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The French air quality management framework is based on a mix of international agreements, European directives, and domestic legislation.  The first significant domestic legislation on air pollution came in 1961. Since 1996, French law has recognized the people’s right to breathe air that is not harmful to their health.  Air quality is managed at the national and local levels through various regulatory measures.  An extensive air quality monitoring system is in place throughout France, comprised of a network of licensed nonprofit groups coordinated by the Central Laboratory for Air Quality Monitoring.  This air quality monitoring system informs the implementation of air quality improvement measures.  Emissions of certain substances are prohibited or limited through means such as mandatory technical standards regarding the manufacture, sale, storage, use, maintenance, and/or disposal of various products and goods.  Pollution is also prevented through “atmosphere protection plans,” which all urban areas of over 250,000 inhabitants must implement to meet air quality standards set by the government.  Furthermore, emergency measures may be taken whenever the air quality limits of a certain area are exceeded or risk being exceeded. In these circumstances, the local prefect may restrict or entirely suspend the activities that contribute to the pollution spike.  This may include, if necessary, entirely prohibiting the operation of certain vehicles in the affected area.  Additionally, a 2015 law authorized local authorities to establish restricted traffic zones in urban zones and other areas subject to an atmosphere protection plan. French air quality control also relies on national objectives on the emissions of several air pollutants, including a national carbon budget, which is a general cap on greenhouse gas emissions for a five-year period. The national objectives on other emissions are medium and long term reduction goals for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, non-methane volatile organic compounds, ammonia, and fine particles.  These objectives are to be attained through the implementation of a National Low-Carbon Strategy (for the national carbon budget) and a National Atmospheric Pollutant Emissions Reduction Plan (for the objectives on other emissions).  These two plans overlap in many areas, although they also have their specific points.  They each detail a series of different measures to reduce emissions, including tax and financial incentives, establishing more traffic restriction zones, developing infrastructures for clean alternative fuels, developing new technologies, changing agricultural practices, developing alternatives to burning waste, making buildings more energy efficient, and raising public awareness.

I.  Legal Framework

The French air quality management framework is based on a mix of international agreements, European directives, and domestic legislation.[1]  France is a party to the 1979 Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and all its protocols,[2] the 1992 Rio Convention on Climate Change,[3] the 1997 Kyoto Protocol,[4] and the 2015 Paris Agreement.[5]  France is also bound by European Union texts such as Directive 2008/50/EC on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe[6] and Directive 2016/2284 on the Reduction of National Emissions of Certain Atmospheric Pollutants.[7]  Directive 2008/50/EC has been incorporated in French domestic legislation,[8] but not Directive 2016/50/EC.

The first significant domestic legislation on air pollution came in 1961, with a law on atmospheric pollution and odors.[9]  This marked the beginning of gradually stronger policy responses to air pollution, with a landmark law being adopted in 1996: the Law on Air and Rational Energy Usage (often referred to under its French acronym, LAURE).[10]  Although many of its provisions have been superseded by more recent legislation, this law is significant, among other reasons, for being the first to recognize a right “for everyone to breathe air that is not harmful to their health.”[11]  Other noteworthy laws include the so-called Grenelle II Law of 2010[12] and the 2015 Law on Energy Transition for Green Growth.[13]  All provisions currently in effect are codified in the Code de l’Environnement (Environmental Code).[14]  Additionally, air quality is managed at the national and local levels through regulatory measures such as regional schemes on climate, air and energy (Schémas régionaux du climat, de l’air et de l’énergie, SRCAE) and territorial climate energy plans (Plans climat-énergie territoriaux, PCET).[15]  With some exceptions, the present report will mostly focus on regulations and policies at the national level.

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II. Air Quality Monitoring

An extensive air quality monitoring system was progressively put in place from 1997 onward, first in towns of over 25,000 inhabitants, and by January 2000 throughout the entire national territory.[16]  The air quality monitoring system relies on a network of licensed nonprofit groups referred to as licensed associations for air quality monitoring [Associations agréées de surveillance de la qualité de l’air, AASQAs].[17]  The leadership of each AASQA is composed of representatives from the national government, regional and local authorities, industries that emit monitored substances, recognized environmental advocacy groups and consumer advocacy groups, and at least one representative from the healthcare professions.[18]  There are currently eighteen AASQAs covering the entire French territory under the coordination of the Central Laboratory for Air Quality Monitoring (Laboratoire central de surveillance de la qualité de l’air).[19]

