Audio Recordings Mule on the Mount

Format Audio Recordings
Contributors [Kennedy, Stetson]
Halpert, Herbert
Hurston, Zora Neale
Kennedy, Stetson
Dates 1939
Location Florida
United States
Language English
Subjects African Americans
Duval County
Federal Music Project Office
Field Recordings
Jacksonville, Florida
Work Songs
Mule on the Mount
Contributor Names
Hurston, Zora Neale (performer)
Halpert, Herbert, 1911-2000 (collector)
Kennedy, Stetson (collector)
Hurston, Zora Neale (speaker)
Halpert, Herbert, 1911-2000 (speaker)
Created / Published
Jacksonville, Florida, 1939-06-18.
Subject Headings
-  African Americans
-  Work songs
-  United States -- Florida -- Jacksonville -- place of recording
Field recordings
-  The most widely-distributed work song in the United States, with a consistent tune but varying verses. Zora Neale Hurston originally learned "Mule on the Mount" from George Thomas in Eatonville, Florida. Sung here in track-lining rhythm, it is also sung in other work sites, such as the lumber camps, and in recreational venues such as the "jooks."
-  Zora Neale Hurston, originally of Eatonville, Florida, was already a published novelist and folklorist when she took a job with the Federal Writers' Project in Florida.
-  Performance Note: "Mule on the Mount" (vocals) performed by Zora Neale Hurston at Federal Music Project Office, Jacksonville, Florida, on June 18, 1939.
sound recording
sound disc
1 sound disc (4 minutes, 34 seconds) : analog ; 12 in.
AFC 1939/005: AFS 03136 B01 DLC-AFC American Folklife Center, Library of Congress
Other Formats
Access Condition
For rights information please contact the Folklife Reading Room at

Rights & Access

Rights assessment is your responsibility.

More about Copyright and other Restrictions

For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources.