11/16 FILMS SELECTED TO THE NATIONAL FILM REGISTRY, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS - 1998 1) BRIDE OF FRANKENSTEIN (1935) 2) THE CITY (1939) 3) DEAD BIRDS (1964) 4) DON'T LOOK BACK (1967) 5) EASY RIDER (1969) 6) 42ND STREET (1933) 7) FROM THE MANGER TO THE CROSS (1912) 8) GUN CRAZY (1949) 9) THE HITCH-HIKER (1953) 10) THE IMMIGRANT (1917) 11) THE LAST PICTURE SHOW (1972) 12) LITTLE MISS MARKER (1934) 13) THE LOST WORLD (1925) 14) MODESTA (1956) 15) THE OX-BOW INCIDENT (1943) 16) PASS THE GRAVY (1928) 17) PHANTOM OF THE OPERA (1925) 18) POWERS OF TEN (1978) 19) THE PUBLIC ENEMY (1931) 20) SKY HIGH (1922) 21) STEAMBOAT WILLIE (1928) 22) TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE COLLAPSE (1940) 23) TOOTSIE (1982) 24) TWELVE O'CLOCK HIGH (1949) 25) WESTINGHOUSE WORKS, 1904 (1904) Credits for Films Selected to the National Film Registry, 1998 Note: These credits are unofficial and provided for informational purposes only. 1) The Bride of Frankenstein (Universal, 1935) 75 minutes, b&w Producer: Carl Laemmle, Jr, Director: James Whale Writers: John Balderston and William Hurlbut, based on the novel by Mary W. Shelley Cinematographer: John J. Mescall Editor: Ted Kent Music: Franz Waxman Cast: Boris Karloff, Colin Clive, Ernest Thesiger, Elsa Lanchester, Valerie Hobson, Una O'Connor, and O.P. Heggie 2) The City (American Documentary Films, Inc., 1939) 45 minutes, b&w Picture funded by the Carnegie Corporation and made for the American Institute of Planners for premiere at the 1939 World's Fair Directors/Cinematographers: Willard Van Dyke and Ralph Steiner Writer: Henwar Rodakiewicz, based on an outline by Pare Lorentz Music: Aaron Copland Narration: Written by Lewis Mumford and delivered by Morris Carnovsky 3) Dead Birds (Peabody Museum, 1964) 85 minutes, Technicolor (Study of a Western New Guinea tribe, the Dani) Director/Narrator: Robert Gardner Writer: Peter Mathieson Cinematographer: Eliot Elisofon Editors: Robert Gardner and Jestrup Lincoln Sound: Michael Rockefeller Titles: Peter and Joyce Chopra 4) Don't Look Back (Leacock-Pennebaker, Inc., 1967) 96 minutes, b&w Producers: Albert Grossman and John Court Cinematographers: D. A. Pennebaker, Jones Alk and Howard Alk Editor: D. A. Pennebaker Featuring: Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Donovan, Alan Price, Albert Grossman, Bob Neuwirth, Tito Burns, Derroll Adams, Allen Ginsberg 5) Easy Rider (Raybert Productions-Pando Co./Columbia, 1969) 94 minutes, Technicolor Producer: Peter Fonda Director: Dennis Hopper Writers: Peter Fonda, Dennis Hopper and Terry Southern Cinematographer: Laszlo Kovacs Editor: Donn Cambern Cast: Peter Fonda, Dennis Hopper, Jack Nicholson, Robert Walker Jr., Luane Anders and Karen Black 6) 42nd Street (Warner Bros., 1933) 89 minutes, b&w Director: Lloyd Bacon Writers: Rian James and James Seymour, based on the Bradford Ropes novel Cinematographer: Sol Polito Music/Lyrics: Al Dubin and Harry Warren Choreography: Busby Berkeley Editors: Thomas Pratt and Frank Ware Cast: Warner Baxter, Bebe Daniels, George Brent, Ruby Keeler, Guy Kibbee, Una Merkel, Ginger Rogers, Ned Sparks, Dick Powell, Allen Jenkins 7) From the Manger to the Cross (Kalem, 1912) silent, b&w Director: Sidney Olcott Writer: Gene Gauntier Cinematographer: George K. Hollister Cast: R. Henderson Bland, Gene Gauntier, Percy Dyer, Alice Hollister, Helen Lindroth, Jack J. Clark, J.P McGowan, Robert Vignola, and Sidney Baber 8) Gun Crazy (aka Deadly is the Female) (United Artists, 1949) Producers: Frank and Maurice King Director: Joseph H. Lewis Writers: MacKinlay Kantor and Dalton Trumbo, based on Kantor's Saturday Evening Post story Cinematographer: Russell Harlan Editor: Harry Gerstad Music: Victor Young Cast: Peggy Cummins, John Dall, Berry Kroeger, Morris Carnovsky, Anabel Shaw, Harry Lewis, Nedrick Young, Rusty Tamblyn 9) The Hitch-Hiker (Filmmakers/RKO, 1953) 71 minutes, b&w Producer: Collier Young Director: Ida Lupino Writers: Young, Lupino and Robert Joseph, based on a story by Daniel Mainwaring Cinematographer: Nicholas Musuraca Music: Leith Stevens Cast: Edmond O*Brien, Frank