Format Web Pages
Subjects Ax, Emanuel
Biographies
Biography
Songs and Music
Title
Emanuel Ax
Subject Headings
-  Ax, Emanuel
-  biographies
-  songs and music
Genre
biography
Other Formats
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/loc.natlib.ihas.200152704/mets.xml


Rights & Access

Rights assessment is your responsibility.

More about Copyright and other Restrictions

For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources.

Born in Poland in 1949, Emanuel Ax moved with his family to Canada before settling in New York City in 1961. There, beginning in 1966, he studied piano with Mieczyslaw Munz at the Juilliard School of Music. He made a concert tour of South America in 1969; in the year that followed he completed a bachelor's degree in French at Columbia University and became an American citizen.

Ax had his New York recital debut in 1973, at Alice Tully Hall. In 1974, at the age of twenty-five, he took first place in the Arthur Rubinstein International Piano Master Competition in Tel Aviv. A successful American concert tour was the result, along with numerous European appearances. He received the prestigious Young Concert Artists' Michaels Award in 1975, and the coveted Avery Fisher Prize in 1979.

An exclusive Sony Classical recording artist since 1987, Mr. Ax made his debut on this label with a collection of Chopin scherzos and mazurkas. He has won two Grammy Awards, both for recordings of the piano sonatas of Franz Joseph Haydn.

Devoted to chamber music, Mr. Ax regularly performs with artists such as Yo-Yo Ma, Peter Serkin, Young Uck Kim, and Jaime Laredo; the late Isaac Stern was also a frequent partner. These collaborations frequently result in widely acclaimed recordings and additional Grammy Awards.

In recent years Mr. Ax has developed an enthusiasm for twentieth-century music, including the works of Paul Hindemith, Aaron Copland, and others. He has given the premier performances of compositions by John Adams, Christopher Rouse, Bright Sheng, Melinda Wagner, and others. This growing interest in contemporary music has produced numerous commissions for new music and further additions to his acclaimed discography.

Discography

1975

RCA Red Seal ARL1-1030 - "First Prize Winner: Artur Rubinstein International Piano Master Competition"

Chopin, Frédéric
   Sonata No. 3 in B minor, Op. 58
Schubert, Franz (arr. Franz Liszt)
   Das Wandern
   Der Müller und der Bach
   Liebesbotschaft
   Hark, hark, the lark
Liszt, Franz
   Gnomenreigen
   étude in A minor, after Paganini

1976

RCA Red Seal ARL1-1569

Chopin, Frédéric
   Andante spianato and Grand polonaise brillante in E-flat Major, Op. 22
   Nocturne in B Major, Op. 62, No. 1
   Scherzo No. 4 in E Major, Op. 54
   Polonaise-fantaisie in A-flat Major, Op. 61

Library of Congress Concert 1976-02-20.
LWO 8894
LWO 8717 (edited for broadcast)
Sergiu Luca, violin.

Dvorák, Antonín
   Sonatina for Violin and Piano in G minor, Op. 100
Janácek. Leos
   Sonata for Violin and Piano
Bartók, Béla
   Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 1

1977

RCA Red Seal ARL1-2083

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Sonata for Piano No. 21 in C Major, Op. 53, "Waldstein"
   Variations and Fugue in E-flat Major, Op. 35, "Eroica"

RCA Red Seal ARL 1-2240
Cleveland Quartet.

Dvorák, Antonín
   Quintet for Piano and Strings No. 2 in A Major, Op. 81/B.155

1978

RCA Red Seal ARL1-2530
Yoko Nozaki, piano (3rd work).

Ravel, Maurice
   Gaspard de la nuit
   Valses nobles et sentimentales
   Ma Mere l'Oye

RCA Red Seal ARL1-2868
Philadelphia Orchestra, Eugene Ormandy, conductor.

Chopin, Frédéric
   Concerto for Piano No. 2 in F minor, Op. 21
   Trois nouvelles etudes
   Scherzo No. 2 in B-flat minor, Op. 31

Reissue of Concerto: RCA Siver Seal 60789 (1991)

1980

RCA Red Seal ARL1-3457
Dallas Symphony Orchestra, Eduardo Mata, conductor.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
   Concerto for Piano No. 20 in D minor, K. 466
   Concerto for Piano No. 22 in E-flat Major, K. 482

Library of Congress Concert, 1980-06-12.
LWO 16635
Robert Mann, violin.

