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 home >> Civil Rights History Project >> Survey of Collections and Repositories >> Collections >> Collection Record

The Civil Rights History Project: Survey of Collections and Repositories

Behind the veil: Documenting African-American life in the Jim Crow South records

Repository: Duke University. Special Collections Library

Collection Description (CRHP): Chiefly interviews recorded on cassette tapes (10670 items, dated 1940-1997 (bulk 1993-1997). The printed materials with the collection include biographical information about informants, interview agreement forms, proper names sheets, brief summaries on the interviews, and transcripts of approximately 314 interviews. The transcripts are also available as electronic documents. The 1260 interviews, 1993-1997, in this collection cover a number of topics related to African-American life in the 20th century with a focus on the age of southern segregation. The collection includes interviews with people from Albany, Ga.; Fargo, Ark.; Birmingham and Tuskegee, Ala.; Charlotte, Durham, Enfield, New Bern, Wilmington, and Craven County, N.C.; LeFlore County, Miss.; Memphis, Tenn.; Muhlenburg County, Ky.; New Iberia and New Orleans, La.; Norfolk, Va.; Columbia, Orangeburg, St. Helena, and Summerton, S. C.; and Tallahassee, Fla.

Collection Description (Extant): Launched by Duke University's Lyndhurst Center for Documentary Studies in 1990, the Behind the Veil project seeks to record and preserve the living memory of African-American life during the age of legal segregation in the American South, from the 1890s to the 1950s. In order to correct historical misrepresentations of African-American experiences in the Jim Crow South, the project seized the opportunity to capture, through interviews, family photographs and other materials, the memories of black elders who survived this era of profound racial oppression. The resulting collection offers researchers an abundance of rich resources for understanding black self-images, racial pride and achievement during the long period of American apartheid. This documentary record reflects not only the terror, hardship and frustration of this period of second-class citizenship, but also the individual and collective struggles of black southerners to survive and prosper in spite of the policies of white supremacy. By collecting narratives that recount the everyday experiences of African Americans from various locations and backgrounds, the collection provides rich documentary evidence of the diversity of black life during the Jim Crow era.

Behind the Veil not only focuses on the experiences of individuals, but it also reflects the importance of black institutions as the backbone of black communities. The interviews, documents and photographs reflect the crucial role that black churches, fraternal societies, women's clubs, and political organizations played in African American community life. The testimony of educators and students from historically black colleges, agricultural schools and institutes enrich conventional beliefs about black agency in segregated schools. A rich record about black education can be gleaned from examining certain research sites including Tuskegee, Ala.; Fargo, Ark.; Tallahassee, Fla.; and Norfolk, Va.

Behind the Veil also provides a richly detailed account of the shape of southern segregation across time and in diverse locations, mapping the contours of both the formal laws and informal rules that restricted southern life. Segregation as public policy differed in rural and urban communities, while the rules that governed black interactions with whites often were distinct to each community. These nuances that governed race relations in southern cities, towns and rural communities are interspersed throughout the documents in this collection.

Although the questions that spurred on research in the Behind the Veil Project were raised by historians interested primarily in the age of segregation, the resulting record can inform research in diverse fields. Although the focus of the interviews was on the Jim Crow era, the life history format of most interviews led informants to comment on events after segregation. Vital information about civil rights struggles in the 1960s, African American participation in desegregation within local communities, and post-1965 activism and community work are also included in many Behind the Veil interviews. The interviews in this collection also raise crucial questions about the shape of memory and the creation of narratives that can inform not only research in oral history but also literature and anthropology. Research into black religion can be enriched by the voices of Behind the Veil. Studies that examine oppression and resistance could be challenged by the rich documentary record of labor and social culture that the collection presents. The Behind the Veil collection illuminates innumerable topics, time periods, and research interests.

During the summers of 1993, 1994 and 1995, multi-racial research teams traveled throughout the South to conduct oral history interviews with elders in African-American communities. During the first summer, the project ran a series of pilot studies in five North Carolina communities. Subsequently, the project followed a thematic approach while conducting research in areas selected to represent the diversity of cultures and geographic regions within the South, as well as the predominant work cultures of the region. Researchers were chosen from applications from history graduate students at a diverse range of schools, from the Ivy League to historically black institutions such as Jackson State and Clark-Atlanta to state universities such as Michigan and Maryland. Collectively, they conducted 1260 oral history interviews in more than twenty communities in ten Southern states. They also copied thousands of family photographs and other materials that reveal the diversity of African-American experiences under Jim Crow.

While based at Duke University, the Behind the Veil project has been a collaborative venture from its inception. Scholars from historically black colleges and universities such as LeMoyne-Owen College, North Carolina Central University, Johnson C. Smith University, Jackson State University and Clark-Atlanta University have helped to shape the research project and have developed related curriculum projects to introduce undergraduates to oral history methodology as a means to discover and document the histories of the communities in which they live. Research teams worked in collaboration with a wide variety of black community and civic groups, which played critical roles in recruiting potential interviewees and providing logistical support. Summer researchers were hosted by distinguished institutions such as the Black Archives at Florida A&M University and the Civil Rights Institute in Birmingham, Alabama. Local institutions also helped researchers to understand the communities in which they worked and to frame their interview questions and research agendas accordingly. In turn, the Behind the Veil project has deposited copies of the interviews in local archives at or near the various cooperating institutions, assuring that these histories will be accessible to local community members as well as scholars throughout the South.

The Behind the Veil project received major funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Ford Foundation and the Lyndhurst Foundation. Duke University historians William Chafe, Raymond Gavins and Robert Korstad co-direct the project. Aminah Pilgrim has served as Research Associate for Behind the Veil, and Leslie Brown, Alexander X. Byrd, Greta Ai-Yu Niu, Paul Ortiz and Anne M. Valk have been the project's Research Coordinators.

The addition to the collection, 2000-0183, includes information from "American Communities: An Oral History Approach," a course associated with the Behind the Veil oral history project at Duke's Center for Documentary Studies. The course was taught by Paul Ortiz at Duke University in 1996-1997.

Another addition, 2004-0344, includes slides related to African American life in the 20th century with a focus on the Jim Crow Era.

Access Copy Note: All researchers must sign an agreement form before using the records. Please consult the Description of Series section of the finding aid for information concerning the restrictions governing access to and use of the materials in the Behind the Veil Collection. Some materials are closed to all researchers.
In addition, patrons must sign the Acknowledgment of Legal Responsibility and Privacy Rights form before using this collection.
Also, all or portions of this collection may be housed off-site in Duke University's Library Service Center. Consequently, there may be a 24-hour delay in obtaining these materials.
Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library to use this collection.
Approximately 100 oral histories have been digitized and are available online.

Date(s): 1940-1997 and undated (bulk 1993-1997)