Lovejoy, William Talman, Jose Torvay, Sam Hayes, Wendell Niles, Jean Del Val, Clark Howat, Natividad Vacio 10) The Immigrant (Mutual, 1917) Silent, b&w Writer/Director: Charles Chaplin Cinematographers: Roland Totheroh and William Foster Cast: Charles Chaplin, Edna Purviance, Eric Campbell, Kitty Bradbury, Albert Austin, Henry Bergman, John Rand. 11) The Last Picture Show (BBS/Columbia, 1971) 118 minutes, b&w Producer: Stephen Friedman Director: Peter Bogdanovich Writers: Larry McMurtry and Peter Bogdanovich, based on McMurtry*s novel Cinematographer: Robert Surtees Editor: Donn Cambern Cast: Timothy Bottoms, Jeff Bridges, Cybill Shepherd, Ben Johnson, Cloris Leachman, Ellen Burstyn, Eileen Brennan, Clu Gallger, Sam Bottoms, Sharon Taggart, Randy Quaid 12) Little Miss Marker (Paramount, 1934) 78 minutes, b&w Producer: B.P. Schulberg Director: Alexander Hall Writers: William Lipman, Sam Hellman and Gladys Lehman, based on the Damon Runyon short story Cinematographer: Alfred Gilks Editor: William Shea Music/Lyrics: Ralph Rainger and Leo Robin Cast: Adolphe Menjou, Dorothy Dell, Charles Bickford, Shirley Temple, Lynne Overman, Warren Hymer, Sam Hardy, John Kelly, Frank McGlynn, Sr., Jack Sheehan, Sam Hardy, Tammany Young 13) The Lost World (First National, 1925) Silent, b&w Director: Harry O. Hoyt Writer: Marion Fairfax, based on the Arthur Conan Doyle novel Cinematographer: Arthur Edeson Cast: Bessie Love, Lloyd Hughes, Lewis Stone, Wallace Beery, Arthur Hoyt, Bull Montana 14) Modesta (Film Unit of the Division of Community Education, Puerto Rico, 1956) 35 minutes Producer: Otoniel Vila Director: Benji Doniger Writers: Benji Doniger, Luis A. Maisonet and Rene Marques, based on a short story by Domingo Silas Ortiz 15) The Ox-Bow Incident (Twentieth Century-Fox, 1943) b&w, 76 minutes Producer: Lamar Trotti Director: William Wellman Cinematographer: Arthur Miller Writer: Lamar Trotti, based on the novel by Walter van Tilburg Clark Editor: Allen McNeil Music: Cyril Mockridge Cast: Henry Fonda, Henry Morgan, Dana Andrews, Anthony Quinn, Harry Davenport, Frank Conroy, Francis Ford, Leigh Whipper, Mary Beth Hughes, Jane Darwell 16) Pass the Gravy (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1928) silent, b&w Producer: Hal Roach Director: Fred L. Guiol Cast: Max Davidson, Martha Sleeper, Bert Sprotte, Gene Morgan, "Spec" O* Donnell 17) The Phantom of the Opera (Universal, 1925) Silent, b&w Director: Rupert Julian Writers: Raymond Schrock and Elliott Clawson, based on the Gaston Leroux novel Cinematographers: Virgil Miller, Milton Bridenbecker, and Charles J. Van Enger Titles: Tom Reed Editor: Maurice Pivar Cast: Lon Chaney, Mary Philbin, Norman Kerry, Snitz Edwards, Gibson Gowland, John Sainpolis, Virginia Pearson, Arthur Edmund Carewe 18) Powers of Ten (Charles and Ray Eames, 1978) 9 minutes, color Director: Charles and Ray Eames Narrator: Philip Morrison Music: Elmer Bernstein 19) The Public Enemy (Warner Bros., 1931) 83 minutes, b&w Director: William Wellman Writers: Kubec Glasmon and John Bright, adaptation by Harvey Thew Cinematographer: Dev Jennings Editors: Edward McDermott Cast: James Cagney, Jean Harlow, Edward Woods, Joan Blondell, Donald Cook, Leslie Fenton, Beryl Mercer, Mae Clarke 20) Sky High (Fox Film Corp., 1922) Silent, b&w Director/Writer: Lynn Reynolds Cinematographer: Ben Kline Cast: Tom Mix, J. Farrell MacDonald, Eva Novak, Sid Jordan, William Buckley, Adele Warner, Wynn Mace, Pat Chrisman 21) Steamboat Willie (Walt Disney, 1928) b&w, sound Producers: Roy and Walt Disney Director: Walt Disney Writers: Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks Music: Carl Stalling Animation Supervisor: Ub Iwerks Animation: Wilfred Jackson, Les Clark and Johnny Cannon 22) Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse (Barney Elliott & The Camera Shop in Tacoma, 1940) Cinematographers: Barney Elliott and co-workers at The Camera Shop in Tacoma, WA 23) Tootsie (Columbia, 1982) 116 minutes, Technicolor Producers: Sydney Pollack and Dick Richards Director: Sydney Pollack Writers: Larry Gelbart and Murray Schisgal, from a story by Don McGuire