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 5 in F Major, Op. 24, "Spring"
   Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 4 in A minor, Op. 23
   Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 1 in D Major, Op. 12, No. 1
   Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 7 in C minor, Op. 30, No. 2

Library of Congress Concert, 1980-06-13.
LWO 16641
Robert Mann, violin

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 2 in A Major, Op. 12, No. 2
   Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 8 in G Major, Op. 30, No. 3
   Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 9 in A Major, Op. 47

Library of Congress Concert, 1980-06-15.
LWO 16642
Robert Mann, violin.

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 6 in A Major, Op. 30, No. 1
   Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 3 in E-flat Major, Op. 12, No. 3
   Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 10 in G Major, Op. 96

1981

RCA Red Seal ARL1-2752

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Sonata for Piano No. 23 in F minor, Op. 57, "Appassionata"
   Sonata for Piano No. 26 in E-flat Major, Op. 81a, "Les Adieux"
   Polonaise for Piano in C Major, Op. 89

Reissue of Polonaise: RCA Red Seal 61213 (1992)

RCA Red Seal ATC1-4097
Philadelphia Orchestra, Eugene Ormandy, conductor.

Chopin, Frédéric
   Concerto No.1 for Piano and Orchestra in E minor, Op. 11

Reissues: RCA Silver Seal 60789 (1991)
RCA Red Seal 68023 (1994)

1982

RCA Red Seal ARC1-4522
Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, Pinchas Zukerman, conductor.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
   Piano Concerto No. 17 in G Major, K. 453
   Piano Concerto No. 18 in B-flat Major, K. 456

Reissue: RCA Red Seal 60136 (1989)

RCA Red Seal ARC1 - 4275

Schumann, Robert
   Humoresque, Op. 20
   Phantasiestücke, Op. 12

CBS Records IM 37251
Yo-Yo Ma, cello.

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Sonata for Cello and Piano No. 1 in F Major, Op. 5, No. 1
   Sonata for Cello and Piano No. 2 in G minor, Op. 5, No. 2

Reissue: CBS Masterworks 42446 (1988)

1983

RCA Red Seal ARC2-4734
Margaret Price, soprano; Marilyn Horne, mezzo-soprano; Jon Vickers, tenor; Matti Salminen, bass; New York Philharmonic Orchestra, New York Choral Artists, Zubin Mehta, conductor.

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125, "Choral"
   Fantasia in C minor, Op. 80, "Choral Fantasy"

Reissue of Fantasia: RCA Red Seal 61213 (1992)

RCA ARC1-4825
Richard Stoltzman, clarinet.

Weber, Carl Maria von
   Grand duo concertante for Clarinet and Piano in E-flat Major, Op. 48
Schubert, Franz (arr. for clarinet by Stoltzman)
   Sonata for Arpeggione and Piano in A minor, D 821

1984

RCA Red Seal ARC1-4954
Cleveland Quartet.

Brahms, Johannes
   Quintet for Piano and Strings in F minor, Op. 34

RCA Red Seal ARC1- 4962
Chicago Symphony Orchestra, James Levine, conductor.

Brahms, Johannes
   Concerto No. 1 in D minor, Op. 15

CBS Masterworks IM 39024
Yo-Yo Ma, cello.

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Sonata for Cello and Piano No. 3 in A Major, Op. 69
   Sonata for Cello and Piano No. 5 in D Major, Op. 102, No. 2

Reissue: CBS Masterworks 42446 (1988)

RCA Red Seal ARC1-5167
Guarneri Quartet; Julius Levine, double bass.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
   Serenade No. 13 in G Major, K. 525, "Eine kleine Nachtmusik"
Schubert, Franz
   Quintet for Piano and Strings in A Major, D. 667/Op. 114, "Trout"

Reissue of Trout Quintet: RCA Red Seal 55270 (2004)

1985

RCA Red Seal ARC1-7022
Yo-Yo Ma, cello.

Brahms, Johannes
   Sonata for Cello and Piano No. 1 in E minor, Op. 38
   Sonata for Cello and Piano No. 2 in F Major, Op. 99

Reissue: RCA Red Seal 59415 (2004)

1986

RCA Red Seal ARC1-5476
Håkan Hagegård, baritone.

Schubert, Franz
   Schwanengesang, D 957

RCA Red Seal HRC1-5854
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Andre Previn, conductor.

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Concerto for Piano and Orchestra No. 5 in E-flat Major, Op. 73, "Emporer"

Reissues: RCA Red Seal 61213 (1992)
RCA Red Seal 55267 (2004)

RCA Red Seal ARC1-7069

Chopin, Frédéric
   Ballade No. 1 in G minor, Op. 23
   Ballade No. 2 in F Major, Op. 38
   Ballade No. 3 in A-flat Major, Op. 47
   Ballade No. 4 in F minor, Op. 52
   Sonata for Piano No. 2 in B-flat minor, Op. 35, "Funeral March"

Reissue: RCA Red Seal 60480 (1990)

CBS Masterworks IM 42121
Yo-Yo Ma, cello.

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Sonata for Cello and Piano No. 4 in C Major, Op. 102, No. 1
   Seven Variations in E-Flat Major on the theme "Bei Mannern welche Liebe Fuhlen" from Mozart's opera "Die Zauberflaute," WoO. 46
   Twelve Variations in G Major on the Theme "See, The Conqu'ring Hero Comes", from Handel's Oratorio "Judas Maccabaeus," WoO. 45
   Twelve Variations in F Major on the Theme, "Ein Mädchen Oder Weibchen," from Mozart's "Die Zauberflüte," Op. 66

Reissue: CBS Masterworks 42446 (1987)

1987

RCA Red Seal ARC1-6498
The Cleveland Quartet.

Schumann, Robert
   Quartet for Piano and Strings in E-flat Major, Op. 47
   Quintet for Piano and Strings in E-flat Major, Op. 44

1988

CBS Masterworks MK 42387
Yo-Yo Ma, cello; Isaac Stern, violin; Jaime Laredo, violin.

Brahms, Johannes
   Quartet for Piano and Strings No. 3 in C minor, Op. 60

Reissue: Sony Classical 90405 (2003)

CBS Masterworks MK 42663
Yo-Yo Ma, cello.

Schumann, Robert
   Phantasiestücke for Clarinet (or Cello or Violin) and Piano, Op. 73
   Adagio & Allegro for Horn (or Violin or Cello) and Piano in A-flat Major, Op. 70
   Stücke im Volkston for Cello (or Violin) & Piano, Op. 102

Reissue: Sony Classical 92757 (2005)

CBS Masterworks 44527
Yo-Yo Ma, cello; Kim Young Uck, violin.

Dvorák, Antonín
   Trio for Piano and Strings No. 3 in F minor, Op. 65/B 130
   Trio for Piano and Strings No. 4 in E minor, Op. 90/B 166, "Dumky"

Reissue of "Dumky": Sony Legacy 89860 (2002)

CBS Masterworks MK 44544

Chopin, Frédéric
   Scherzo for Piano No. 1 in B minor, Op. 20
   Scherzo for Piano No. 2 in B-flat minor/D-flat Major, Op. 31
   Scherzo for Piano No. 3 in C-sharp minor, Op. 39
   Scherzo for Piano No. 4 in E Major, Op. 54
   Mazurka for Piano in C sharp minor, Op. 6, No. 2
   Mazurka for Piano in C major, Op. 24, No. 2
   Mazurka for Piano in C minor, Op. 56, No. 3
   3 Mazurkas for Piano, Op. 59

Reissue of Scherzos: Sony Classical SK 72554 (2005)

CBS Masterworks 44664
Isaac Stern, violin; Yo-Yo Ma, cello

Shostakovich, Dmitri
   Trio for Piano and Strings No. 2 in E minor, Op. 67
   Sonata for Cello and Piano in D minor, Op. 40

Reissue of Sonata: Sony Classical 90397 (2003)

1989

CBS Masterworks 44918

Haydn, Franz Joseph
   Sonata for Keyboard No. 58 in C Major, H. 16, No. 48
   Sonata for Keyboard No. 33 in C minor, H. 16, No. 20
   Sonata for Keyboard No. 60 in C Major, H. 16, No. 50
   Sonata for Keyboard No. 38 in F Major, H. 16, No. 23

Reissue: Sony Classical SK 92766 (2005)

CBS Masterworks 44980
Yo-Yo Ma, cello.

Strauss, Richard
   Sonata for Cello and Piano in F Major, Op. 6
Britten, Benjamin
   Sonata for Cello and Piano in C Major, Op. 65

Reissue: Sony Classical 90397 (2003)
Reissue of Strauss: Sony Classical 94735 (2005)

CBS Masterworks 45646
Vincent Cordelette, percussion; Pierre-Yves Sorin, bass; Claude Bolling, piano.

Bolling, Claude
   Sonata for 2 Pianos No. 1 in C minor
   Sonata for 2 pianos No. 2 in G-sharp minor

1990

CBS Masterworks 45933

Brahms, Johannes
   Sonata for Piano No. 3 in F minor, Op. 5
   Intermezzi (3) for Piano, Op. 117

1991

CBS Masterworks MK 45846
Isaac Stern, violin; Yo-Yo Ma, cello; Jaime Laredo, violin.

Brahms, Johannes
   Quartet for Piano and Strings No. 1 in G minor, Op. 25
   Quartet for Piano and Strings No. 2 in A Major, Op. 26
   Quartet for Piano and Strings No. 3 in C minor, Op. 60

Reissue of Quartet No. 3 and parts of No. 1: Sony Classical 90405 (2003)

Sony Classical SK 46486
Yo-Yo Ma, cello.

Prokofiev, Sergei
   Sonata for cello and piano in C Major, Op. 119
Rachmaninov, Sergei
   Sonata for cello and piano in G minor, Op. 19

Reissue: Sony Classical SK 90397 (2003)

1992

Sony Classical SK 48046

Brahms, Johannes
   Variations and Fugue for Piano in B-flat Major on a Theme by Handel, Op. 24
   Pieces (6) for Piano, Op. 118
   Rhapsodies (2) for Piano, Op. 79

Sony Classical SK 48066
Isaac Stern, violin; Yo-Yo Ma, cello; Jaime Laredo, violin.

Fauré, Gabriel
   Quartet for Piano and Strings No. 1 in C minor, Op. 15
   Quartet for Piano and Strings No. 2 in G minor, Op. 45

Reissue: Sony Classical 92745 (2004)

Sony Classical SK 48191
Yo-Yo Ma, cello.

Brahms, Johannes
   Sonata for Cello and Piano in E minor, Op. 38
   Sonata for Cello and Piano in F Major, Op. 99
   Sonata for Violin and Piano in D minor, Op. 108 (arr. for cello)

Sony Classical SK 48383
Franz Liszt Academy Chamber Orchestra, Emanuel Ax, conductor.

Haydn, Franz Joseph
   Concerto for Keyboard in F Major, H. 18, No. 3
   Concerto for Keyboard in G Major, H. 18, No. 4
   Concerto for Keyboard in D Major, H. 18, No. 11

Reissue: Sony Legacy 89853 (2002)
Reissue of Concerto No. 11: Sony Classical 90392 (2003)

Sony Classical S2K 45820

Brahms, Johannes
   Theme and Variations for Piano in D minor

1993

Sony Classical SK 48484

Liszt, Franz
   Piano Sonata in B minor, S 178
   Aida Paraphrase
   Rigoletto Paraphrase
   Vallee d'Obermann

Reissue of Piano Sonata: Sony Classical SK 94746 (2005)

Sony Classical 53289
Philharmonia Orchestra, Esa-Pekka Salonen, conductor.

Schoenberg, Arnold
   Concerto for Piano, Op. 42
Liszt, Franz
   Concerto for Piano No. 1 in E-flat Major, S 124
   Concerto for Piano No. 2 in A Major, S 125

Reissue of Liszt concertos: Sony Classical SK 94746 (2005)

1994

Sony Classical SK 53112
Yo-Yo Ma, cello; Pamela Frank, violin.

Chopin, Frédéric
   Trio for Piano and Strings in G minor, Op. 8
   Introduction and Polonaise for Cello and Piano in C Major, Op. 3
   Sonata for Cello and Piano in G minor, Op. 65

Sony Classical 53339
Isaac Stern, violin; Jaime Laredo, violin; Yo-Yo Ma, cello.

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Quartet for Piano and Strings in E-flat Major, Op. 16
Schumann, Robert
   Quartet for Piano and Strings in E-flat Major, Op. 47

Sony Classical SK 53635

Haydn, Franz Joseph
   Sonata for Keyboard No. 47 in B minor, H. 16, No. 32
   Sonata for Keyboard No. 53 in E minor, H. 16, No. 34
   Sonata for Keyboard No. 32 in G minor, H. 16, No. 44
   Sonata for Keyboard No 59 in E-flat Major, H. 16, No. 49

RCA Red Seal 61705
Håkan Hagegård, baritone.

Schubert, Franz
   Die schöne Müllerin

1995

Sony Classical SK 57499
Yo-Yo Ma, cello; Richard Stoltzman, clarinet.

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Trio for Piano, Clarinet and Cello in B-flat Major, Op. 11
Brahms, Johannes
   Trio for Piano, Clarinet and Cello in A minor, Op. 114
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
   Trio for Clarinet, Piano and Cello in E-flat Major, K. 498, "Kegelstatt"

Reissue: Sony Classical 92730 (2004)
Reissue of Mozart: Sony Classical 93071 (2004)

Sony Classics SK 69284

Brahms, Johannes
   Fantasies (7) for Piano, Op. 116
   Pieces (4) for Piano, Op. 119
   Sonata for Piano No. 2 in F-sharp minor, Op. 2

1996

Sony Classical SK 57971
Omar Ebrahim, spoken vocals; David Taylor, trombone; Stefan Huge, percussion; András Adorján, flute; Peter Serkin, piano; Yo-Yo Ma, cello; Deborah Marshall, clarinet; William Purvis, french horn; András Adorján, piccolo; Deborah Marshall, bass clarinet; Peter Lieberson, conductor.

   "King Gesar" - Peter Lieberson

Sony Classical SK 61964
Pamela Frank, violin; Rebecca Young, viola; Yo-Yo Ma, cello; Edgar Meyer, double bass; Barbara Bonney, soprano.

Schubert, Franz
   Quintet for Piano, Violin, Viola, Cello and Contrabass in A Major, Op. Posth. 114, D. 667, "Trout Quintet"
   Sonata for Piano and Arpeggione in A minor, D. 821 (transcribed for cello)
   "Die Forelle" for voice and piano

Reissue: Sony Classical SK 92765 (2005)

1997

Sony Classical 62728 - "Los Tangueros"
Pablo Ziegler, piano.

Piazzola, Astor
   Revirado
   María de Buenos Aires: Fuga y misterio
   Milonga del Angel
   Decaríssimo
   Soledad
   La muerte del Angel
   Adios nonino
   Libertango 
   Las estaciones porteños (4): Verano porteño
   Michelangelo 70
   Buenos Aires hora zero
   Tangata

Sony Classical SK 66841
Jaime Laredo, viola; Isaac Stern, violin; Yo-Yo Ma, cello.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
   Quartet for Piano and Strings No. 1 in G minor, K 478
   Quartet for Piano and Strings No. 2 in E-flat Major, K 493

Reissues: Sony Legacy 89794 (2002)
Sony Classical 93071 (2004)

1998

Sony Classical SK 63371
Emanuel Ax, 19th Century Erard piano; Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment, Sir Charles Mackerras, conductor.

Chopin, Frédéric
   Concerto for Piano No. 2 in F minor, Op. 21
   Fantasia on Polish Airs for Piano and Orchestra in A Major, Op. 13
   Andante spianato et Grand polonaise brillante in E-flat Major, Op. 22

1999

Sony Classical SK 60771
Emanuel Ax, 19th Century Erard piano; Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment, Sir Charles Mackerras, conductor.