Digital Status: Partial

Existing IDs: OCLC Number: 40234194

Extent: 10670 items, incl. cassette tapes and 314 transcripts

Finding Aid URL: External Link

Language: English

Interviewees: Luke Billingsley, Laura Blount, Martha Bradford, Ella Bryant, Leola Caldwell, Viola Carter, Thomas Chatmon, Theressa Clouden, Alice Conway, David Crumbley, Jimmie Cuffie, Roosevelt Cuffie, Aurie Flowers, Edward Gamble, Sr., Doris George, Melvin George, Stine George, Mary Geter, Rebecca Goines, Cornelius Grant, E. Grant, James Hall, Odessa Hamilton, McCree Harris, Eva Hawkins, Arefellow Hill, Irene Hudson, Willie Jackson, Mary Jenkins, Marva Jones, Carol King, Carolyn King, Dan Lilly, Frances McCorico, Josie Miller, James Mott, Mae Nelson, Mamie Nelson, Daisy Newsome, Anna Pitts, Olive Rogers, Arthur Searles, Charles Sherrod, Shirley Sherrod, Mary Shipp, Emma Spivey, Ada Stewart, John Taylor, Robella Taylor, Jurl Watkins, Samuel Wells, Curtis Williams, Leola Williams, Mary Willis, Rufus Alexander, Sherman Baker, Sr. Lucinda Baltimore, Charles Black, Mary Briscoe, J. Buffington, Ernest Caldwell, Mattie Chandler, Johnana Chappel, Tolbert Chism, Florence Clay, Rucker Clayton, Ella Clemons, Rosetta Counts, Geraldine Davidson, Dora Dennis, Zelma Denton, Sammie Dilworth, Acie Dread, Earl Farr, Annie Floyd, Georgia Ford, Ellihue Gaylord, Sr., Malvie Giles, Chairty Glover, Della Green, Myrtle Gunthrope, Morestine Hardison, Lotus Harris, Mattie Hatch, Oda Hendricks, Major Hollister, Helen Howard, Cleo Jeffers, Julice Jones, Le Jones, Robert Jones, George Kimbell, John Kimbell, Calvin King, Sr., Anne Kirby, Money Kirby, Harrison Locke, Martha Locke, Mattie Lowe, Almae Lucas, Willie Lucas, Kathleen Mallory, William Malone, Ulysses Marshall, Parie Mathis, Deborah McDaniel, Mildred McKinney, Ulysses McNeal, Cleaster Mitchell, Thelma Nash, Thereasa Pearson, Ruby Pickens, Sam Scott, Robert Sharp, Carrie Shepherd, Madge Shepherd, James Story, Daniel Swanigan, Katie Swanigan, Elmer Thompson, Lois Thompson-Marks, Willie Tims, Joe Todd, Christine Trailor, Curtis Turnage, Elizabeth Turnage, Huston Tyler, Thomas Vaughn, Minnie Walker, Mollie Walker, Tommy Wells, Samella White, Iola Wilhite, Joe Williams, Johnnie Williams, Martin Williams, Oliver Williams, Sarah Williams, Rosetta Wilson, Delores Woods, Ethel Wright, Leon Alexander, Betty Allen, Henry Anderson, Olivia Anderson, Johnnie Archie, William Battle, Allie Brown, Earl Brown, George Brown, James Cannon, Rebeca Cannon, Melvin Caswell, Juanita Clarke, Mollie Daniel, Blanche Davis, Clarence Dean, Joe Dickson, Lillie Fincher, Annie Fisher, John Fisher, Charlie Foster, Edward Gardner, Spurgeon Goodson, Walter Grace, Charles Gratton, Ezekiel Hameen, Larry Henderson, Lola Hendricks, Mary Hinton, Horace Huntley, Colonel Johnson, Dorothy Jones, Helen Knowles, Lary Langford, Jessie Lewis, Sr., JoAnna Little, James Lowe, Annie Milton, Quitman Mitchell, Irene Monroe, Thomas Moore, Chanie Nabors, Rose Nelson, William Patton, Mary Ruffin, John Rutledge, Gertrude Sanders, Lucy Steele, Lovell Taylor, James Washington, Eddie Watts, Ike Wheeler, Leon White, Mazie Williams, Roosevelt Williams, Alberta Wilson, Florence Wilson-Davis, Abraham Woods, Wilhelmenia