and Gelbart Cinematographer: Owen Roisman Editors: Frederick Steinkamp and William Steinkamp Music: Dave Grusin Cast: Dustin Hoffman, Jessica Lange, Teri Garr, Dabney Coleman, Charles Durning, Bill Murray, Sydney Pollack, George Gaynes, Geena Davis 24 Twelve O*Clock High (Twentieth Century-Fox, 1949) 132 minutes, b&w Producer: Darryl F. Zanuck Director: Henry King Writer: Sy Bartlett and Beirne Lay, Jr., based on their novel Cinematographer: Leon Shamroy Editor: Barbara McLean Music: Alfred Newman Cast: Gregory Peck, Hugh Marlowe, Gary Merrill, Dean Jagger, Millard Mitchell, Robert Arthur, Paul Stewart, John Kellogg 25) Westinghouse Works 1904 (American Mutoscope & Biograph Company, 1904) silent, b&w Photographed April 13-May 16, 1904 in East Pittsburgh, Wilmerding and Trafford, PA. Footage shows manufacturing plant of Westinghouse Air Brake and Electric Motor Company Cinematographer: G. W. Bitzer 1998 Film Selections for the National Film Registry Statement of James H. Billington The Librarian of Congress Los Angeles, November 16, 1998 Good evening. Tonight, I have the honor of announcing the tenth list of films I have chosen for the National Film Registry, located in the Library of Congress. I have named 25 films each year during the nine years since the National Film Preservation Act was enacted by Congress. Today's selection will bring the number of films in the Registry to 250. Taken together, these 250 films represent a broad range of American filmmaking--all deserving recognition, preservation, and access by future generations. It is fitting that I am naming these films today in Los Angeles and here at the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. The Academy*s interest in film preservation ranges from at least the 1940's, when the Academy helped the preservation of the Library of Congress* historic paper print collection, to 1997 when the Academy made the first substantial donation to the National Film Preservation Foundation. The Academy*s own film archive, where we meet tonight, is a leading player in film preservation activities. Of even more importance are two persons (one here in person, the other [alas] only in spirit) long closely tied to film preservation and the Academy. Fay Kanin--the first and only and extraordinary chair of the National Film Preservation Board is the Academy*s representative, who represents the strong commitment of many people in the film industry to preserving the creative legacy of this city. And Roddy McDowall (a charter member of the National Film Preservation Board and long-time Academy Board governor), who, during his too-brief life, elevated the valued concepts of friendship, generosity and love of culture to rarely-attained heights. Our film heritage is America*s living past. It celebrates the creativity and inventiveness of our nation as a whole and the diverse communities that make it up. By preserving American films, we safeguard our history and build toward the future. Since we began naming works to the National Film Registry in 1989, the importance of film preservation has won the acceptance of many in the Hollywood film community. Most studios now invest in protecting their film libraries. But for the works outside commercial preservation programs the future is less clear. More than one-third of the films added to this year*s Registry are documentaries, silent films, and films produced outside the commercial mainstream. Along with its other work in film preservation, the Library of Congress is mandated to protect all Registry films and works to ensure that these treasures are preserved for future generations. I am proud to report that the Library of Congress has, since the late 1960*s preserved over 15,000 films at its Motion Picture Conservation Center in Dayton, Ohio. And that 75% of the surviving portions of the American film, television and radio heritage is at the Library and accessible for free study and research. For each film added to the Registry this year, there are many more of lasting cultural and historical value that deserve recognition and preservation. Newsreels, documentaries, silent films, experimental works, actuality footage, significant home movies, and other films produced outside the commercial mainstream are our endangered species. These are the films that America is in most danger of losing. Luckily, the U.S. Congress astutely noted this problem in 1992 and mandated that the Library and Film Board 1) prepare a national study on the state of film preservation and 2) then develop and implement a national plan/program to address these problems. Thanks to the active efforts of hundreds of institutions and individuals throughout the film community under the leadership of the Library and Film Board, these programs were designed and are presently being implemented. In past years I have singled out the valiant efforts of archives to rescue endangered films: the Library of Congress, the UCLA Film and Television Archive, the Museum of Modern Art, George Eastman House, the Academy Film Archive and others in the nation*s archival community have long worked to save the broadest cross section of our film heritage. What is especially encouraging this year is the advent of a new organization--the National Film Preservation Foundation--dedicated to helping archives accomplish their critical cultural mission. Created by Congress at the request of the Library of Congress, the NFPF grew from a national planning initiative led by the Library of Congress in partnership with archival and film industry representatives. Continuing this collaborative approach, the NFPF raises private funding to help nonprofit archives protect America*s orphan films. It started operations late last year thanks to start-up grants from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and The Film Foundation. In these few months, it has already awarded grants to support film preservation activities in twelve archives in nine states and the District of Columbia. It promises to do even more next year, thanks to the support it is gaining in the entertainment community. I serve as an ex officio member on the Board of this new organization and I am proud to say that it is beginning to make a difference under the very effective leadership of my nominee as chair, Roger Mayer. Now to the task at hand. The National Film Preservation Act of 1996, truly landmark legislation, signifies vital congressional interest in ensuring that motion pictures will survive as an art form and a record of our times. Among other provisions, this legislation mandates 1) the realization of the previously noted Library of Congress/National Film Preservation Board*s comprehensive national film preservation plan, undertaken by Congressional mandate, which provides an innovative framework to address the still unmet problems of preserving films as they were originally created; and 2) the selection of 25 "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant films" per year for addition to the National Film Registry at the Library of Congress. I am pleased to announce that the Association of Moving Image Archivists is joining with the Library and National Film Preservation Board in the massive effort needed to implement the important recommendations found in both the film preservation plan and the television and video preservation plan undertaken by the Library of Congress at the direction of Congress. In these austere times, Congress demands that as much as possible be done through collaboration, cooperation, and fresh thinking among all the custodians of America*s cultural heritage. The Library, the National Film Preservation Board, AMIA, and others working together can rally support from institutions throughout the United States for the benefit of America*s moving image heritage. It is not a moment too soon. Despite the heroic efforts of archives, the motion picture industry and others, America's film heritage, by any measure, is an endangered species. 