Format Film, Video
Contributors Kaser, Brad
Stewart, Leslie J.
Dates 1945
Language English
Subjects Activities
Ethnography
Hay Derricks
Haying
Haying Crews
Landscapes
Motion Pictures
Mowing
Ninety Six Ranch
Title
Haying Season (ca. 1945) (part 1 of 3)
Contributor Names
Stewart, Leslie J. (Narrator)
Kaser, Brad (Narrator)
Stewart, Leslie J. (Interviewer)
Created / Published
ca. 1945
Subject Headings
-  Landscapes
-  Ninety-Six Ranch
-  Activities
-  Haying
-  Hay derricks
-  Haying crews
-  Mowing
-  Ethnography
-  Motion Pictures
Genre
Ethnography
Motion Pictures
Notes
-  Les Stewart's (and grandson Brad Kaser's) narration [NV82-CF-R1 and R5], recorded on 82/07/07 by Margaret Purser and Carl Fleischhauer, describes the footage that he filmed in the mid1940s which documents the haying process on the 96 Ranch at the time.
-  Les's footage of haying in this video clip testifies to his sensibility and skill as a documentary filmmaker. The film, originally made ca. 1945, indicates his concern that every process step be included and his understanding that the work event includes the arrival of the workers, the preparation and setup of equipment, and the meal that marks the midpoint of the day.
-  The era following World War II was the time of transition from horse-drawn to motor-driven machinery. This is clearly evident in Les's film of winter feeding, where both teams and tractors are employed, as in video selection . In the footage of haying, some horse-drawn equipment, including the derrick itself, has simply been attached to a tractor. Mechanization of this sort does not offer much of a reduction in labor; the next generation of machines, designed to work with motors, enabled ranchers to cut back on hired help.
-  Les's narration explains how the work is organized and directed. In the opening section of the video, he notes that scheduling haying between major holidays reduces the likelihood of losing the crew to celebratory drunkenness. The hierarchy of workers is implied in his comments about the lead mower and the stack boss. Les also tells how members of the mowing crew would criticize each other for failures to execute the work properly.
-  The stacking crew also exercised self-discipline through verbal exchanges in a competitive work environment. In remarks not included in this soundtrack, Les said that if one corner of the neat, box-like stack were to collapse due to a stacker's poor craftsmanship, the crew would "whoop and holler and embarrass the poor guy to death."
-  The haying crew posing for the group portrait shown here numbers eleven. In 1983, Les could still recall many of the men's names: from the left are Raymond Arriola, Frank Sellers, an unidentified Indian, George Morrel, Bias Urrieta, Gus Ramasco, an unidentified Indian, Stanley Smart, Arthur Horn, Albert Skedaddle, and an unidentified man. The stackers in the Ninety-Six's crew were Northern Paiute Indians. Les said that they were better at the work than whites, an idea echoed in Stanley Smart's comments in audio selection . When mowing and stacking occurred simultaneously, the number of men in a derrick-era hay crew might total eighteen or twenty. The mowing crew would consist of about five men on mowing machines and one or two men operating buck rakes. There might be one or two more men supporting this crew and yarding the hay, pushing it to a location convenient for the subsequent stacking operation. The stacking crew included five or six stackers on top; two net tenders and a tractor driver (or teamster) on the ground; and two buck rake men to move hay onto the net.
-  Les said that the stacks would sometimes stand for as many as a dozen years, and the slight amount of precipitation in the valley would only spoil the outer layer. Stacks of baled hay will not last as long.
-  The film shown here is virtually untouched from Les's own editing. The soundtrack is assembled from two performances recorded on the same occasion. Most of the track was taken from the second reading, when Les was joined by his six-year-old grandson Brad Kaser.
Medium
16mm film
Call Number
AFC 1991/021: NV-VDP-VT9
Source Collection
Paradise Valley Folklife Project Collection (AFC 1991/021)
Repository
American Folklife Center
Digital Id
http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.afc/afc96ran.v018s1


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