Adams, Mildred Aldridge, Almetto Alexander, Jenny Alexander, Margaret Alexander, Zechariah Alexander, Anne Anderson, Sarah Ballard, Miriam Bates, Irma Bland, Eunice Brown, DeGrandval Burke, Eddie Byers, Bernice Caldwell, Mattie Caldwell, Walter Cavers, Thelma Colston, Doreatha Cornelius, Olethea Counts, Dorothy Cousar, Kathleen Crosby, Mildred Davis, Price Davis, Samuel Davis, Joseph DeLaine, Morris Donald, Thereasea Elder, Vermelle Ely, Charles Ferguson, Helen Givens, Harry Goins, Sudie Goins, Willie Golden, Florence Goodwin, Estelle Graham, Zenobia Hagans, Alice Hart, Reginald Hawkins, Dorothy Hayes, Henry Heath, Walter Holmes, Annie Hunter, Wright Hunter, Cedric Jones, Charles Jones, Ione Jones, Doretha Leak, Kathleen Lynch, Lucille Lynch, Marilyn McClain, Wyonella McClain, Alene McCorkle, Jean McDuffie, Minnie McKee, Bernice Miller, Larry Miller, Ruth Morris, Alma Mungo, Lucille Lynch, Margaret Neal, Sephus Neal, Nell Oxner, Magnolia Pickens, Elizabeth Randolph, Emery Rann, Clyde Ray, Violet Robinson, Lena Sammons, Mamie Shipman, Amanda Shute, Mathew Shute, Sr., Lloyd Sigler, Curtina Simmons, Alphatene Spears, Rufus Spears, Sr., Dorothy Steele, Lille Stovall, Clyde Strong, Daisy Stroud, Gerson Stroud, Wirron Stroud, Beatrice Swift, Mildred Taylor, Rosita Taylor, Jean Thompson, Anita Thornton, Walter Twitty, Maxine Weathers, Allegray White, Margaret Williams, Tommy Williams, Catherine Wilson, Effie Woods, Clifton Woods, Jr., Grace Wyche, Thomas Wyche, Maria Wynn, Imogene Yongue, William Yongue, Jr., Ann Atwater, Ila Blue, Russell Blunt, Harriette Brinkley, Arthur Brodie, Artelia Bryant, R. Bryant, George Butterfield, Ernestine Bynum, Willie Cherry, William Clement, Manuel Crockett, Willie Davis, Jr., Anne Duncan, Vivian Edmonds, Howard Fitts, Jr., York Garrett, Collins Hinton, Sadie Hughley, Christopher Knight, James Lee, Omeda Livingston, Julia Lucas, Theresa Lyons, Calvin Malone, Emily McCandies, Vivian McCoy, Henderson McCullers, Patricia McCullers, Horace Mimms, Malvin Moore, III, Sam Owens, Benjamin Page, Mildred Page, Hastie Price, Milton Quigless, Alexander Rivera, Easter Sanders, James Sanders, George Scarborough, Peggy Tapp, Jennie Taylor, Margaret Turner, Clarence White, Nathaniel White, Sandra Wilson, Suzie Allen, Betty Artis, Annie Babcock, James Battle, Mary Bodie, Dorothy Boone, Erma Boone, Leroy Brantley, Claudia Brinkley, Richard Brinkley, Bernice Bronson, Lester Bullock, Dorothy Cannon, Doris Cochran, Salter Cochran, Mae Cofield, Frederick Coley, Maggie Crowell, Mayonie Daniel, Effie Edge, Richard Edge, Margaret Ellis, Julia Exum, Anthony Farmer, Bertha Farmer, Lillie Fenner, Annie Foreman, Myrtle Forney, Eddie Francis, Eddie Francis, Jr., Eullia Francis, Florenza Grant, Gary Grant, Matthew Grant, Richard Grant, Theresa Harvey, Clarence Hedgepath, Katherine Hinton, Nancy Hunter, Beaulah Johnson, Lucille Johnson, Ruth Johnson, Jack William Johnson, Gladys Kea, Katherine Lee, Richard Lee, Walter Leonard, Daisy Lowe, Willie Lowe, Georgia Lynch, Orator Lynch, David Lyon, Celestine Lyons, Lillian Mallary, Dezell Mallory, Effie Mann, Azree Marable, Ada McWilliams, Fred Moore, Mildred Moore, Katherine Morrow, Mildred Pearce, Deatherine Pelerson, Emerson Pittman, Vera Plummer, Clarence Powell, Cocolua Powell, Willie Powell, Pam Reynolds, Mary Rogers, Solomon Ruel, Elvenia Russel, Jasper Scott, Louise Scott, Cassie Smith, Lillie Smith, Vivian Spence, Addie Thompson, Annie Thorne, Roy Tillery, Gracie Valentine, Willie Ward, Susie Weathersbee, Mildred Whitaker, Lossie Whitehead, Evelyn Wilkens, Lola Williams, Almyra Wills, Hubert Wills, Aaron Boyd, Ernestine Clemmons, Annie Gavin, Bill Spivey, Dorothy Spivey, Essie Alexander, Lou Allen, Sarah Automon, George Bailey, Corean Barber, Georgia Bays, Eura Bowie, Jackson Brown, Rosie Bynum, Eddie Carthan, Arthur Clayborn, Jr., Annie Conley, Arnette Davis, William Davis, Alice Ewing, Booker Federick, Cora Flemming, O. Gibson, Alice Giles, Ara Green, Lucinda Gulledge, Jimmie Hammond, Sadie Hammond, Frank Howard, Irene Howard, James Ingram, Ruthie Jackson, John Johnson, Mandie Johnson, Johnny Jones, Mrs. King, Arthur Kinnard, Frank Lacy, Herman Leach, Robert Lindsey, Daisy Livingston, Hettie Love, Maurice Lucas, Ruth Malone, Virginia Martin, David Matthews, John Matthews, Willie McCaskill, Nathan McDonald, Georgia Moore, Bertha Payne, Jessie Payne, Jr., A. Peyton, Elizabeth Pitts, Willie Reed, Cathon Robinson, James Robinson, Juvernia Robinson, Susie Rolling, Richard Rose, Erma Russell, Rosie Sanders, Charles Scott, H. Scott, Walter Sculark, Hattie Simmons, Ruth Simms, Maggie Sims, Jessie Stewart, Lillie Stewart, William Stewart, Julia Taylor, Laura Taylor, Lola Taylor, Alma Ward, Genora Washington, Willie Washington, Minnie Weston, Bernice White, Dorsey White, David Wicks, H. Williams, R. Williams, Ruby Williams, Chris Young, Sr., Ada Ateman, Lozell Ballard, Evelyn Bates, Noah Bond, Noah Bond, LeRoy Boyd, James Bradley, Savy Bragg, Lanetha Branch, Grace Brandon, Willie Broome, Allen Brown, Jr., Lillie Brown, Susie Bryant, Dorothy Buggs, Willie Butler, Artherene Chalmers, Oatie Conley, Barbara Cooper, John Cooper, Hortense Crivens, Blondale Cross, Mattie Cummings, Essie Davis, Matthew Davis, Margarette Edmond, Mack Edwards, Elizabeth Farris, Mae Fitzgerald, Earl Forest, Marie Fort, Jessie Gilliland, Martha Gladney, Addie Golden, Lovie Griffin, Willie Harrell, Lutisha Hill, Edgar Hunt, Euless Hunt, Henrene Jenkins, Agnes Johnson, Elnora Johnson, Harry Johnson, Helen Johnson, JoAnn Johnson, Ralph Johnson, Amy Jones, Andrenetta Jones, Charles Jones, Johnny Jones, Merlin Jones, Otha B. Strong Jones, John Jordan, Lillie Kirkon, Roosevelt Lampkins, Irene Laws, Mary Lawson, Ida Leachman, Alversa Lee, Charles Lewis, Lenora Lewis, Lucille Lewis, James Lindsey, Rosa Malden, Hortense Mayweather, Earline McDowell, Hazel McGee, Lucille McKinley, Melvina McKinley, Rebecca McKinley, Frederick McKinney, Mary McNeal, Alma Morris, Margarette Murphy, Jerry Neyland, Carrie Ordley, Frank Pearson, Ida Peterson, Lafayette Rayburn, Benjamin Richmond, Mary Robinson, Annie Rodgers, Taylor Rogers, Joseph Scott, Harry Simons, Bertha Sims, Constant Sims, Melma Sims, Georgia Maxine Smith, Robert Spencer, Evelyn Starling, Edmonia Taylor, Evelyn Taylor, Ralph Thompson, Callie Tucker, Allegra Turner, Elaine Turner, Johnnie Turner, Sally Turner, Rodie Veazy, Jessie Walton, Elizabeth Ware, Dorothy Westbrook, Earline Whitehead, Alvia Williams, Elijah Williams, Percy Williams, Emogene Wilson, Ernest Withers, Earnest Woods, Abdul Yahweh, Charles Birden, Sr., Sanford Byrd, Mabel Cartwright, Mary Dulin, Elcie Eaves, James Eaves, Wilodean Ellis, Sydney Gilmore, Jr., Mallie Goins, Carrie Harris, Aldrich Horton, Al Lovan, Dorothy Martin, Arthur McClellan, Leslie Smith, Carrie Stafford, Willie Stafford, Eva Adams, Arlestus Attmore, Mamie Barrett, Velma Becton-Fleming, Emma Bell, Rhem Bell, Hayward Best, Stephen Best, Carolyn Bland, James Bland, Wallace Booker, Aaron Boyd, Alfreda Brown, Dorothy Bryan, Samuel Bryan, Arabelle Bryant, Emeler Campbell, Sarah Campbell, Dorcas Carter, Ernestine Clemmons, Alfreda Collins, Dolletha Daniels, Rebecca Davis, Mary Dent, Leamon Dillahunt, Annie Donaldson, Nettie Donlap, Myrtle Downing, Lucy Dudley, Helen Dunson, Narcissus Evans, Rowene Forbes, William Franklin, Annie Gavin, Grace George, Rosa Gramtham, James Harding, Clayton Harris, James Hayes, Willie Hickman, Frances Jones, Luvenia Joyner, Christine Kelsey, Mary League, Astor Lewis, James Lewis, Marion Lewis, Rosetta Lewis, Ruth Lewis, Lucinda McCoy, Catherine Moore, George Moore, Leander Morgan, John Moye, Velma Payne, Mary Perry, Lucille Pickens, Mary Roberts, Loretta Ryder, Naomi Ryder, Ruth Simmons, Bessie Spicer, Mary Stone, Andrew Strong, Georgia Sutton, Harriet Wade, Clay White, Mary White, Ronald White, Emma Whitfield, Janie Williams, Clarita Wordlaw, JoAnn Allen, Edran Auguster, Lucille Bernard, Hattie Bijou, Prosper Bijou, Edward Blaise, Edward Bonds, Lester Boutte, Anderson Broussard, Martha Carson, Jessie Chassion, Doris Cobb, Baron Coleman, Clarence Crofton, Clarence Drexler, Ruby Drexler, Melvenia Durall, Audrey Gabriel, Cora Gibson, Ivory Gibson, Joseph Granger, Frances Hadnott, Louie Hadnott, William Harding, John Henderson, James Henderson, Sr. Joseph Henry, Erline Hills, Georgiana Jack, Cora Jackson, Cyrus Jackson, Herman James, Maude Jean-Batiste, Josephine Jones, Mertha Jones, Arthur Joseph, Rose Joseph, Inez Journet, Alvin Knatt, Clement Knatt, Foreman Knatt, Willia Knatt, Agnes Landry, Mary LeDee, Alice Livingston, Armstong Manuel, Beulah Manuel, Irene Mathews, Ernest Metz, Sylvania Miller, Taylor Miller, Maizel Mitchell, Albert Moore, Sr., Esther Noah, Joseph Noah, Edith Polk, Matthew Polk, Washington Polk, Alfred Raggette, Albert Raymond, Wendy Rochelle, James Russell, Sr., Altemus Sigue, Jr., Alfred Smith, Virginia Sutton, William Thompson, Jr., Joe Thompson, Sr., Otto Vital, John Volter, Victoria Volter, Grady Williams, William Zepherin, Dolores Aaron, Avery Alexander, Philomene Allen, Norman Bartholomew, Emmett Bashful, Harold Battiste, Joseph Beslin, Florence Borders, John Boucree, Louise Bouise, Eula Brown, Eddie Brumfield, Mary Butler, Beverly Caitone, Herbert Cappie, Ruth Cappie, Millie Charles, Emmett Cheri, Hugh Clem, Olivia Cook, Peter Dave, Jr., Brenda Davillier, Mary Davis, Harold Dejan, William Despenza, Viola Dunbar, Pealie Elloie, Louise Franklin, Albert Gardner, Jr., Laura Goods, Michael Gourrier, Veronica Hill, Alcee Honore, Johnny Hunter, Olga Jackson, Julius Jenkins, Mary Johnson, Edward Jordan, Irvin Joseph, Augusta Kerry, Jerome Ledoux, Silas Lee, Veora Lundy, Alma Lyons, Marcus Lyons, Bessie Macdonald, Olga Merrick, Hazel Moore, Francis Morial, Jeff Morris, Jr., Jessie Mouton, Maude Oselen, Marjorie Pajeaud, Quillie Parker, Lillian Perry, Mary Preston, Maurice Prevost, Brenda Quant, Clarita Reed, Archie Rhone, Audrey Robertson, Dolores Robertson, Wilde Robinson, Evelyn Rousseve, Mildred Rousseve, Charles Smith, Germaine Smith, Helen Smith, Emanuella Spencer, Aline St. Julien, Beatrice Stanley, George Thomas, Jr., Everett Williams, Mary Abbyss, Lena Bass, Barbera Bell, Annie Benton, Geraldine Boone, Dolores Bradley, Flossie Branchcomb, Elroy Brandon, Alease Brickers, John Brown, Shirley Brown, Olivia Cherry, Carnell Clay, William Coker, Henrietta Crudup, Lena Dabney, Horace Downing, Essie Dozier, Marian Edmonds, Pearly Edwards, Kate Forrest, John Foster, Margaret Gordon, Jocelyn Goss, Madeline Gowens, Cecille Gray, Lucille Grimstead, Sarah Grimstead, Doris Hall, Elnora Hayslette, Harvey Johnson, Jessie Johnson, Arthur Lawson, Leon Lawson, Josephine Linyear, William Linyear, Toledo Littlejohn, Esther Lloyd, Alma Mitchell, Donald Morgan, Andrew Neal, Velma Neal, Catherine Owens, Eugene Owens, Doris Parrish, Evelyn Peevy, Jean Perry, Naomi Pharr, Hazel Phillips, Jesse Phillips, Celestine Porter, Jessie Rattley, Mozelle Riddick, Paul Riddick, Alberta Rodgers, Georgia Ryder, Clarice Sharp, Walter Skyles, Leah Stith, Lenora Studivant, Jeanette Wallace, William Watson, Cassie Wells, Addie White, Patricia White, Elwood Williams, Hortense Williams, George Wyatt, Benjamin Adams, Fannie Adams, Solomon Bonds, Jr., Theodue Briggman, Charles Brooks, Sr., John Brunson, Rossie Caldwell, Gracia Dawson, Julius Felder, Ernest Finney, Jr., Mr. Georgia, Amy Gilbert, Blinzy Gore, Matie Harp, John Harper, II, Betty Hassell, Ernest Henderson, Ophelia Henderson, Robert Hubbard, Annie Jamison, Marion Jamison, Jr., Barbara Jenkins, Leo Kerford, Mary Lewis, Sudie Lott, Hattie Martin, Frank Martin, II, Sarah Mathews, Irene McCollom, James McCollom, Bernice Middleton, Earl Middleton, L. Mitchell, Rachel Mitchell, Eugene Montgomery, Norman Pendergrass, Sr., Larence Poole, Mrs. Reagan, Joseph Richburg, Harold Roland, Marion Sharrow, Haulean Smith, Mr. Smith, James Sulton, Jr., Nettie Thompson, Zack Townsend, Leo Twiggs, Cloria Walker, Camilla Washington, Aunt Weise, Ethel Williams, Minnie Wright, Geraldyne Zimmerman, Earnestine Atkins, Rosalie Barnwell, Jonathon Beasley, George Brown, Leroy Brown, Corinne Browne, Helen Bryan, Eddie Bryant, Elizabeth Bundick, Peter Carr, Rebecca Carr, Eva Chaplin, Kathleen Daise, Coazell Frazier, Irene Gaston, David Henderson, Ercell Holmes, Laura Holmes, Lula Holmes, William Holmes, Emma Jones, Joseph Legree, Evangeline Major, Etta Mann, Richard Middleton, Louise Nesbit, Isaiah Orr Alexandria Patterson, D. Singleton, Kato Singleton, Henry Small, George Weathers, Isaac Willborn, Jonathan Williams, Robbie Wright, Ida Allen, Johnny Allen, Willie Mae Anderson, Thelmer Bethune, Eliza Briggs, Willie Mae Briggs, B. Butler, John Canty, Mary Canty, Mamie Carter, Janette Chandler, Marguirite DeLaine, Alice Doctor-Wearing, Willine Dow, Abraham Fleming, John Flood, Carnetta