50 percent of films produced before 1950 and at least 90 percent made before 1920 have disappeared forever from the "American Memory." Sadly, our enthusiasm for watching films has proven far greater than our commitment to preserving them. And ominously, more films are lost each year -- through the ravages of nitrate deterioration, color-fading and the recently discovered "vinegar syndrome," which threatens the acetate-based (safety) film stock on which the vast majority of motion pictures, past and present, have been preserved. The annual selection of films for the National Film Registry involves much more than the simple naming of cherished and important films to a prestigious list. This process serves as an invaluable means to advance public awareness of the richness and variety of the American film heritage, and to dramatize the need for its preservation. The Library of Congress does not take lightly its responsibility here; this is not simply another list of great films. Given that Congress established the Registry, and the Registry list is chosen by broad input from the American public and the diverse organizations on the Board, the Registry stands as a key record of America*s great diversity. For the 1998 Registry, I selected films after three levels of review: by the general public; by the distinguished members and alternates of the National Film Preservation Board and outside experts they recommended; and, finally, by me in consultation with the Library's motion picture staff. My emphasis, when making these decisions, has been, as Congress intended, to examine each film according to its historical, cultural or aesthetic significance. To make these judgments knowledgeably, I held a full day of discussions with the Board in June, and then screened and reviewed many of the films with our specialists in the Library's Motion Picture Division. This selection process should not be seen as "The Kennedy Center Honors," "The Academy Awards," "The People's Choice Awards," or "America*s Most Beloved Films." The films we choose are not necessarily either the "best" American films ever made, or the most famous. But they are films that continue to have cultural, historical or aesthetic significance-- and in many cases represent countless other films deserving of recognition. The 1996 Act allows me great latitude in naming obscure but important films, rarely viewed today by the film-going public. Such films deserve to be preserved so that we may study them as cultural artifacts, especially now that the Internet will in coming years make it possible for the public to access these films more readily, in full compliance with U.S. Copyright law. The selection of a film, I stress, is not an endorsement of its ideology or content, but rather a recognition of the film's importance to American film and cultural history and to history in general. Although we have made progress in preservation, we need to do even more. I hope that this year*s Registry announcement will not only draw attention to the titles we are honoring and the history they represent but also inspire greater support for film preservation. Let us make the Registry announcement an opportunity to affirm our public commitment to work together to save the full spectrum of America*s endangered film heritage. And now, let me read the 1998 list of films.... The last film in this year's list and the 250th added to the Registry thus far is the American classic "Twelve O'Clock High." In recalling this film, some note the expert direction of Henry King, others allude to the marvelous acting of Dean Jagger. EVERYONE, however, mentions the extraordinary performance of Gregory Peck, who, I am so personally thrilled and honored to have at tonight*s announcement. I'll spare Mr. Peck a retelling of the incredible feats in his life and career--for truly I doubt I can top his reception at the White House recently. But I will say, honestly and intently, that each time I see his stunning performance in "To Kill a Mockingbird," I feel my faith in human nature restored. And this faith is restored anew whenever one thinks of the magnificent work he has done in life outside film. Ladies and gentlemen, one of the finest acting talents of this century and an even better human being, Gregory Peck.
Go to the National Film Preservation Board Home Page
Go to the Library of Congress Home Page