Chopin, Frédéric
   Concerto for Piano No. 1 in E minor, Op. 11
   Waltz for Piano, Op. 34, No. 1 in A-flat Major, "Valse brillante"
   Variations for Piano and Orchestra in B flat major on Mozart's "Là ci darem", Op. 2

Sony Classical SK 63229
Boston Symphony Orchestra, Bernard Haitink, conductor; Jules Eskin, cello; Yo-Yo Ma, cello.

Brahms, Johannes
   Concerto for Piano No. 2 in B-flat Major, Op. 83
   Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 1 in G Major, Op. 78 (transcribed for cello by Brahms)

2000

Nonesuch 79607
Cleveland Orchestra, Christoph von Dohnányi, conductor.

Adams, John
   Concerto for Piano, "Century Rolls"

Sony Classical SK 60747
Yo-Yo Ma, cello.

Corigliano, John
   Fantasia on an Ostinato
   The Ghosts of Versailles: Phantasmagoria for Cello and Piano

Sony Classical SK 62597
Jaime Laredo, viola; Yo-Yo Ma, cello; Isaac Stern, violin.

Dvorák, Antonín
   Quartet for Piano and Strings No. 2 in E-flat Major, Op. 87 / B 162

Reissue: Sony Classical 93013 (2003)

2001

Sony Classical SK 61767
Yefim Bronfman, piano.

Rachmaninov, Sergei
   Suite for 2 Pianos No. 1, Op. 5, "Fantaisie-tableaux"
   Suite for 2 Pianos No. 2, Op. 17
   Symphonic Dances, Op. 45

2003

Sony Classical SK 89363

Haydn, Franz Joseph
   Sonata for Keyboard No. 31 in A-flat Major, H. 16, No. 46
   Sonata for Keyboard No. 34 in D Major, H. 16, No. 33
   Sonata for Keyboard No. 29 in E-flat Major, H. 16, No. 45
   Sonata for Keyboard No. 49 in C-sharp minor, H. 16, No. 36
   Sonata for Keyboard No. 35 in A-flat Major, H. 16, No. 43

RCA Red Seal 55703
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, André Previn, conductor.
New York Philharmonic Orchestra, New York Choral Artists, Zubin Mehta, conductor. (Last work)

Beethoven, Ludwig van
   Concerto for Piano No. 1 in C Major, Op. 15
   Concerto for Piano No. 2 in B-flat Major, Op. 19
   Concerto for Piano No. 3 in C minor, Op. 37
   Concerto for Piano No. 4 in G Major, Op. 58
   Concerto for Piano No. 5 in E-flat Major, Op. 73, "Emperor"
   Fantasia in C minor, Op. 80, "Choral Fantasy"

Reissue of Concertos 4 and 5: RCA 55267 (2004)

2005

Sony Classical SK 89868
Yefim Bronfman, piano.

Brahms, Johannes
   Variations on a Theme by Haydn for 2 Pianos, Op. 56b, "St Anthony"
   Sonata in F minor for 2 Pianos, Op. 34b

Sony Classical SK 72554

Chopin, Frédéric
   Ballade for Piano No. 1 in G minor, Op. 23
   Ballade for Piano No. 2 in F Major / A minor, Op. 38
   Ballade for Piano No. 3 in A-flat Major, Op. 47
   Ballade for Piano No. 4 in F minor, Op. 52


DISCLAIMER:

This discography was assembled using available catalog records, internet resources, discographies, and other works. Especially included are the performers' Library of Congress concert appearances, the recordings of which reside in the Library of Congress's Recorded Sound collections. Excluded are the numerous promotional and special market reissues of excerpts of complete recordings.

Although every attempt has been made to be comprehensive, some recordings may have inadvertently been missed. Please send any additions and corrections to http://www.loc.gov/rr/askalib/ask-perform.html.

While many of the recordings listed here are in the collections of the Library of Congress, not all are. If you have a question about specific recordings, please contact the Recorded Sound Reference Center at 202-707-7833. All recordings listed are protected by applicable Federal and State laws. The Library of Congress cannot provide copies of any of these recordings without proper permission from the copyright holder(s).