Frierson, Mary Frierson, Robert Georgia, Sammy Gordon, Jr., Ruben Gray, Melison Green, Celestine Gregory, Sallie Howard, Chars Kennedy, Octavia Leneau, Moses Levy, Josephine McCray, Margaret Nelson, Leola Parks, Ferdinand Pearson, Lorene Poole, General Ragin, Ruth Richardson, Abraham Smith, Elease Smith, Sallie Washington, Julia Wells, Cornelias Williams, Minnie Wright, Samuel Young, Dora Anderson, Malachia Andrews, Barbara Boardly, Witt Campbell, Carrie Carr, Bernyce Clausell, Peggy Davis, Mary Diallo, A. Dixie, Laura Dixie, Samuel Dixie, James Eaton, Martha Farmer, Mary Gaines, Robert Griffin, Sallie Hackley, Bessie Harris, Angelina Hogans, Aquilina Howell, John Huntley, Harrieta Jefferson, Dorothy Jones, Vivian Kelly, Ethel Kemp, Gertrude King, Clarence Lewis, Ellen Matheus, Mavis McClendon, Gertrude Miller, Robert Mungen, H. Nims, James Palmer, Florida Parker, Alice Peacock, Benjamin Perry, Lillie Robinson, Sue Russell, Lessie Sanford, Sarah Simmons, Charles Smith, Cornelius Speed, Edwina Stephens, Annette Thorpe, Edwin Thorpe, Courtney Walker, Samuel Washington, Jr., Gertrude Williams, Myrtle Williams, Roosevelt Wilson, Daisey Young, Wilhelmina Baldwin, David Beasley, Frank Bentley, Cordelia Brown, Fannie Cooley, Edward Donald, Lee Ducksworth, George Ferrell, Johnny Ford, Mai Graham, Ernest Grant, Elbert Green, Annie Hall, Ezell Hall, Henry Hooten, Lillian Hooten, Ira Jones, Wilhelmina Jones, Marian Judkins, Robert Judkins, Detroit Lee, Demetrice Lyles, Clarence Marable, Bennie Mayberry, Sandy McCorvey, Johnnie Owens, George Paris, Otis Pinkard, Ann Pointer, Charles Pollard, Georgia Poole, John Price, Bettie Quinn, Hersey Quinn, L. Randolph, Amelia Robinson, Della Sullins, William Taylor, Elaine Thomas, Frank Toland, Archie Walker, Claudius Walker, Ferdie Walker, Alfreda Wallace, Ida Wells, Willie Whitehead, James Woodson, Jessie Wright, Kenneth Young, Camille Alexander, George Baker, Lisbon Berry, Shirley Berry, Hartford Boykin, Charles Bryant, Elijah Burnett, Carter Chestnut, William Childs, Joan Coco, Ida Cooper, George Davis, Ruth Davis, Henry Donaldson, Laura Donaldson, Doris Epps, Harry Forden, Clarence Fredlaw, Margaret Fredlaw, Ethel Gerald, Edna Harris, Elvenia Harris, Jeanne Harris, Lula Hassell, Edward Haynes, Charlie Henry, Ezell Johnson, Alexander Jones, Dorothy Kirby, Eugene Logan, Willie Logan, George MacRae, John Mallette, Renée Mallette, Aaron McCrae, Marvis McCrimmon, Willie Morris, Margaret Neal, Cornelius Nixon, Beryl O'Dell, Margaret Rogers, Elizabeth Saulter, Audrey Session, Lillian Smith, Rebecca Smith, John Spaulding, Leonard Spencer, Ernest Swain, Katherine Tate, Esther Thomas, Roderick Thomas, Bertha Todd, Edward Todd, Leroy Upperman, Alene Wade, David Wade, Mamie Wade, Margaret White, Lucille Williams, Lloyd Wilson, Dorothy Woods

Rights (Extant): Duke University holds the copyright for this collection. Additional restrictions may apply to the use of materials in the Behind the Veil Collection. See the Description of Series section of the finding aid or consult with Library staff for more informati


African Americans--Social conditions
Segregation--Southern States


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