910, 1995. Camera, Raymond Ackerman. Duration: 0:51 at 16 fps. From the Biograph picture catalogue: Gen. Frederick D. Grant and Gen. A.S. Burt [commander of the 25th Infantry Regiment] returning from Mt. Ariat [sic], at the head of the famous 25th Infantry, colored. ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1900
  • [Unidentified Staples & Charles. San Francisco after the earthquake and fire of 1906] /

    [Unidentified Staples & Charles. San Francisco after the eart...

    Copyright: no reg. Duration: 3:05 (part 1), 2:34 (part 2), and 2:21 (part 3) at 15 fps. Photographed: late April, 1906. Location: various locations in and near downtown San Francisco, California. This film is made up of five panoramas, four wide and one close-up, of the ruins of downtown San Francisco shortly after the 1906 disaster, plus a panorama and scene in a nearby ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1906
  • Bombardment of Taku forts, by the Allied fleets /

    Bombardment of Taku forts, by the Allied fleets /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 16Aug1900; D16704. Duration: 3:06 at 16 fps. From Edison films catalog: The scene opens by showing the battleships maneuvering for a position. They finally draw up in line of battle and commence firing on the shore batteries. Immense volumes of smoke arise from the fleet and from the distant shore. Shots are seen to fall thickly among the vessels and ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1900
  • President Wilson arrives in New York to lead fourth Liberty Loan parade [1918] /

    President Wilson arrives in New York to lead fourth Liberty L...

    Copyright: no reg. Duration: (1:54) at 17 fps. RMA lists date in title as 1917. Appearing: Edith Wilson, Sallie Bolling White, Margaret Woodrow Wilson, Eleanor McAdoo, Emile Cartier, Geraldine Farrar, William Gibbs McAdoo, Leo S. Rowe. Views of fourth Liberty Loan ceremonies in New York City and Washington, Sept. 1918. Inaugurating a national drive for the sale of liberty bonds, President Wilson, his wife ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1918
  • Admiral Dewey landing at Gibraltar /

    Admiral Dewey landing at Gibraltar /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 27Sept1899; 62823. Original main title lacking. DLC Date is copyright date; unable to verify if work was ever actually released. Duration: 1:22 at 16 fps. Materials listed originate from the print chosen best copy for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC Filmed ca. Sept. 5, 1899, when Admiral Dewey stopped off at Gibraltar on ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1899
  • Mabel and Fatty viewing the World's Fair at San Francisco, Cal. /

    Mabel and Fatty viewing the World's Fair at San Francisco, Ca...

    Copyright: Keystone Film Company; 22Apr1915; MP313. Duration: 3:16 (part 1), 3:34 (part 2), 3:24 (part 3), 2:59 (part 4), and 3:39 (part 5) at 15 fps. Cast: Mabel Normand, Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle. Photographed: January-February, 1915. Location: San Francisco, California. The 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition was San Francisco's second fair (following the 1894 Mid-Winter Fair) and her first major exposition. The 1915 fair celebrated both the ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1915
  • Czar Nicholas of Russia /

    Czar Nicholas of Russia /

    Copyright: no reg. Duration: 0:40 at 18 fps. Viewing print is very dark. Long shots of Czar Nicholas II and Czarina Alexandra leaving what may be a church located in Russia and passing between two lines of men who appear to be Cossack Escort of the Imperial Guard; Alexandra walks toward a carriage and the Czar mounts a horse and rides away. Roosevelt Memorial ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1910
  • President Roosevelt and the Rough Riders /

    President Roosevelt and the Rough Riders /

    Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Co.; 22Jan1903; H27385. Original main title lacking. DLC Probable release date from AFI cat.: film beginnings, 1893-1910, 1995. Duration: 0:28 at 16 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From the Biograph picture catalogue: 29 feet. This picture shows Col. ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1898
  • Spirit of '76

    Spirit of '76

    motion picture | 1 reel of 1 (58 ft.) : si., b&w ; 35 mm. ref print. | 1 reel of 1 (58 ft.) : si., b&w ; 35 mm. dupe neg. | 1 roll (58 ft.) : si., b&w ; 35 mm. paper pos. | Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Co.; 19May1905; H61107. Original main title lacking. Duration: 0:57 at 16 fps. Materials ...

    • Contributor: American Mutoscope and Biograph Company
    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1905
  • San Francisco's future /

    San Francisco's future /

    Copyright: no reg. Duration: 3:27 (part 1) and 2:13 (part 2) at 15 fps. Location: San Francisco, California. By mid-1916, after viewing the carnage in Europe, the United States saw itself poised with great reluctance on the edge of participation in World War I. Isolationism and anti-preparedness feeling remained strong in San Francisco, not only among radicals such as the International Workers of the ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1916
  • An historic feat /

    An historic feat /

    Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Co.; 18Apr1902; H16738. Original main title lacking. DLC Probable release date from AFI cat.: film beginnings, 1893-1910, 1995. Camera, Raymond Ackerman. Duration: 0:50 at 16 fps. Materials listed originate from the print chosen best copy for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From the Biograph picture catalogue: 54 feet. Gen. Franklin Bell's famous ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1900
  • Capture of trenches at Candaba /

    Capture of trenches at Candaba /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 10June1899; 38515. Original main title lacking. DLC Reenacted by the New Jersey National Guard. Duration: 0:51 at 24 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From Edison films catalog: The Filipinos execute a flank movement and re-occupy the trenches, cutting off ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1899
  • Parade of marines, U.S. cruiser "Brooklyn" /

    Parade of marines, U.S. cruiser "Brooklyn" /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 12Oct1898; 60143. Camera, William Heise. Duration: 1:33 at 24 fps. From Edison films catalog: First comes the famous Marine Band of the "Brooklyn," with the mascot goat alongside the bass drum. The 300 marines follow in rapid marching order, a sixteen file front in each company. 150 feet. $22.50. Filmed October 1, 1898, at Prospect Park Plaza in Brooklyn, New ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1898
  • Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. attends Women in War Work Congress in Paris [1918] /

    Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. attends Women in War Work Congres...

    Copyright: no reg. Roosevelt Memorial Association lists dates in title as 1917-1918. Mutual Film Corp. produced and released Screen telegram from Mar.-Nov., 1918. Appearing: Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. Duration: 0:34 at 20 fps. During World War I, Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. worked for the YMCA in France running canteens, clubs, and leave centers for soldiers and teaching French. She also designed the uniforms worn ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1918
  • Advance of Kansas Volunteers at Caloocan /

    Advance of Kansas Volunteers at Caloocan /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 5June1899; 37443. Original main title lacking. DLC Reenacted by the New Jersey National Guard. Duration: 0:44 at 24 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From Edison films catalog: From the thick underbrush where the Filipinos are massed comes volley after ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1899
  • Aguinaldo's navy /

    Aguinaldo's navy /

    Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Co.; 18Apr1902; H16737. Original main title lacking. DLC Probable release date from AFI cat.: film beginnings, 1893-1910, 1995. Camera, Raymond Ackerman. Duration: 0:22 at 18 fps. Materials listed originate from the print chosen best copy for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From the Biograph picture catalogue: 27 feet. A splendid scene, showing ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1900
  • Army pack train bringing supplies. /

    Army pack train bringing supplies. /

    Copyright: no reg. Duration: 1:46 at 15 fps. Photographed: 1906. Location: San Francisco, California. This film highlights the role of the United States Army in transporting supplies following the 1906 earthquake and fire in San Francisco. The Army's relief operations headquarters was at their base, the Presidio, outside the burned part of the city. The Army played a major role in relief and refugee ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1906
  • Panorama of Galveston power house /

    Panorama of Galveston power house /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 24Sept1900; D18563. Camera, Albert E. Smith. Duration: 0:44 at 16 fps. From Edison films catalog: This building and machinery supplied the electric power and electric light for the entire city of Galveston, including the car system. The building, which is of solid masonry, is a complete wreck, and together with the twisted iron work of the machinery, shows the tremendous ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1900
  • Panoramic view of Tremont Hotel, Galveston /

    Panoramic view of Tremont Hotel, Galveston /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 24Sept1900; D18565. Camera, Albert E. Smith. Duration: 0:55 at 16 fps. From Edison films catalog: This picture shows several buildings which were wrecked and also shows a rear view of this hotel, which is on the highest point of land in Galveston, and in which several thousand people were saved. 50 feet. $7.50. Part of The Galveston Cyclone series (Edison ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1900
  • Last known home of Czar Nicholas /

    Last known home of Czar Nicholas /

    Copyright: no reg. Photographer, Paul Rainey. Duration: 1:05 at 18 fps. Last 22 frames of film printed upside down. DLC Camera pans the home of a merchant named Ipatiev, where Nicholas II, last Russian emperor, and his royal family were executed in Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk), July 1918. Second sequence is views of men, identified by interior title as Bolshevik prisoners, standing behind barbed wire as ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1918
  • Close view of the "Brooklyn," naval parade /

    Close view of the "Brooklyn," naval parade /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 3Sept1898; 52054. Original main title lacking. DLC Camera, J. Stuart Blackton and/or Albert E. Smith. Duration: 0:26 at 28 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From Edison films catalog: Schley's flagship at close range, showing shot hole in the middle ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1898
  • Panorama of orphans' home, Galveston /

    Panorama of orphans' home, Galveston /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 24Sept1900; D18564. Camera, Albert E. Smith. Duration: 0:50 at 16 fps. From Edison films catalog: This is the building in which so many of the poor orphans met their death. The place is completely dismantled. In addition to the orphanage is shown one of the principal streets in Galveston blocked with overturned houses and other materials. 50 feet. $7.50. Part ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1900
  • The fleet steaming up North River /

    The fleet steaming up North River /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 3Sept1898; 52047. Original main title lacking. DLC Camera, J. Stuart Blackton and/or Albert E. Smith. Duration: 1:52 at 20 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From Edison films catalog: Shows the "Brooklyn," flying Schley's twin-starred blue flag. Every detail brought ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1898
  • U.S. cruiser "Raleigh" /

    U.S. cruiser "Raleigh" /

    Copyright: Thomas A. Edison; 22Apr1899; 27967 Original main title lacking. DLC Duration: 0:41 at 16 fps. Materials listed originate from the paper print chosen best copy of two for digitization; for other holdings on this title, contact M/B/RS reference staff. DLC From Edison films catalog: A panoramic view of the "Raleigh" as she lies at anchor off 27th Steet, North River, April 17, 1899. ...

    • Original Format: Film, Video
    • Date: 1899