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III. Atmosphere Protection Plans and Air Quality Standards

Measures to prevent pollution include prohibitions or limitations on the emission of certain substances.  This is done through mandatory technical standards regarding the manufacture, sale, storage, use, maintenance, and/or disposal of various products and goods.[20]  The legislation and regulations mandating these technical standards are often found in the Environmental Code, but are sometimes found in other French legal codes,[21] such as the Road Code (for vehicles)[22] or the Building and Housing Code (for buildings).[23] 

Pollution is also prevented through “atmosphere protection plans.” All urban areas of over 250,000 inhabitants must implement policies to limit air pollution to meet standards set by the government.[24]  These standards are established by the French government but must be consistent with standards set by the European Union and, when applicable, the World Health Organization.[25]  These standards concern levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), lead (Pb), particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter (PM10) and 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), benzene (C6H6), ozone (O3), as well as concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, nickel, and benzo[a]pyrene.[26]  The Environmental Code standards are expressed, depending on the substance in question, in terms of annual averages, daily averages, or hourly averages, with some substances being subject to limits expressed in more than one type of average.[27]  Nitrogen dioxide emissions, for example, are limited to both an annual average of 40 micrograms per cubic meter of air (µg/m³) and an hourly average of 200 µg/m³ that must not be exceeded for more than eighteen hours per year.[28]

The current French air quality standards are as follows:

Pollutants

Limit value

Quality objectives

Recommendation and information threshold

Alert threshold

Critical level

Nitrogen dioxide
(NO2)

Annual mean:Since the 01/01/10 : 40 µg/m³.

Hourly mean:Since the 01/01/10 : 200 µg/m³ not to be exceeded more than 18 per year.

Annual mean:40 µg/m³.

Hourly mean:200 µg/m³.

Hourly mean:

  • 400 µg/m³ exceeded on 3 consecutive hours.


  • 200 µg/m³ if the information level has already been reached the day before and the current day, and if a new exceedence is forecasted for the next day.

Nitrogen oxides
(NOx)

Annual mean(NO2 equivalent) :
30 µg/m³ (for the vegetation protection).

Sulphur dioxide
(SO2)

Hourly mean: 125 µg/m³ not to be exceeded more than 3 per year.

Daily mean: Since the 01/01/05 : 350 µg/m³ not to be exceeded more than 24 per year.

Annual mean: 50 µg/m³.

Hourly mean:  300 µg/m³.

Hourly mean 500 µg/m³ exceeded on 3 consecutive hours.

Annual & winter mean (for the vegetation protection ): 20 µg/m³.

Lead
(Pb)

Annual mean:Since the 01/01/02 : 0,5 µg/m³.

Annual mean:
0,25 µg/m³.

Particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less
(PM10)

Annual mean:Since the 01/01/05 : 40 µg/m³.

Hourly mean: Since the 01/01/2005 : 50 µg/m³ not to be exceeded more than 35 per year.

Annual mean: 30 µg/m³.

Daily mean:50 µg/m³.

Daily mean:80 µg/m³.

Carbon monoxide
(CO)

Maximum daily on a 8-hour mean: 10 000 µg/m³.

Benzene
(C6H6)

Annual mean: Since the 01/01/10 : 5 µg/m³.

Annual mean: 
2 µg/m³.

 

Pollutant

Limit value

Quality objectives

Recommendation and information threshold

Alert threshold

Target value

Ozone
(O3)

Protection of human Health, on a maximum daily
eight-hour mean: 120 µg/m³ per civil year.



Protection of vegetation, AOT40* from May to July 8am to 8pm : 6 000 µg/m³.h

Hourly mean:
180 µg/m³.

Alert threshold for the Human health protectionAlert threshold for the Human health protection, on a hourly mean: 240 µg/m³ per hour 

Alert threshold for a progressive implementation of emergency measures, hourly means:

  • 1st threshold: 240 µg/m³ exceeded during 3 consecutive hours.


  • 2nd threshold: 300 µg/m³ exceeded during 3 consecutive hours.


  • 3rd threshold: 360 µg/m³.

Protection of human Health: 120 µg/m³ for the daily maximun on a 8hour average not to be exceeded more than 25 days per calendar year calculated on a 3 year average. This target value is applicable from 2010.

Protection of vegetation: AOT 40* from May to July from 8am until 8pm:
18 000 µg/m³.h on a 5 year average. This target value is applicable from 2010.

*AOT40 (expressed in (μg/m3) ∙ hours) means the sum of the difference between hourly concentrations greater than
80 μg/m3 (= 40 parts per billion) and 80 μg/m3 over a given period using only the one-hour values measured
between 8.00 and 20.00 Central European Time (CET) each day.

 

Polluant

Limit value

Quality objectives

Target value

Exposure reduction target relative to the AEI*2011

Exposure concentration obligation

Particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less
(PM2.5)

Annual mean: 27µg/m³decreasingevery year by equal annual percentage to reach 25µg/m³ by 2015.

Annual mean: 10 µg/m³.

Annual mean: 20 µg/m³.

Initial Concentration

Reduction target in percent

<= à 8,5 µg/m³

0%

>8,5 and <13 µg/m³

10%

>=13 and <18 µg/m³

15%

>=18 and <22 µg/m³

20%

>= à 22 µg/m³

All appropriate measures to archive 
18 µg/m³

20 µg/m³


Polluant

Target value
which should be met by the 31st of December 2012

Arsenic

6 ng/m³

Cadmium

5 ng/m³

Nickel

20 ng/m³

Benzo(a)pyrène
(used as a tracer of the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs)

1 ng/m³

* Averaged over the calendar year of the total content in the PM10 fraction.

Source: French Standards, Airparif, https://www.airparif.asso.fr/en/reglementation/normes-francaises (last visited Apr. 13, 2018), archived at https://perma.cc/Q6GR-5MQH.  Reproduced with permission of Airparif.

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IV. Emergency Measures

Whenever the air quality limits of a certain area are exceeded or risk being exceeded, the prefect responsible for that geographic area must immediately inform the public and take measures to mitigate the pollution spike’s magnitude and its effect on the population.[29]  After informing the mayors of towns within the affected zone, the prefect may restrict or entirely suspend the activities that contribute to the pollution spike.[30]  The restrictions must be proportionate to the pollution risk.[31]  Activities that may be restricted include (but are not limited to) automobile traffic—for example, through the temporary lowering of speed limits.[32]  If necessary, traffic may be entirely prohibited for certain categories of vehicles during the duration of the pollution emergency, and the prefect may encourage the use of public transportation by lowering transportation rates or by making it entirely free.[33]

There have been several examples of pollution-related emergency measures over the last several years.  On December 6 and 7, 2016, for example, vehicle traffic in Paris and several nearby suburbs was limited due to an excess of fine particles in the air.[34]  Driving certain vehicles, such as heavy trucks and vehicles with uncatalyzed exhaust pipes, was entirely prohibited during that time.[35]  For most other vehicles, an “alternating traffic” plan was enforced: driving vehicles with a license plate ending with an even number was authorized on December 6 and prohibited on December 7, while vehicles with a license plate ending with an odd number were prohibited on December 6 and authorized on December 7.[36]  Certain vehicles were exempted from this emergency plan, and could therefore be driven on both days: “Green” vehicles (such as electric cars, natural gas vehicles, and hybrids); vehicles necessary for the performance of public services (such as garbage trucks, police vehicles, fire trucks, ambulances, and postal vehicles); vehicles used for the city’s food supply (vehicles used to supply the city’s markets, grocery stores, cafes, and restaurants); and light-weight and medium-weight vehicles that are absolutely necessary to conduct a professional activity and that are easily identifiable as such (buses, taxis, tow-trucks, small trucks, etc.).[37]

A few weeks later, on January 23–25, 2017, new pollution spikes in several French regions, including Paris and Lyon (France’s third largest city), caused the respective prefects of these regions to implement emergency plans.[38]  The plan for Lyon relied principally on an “alternating traffic” scheme similar to the one described above.[39]  However, a new type of scheme was implemented in Paris: “differentiated traffic” (circulation différenciée).[40]  This new plan relies on a mandatory classification of vehicles into one of six categories according to the vehicle’s emissions level.  Paris’ differentiated traffic plan prohibited the operation of the vehicles categorized in the two most polluting categories.[41]  Another differentiated traffic plan, which this time prohibited the operation of vehicles in the three most polluting categories, was implemented in the Paris region on June 22, 2017.[42]

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V. Vehicle Emissions Standards and Restricted Traffic Zones

The 2015 Law on Energy Transition for Green Growth authorized local authorities to establish restricted traffic zones (also referred to as environmental zones) in urban zones and other areas subject to an atmosphere protection plan.[43]  All vehicles operating within these restricted traffic zones must display a special sticker indicating their emissions categorization.[44]  These restricted traffic zones may be permanent or weather-dependent.[45]  Vehicles that do not have the required sticker are prohibited from permanently restricted traffic zones at all times, but are allowed in weather-dependent zones so long as there is no air pollution spike.[46]  There are at least twenty-eight environmental zones throughout France, including Paris and its region, and the cities of Strasbourg, Grenoble, and Lyon.[47]

The sticker, referred to as the “CRIT’Air sticker” (vignette CRIT’Air), classifies vehicles into one of six categories, plus an additional “uncategorized” type that is not eligible for a sticker.[48]  The categories are principally based on European emissions standards (EURO rating) and the date on which the vehicle was manufactured.[49]

The CRIT’Air categories are as follows:

https://www.crit-air.fr/fileadmin/_processed_/csm_EN_CritAir_Klassifizierung_23e4b8e9b6.png

Source: Crit’Air Classification, CRIT’Air, https://www.crit-air.fr/en/information-about-the-critair-vignette/the-french-vignette-critair/who-will-get-which-critair-colours.html (last visited Apr. 16, 2018), archived at https://perma.cc/KR4S-KPSG.  Reproduced with permission of CRIT’Air.

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VI.  Carbon Budgets and Low-Carbon Strategy

On November 18, 2015, the French government issued its first national carbon budget and low-carbon initiative.[50]  These were issued in pursuance of a provision of the 2015 Law on Energy Transition for Green Growth, codified in the Environmental Code, that requires the government to decree, “for the 2015–2018 period, and then for every consecutive five-year period, a national greenhouse gas ceiling called the ‘carbon budget’.”[51]  The 2015 law also requires the government to decree a “national low-carbon intensity development strategy, called ‘low-carbon strategy’ . . . which defines the road to follow towards a policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in conditions that are economically sustainable in the medium and long terms.”[52]  The law specifies that the low-carbon strategy must “take into account the specificities of the agricultural sector,” in particular cattle farming.[53]  Furthermore, the government should be careful that national efforts to decrease emissions are not cancelled out by increased high-carbon imports.[54]

1.  National Carbon Budget

The French national carbon budgets are essentially “caps on greenhouse gas emissions established for successive five-year periods, designed to set the downward trend in emissions.”[55] The national carbon budget for 2015–CO18 was set at 110 metric tons (t) of CO2 equivalent (CO2 eq) per year for economic sectors that fall within the European Union Emissions Trading System (excluding international aviation), 332 t of CO2 eq for other sectors, and 442 t of CO2 eq for all sectors combined.[56]  The subsequent all-sectors-combined budgets were set at 399 t of CO2 eq for 2019–2023 and 358 t of CO2 eq for 2024–2028.[57]

2.  National Low-Carbon Strategy

According to the National Low-Carbon Strategy, France aims to reduce its carbon footprint through the following measures:[58]

  • a reduction in the carbon intensity of the economy: developing renewable energies, using bio-based materials (e.g. timber in construction), encouraging cleaner, more mindful travel, especially via low-carbon technologies, and awareness-raising among consumers ;
  • a major development of energy savings in all sectors, especially industry, buildings and transport ;
  • the development of the circular economy: eco-design, recycling and reuse.

The means to reach those goals include raising the awareness of companies, institutions, and the general public; creating a guarantee fund for energy transition and encouraging energy efficiency investments; raising the portion of energy consumption taxes corresponding to carbon consumption; encouraging sustainable land management; encouraging research and development of new technologies for a carbon-free economy; developing low-carbon transportation, buildings, agriculture, and industry; encouraging the development of a bio-based economy; and protecting and expanding forest ecosystems.[59] 

With regard to energy consumption taxes, the government aims to increase the portion corresponding to carbon consumption from €22 (about US$27) per metric ton of CO2 in 2016 to €56 (US$69) per metric ton of CO2 in 2020 and €100 (US$124) in 2030.[60]  With regard to low-carbon transportation, the national strategy takes 2013 levels of emissions as a point of reference and aims to reduce transportation emissions by at least 70% of these levels by 2050.  This is to be achieved in large part by improving vehicle energy efficiency (with a goal of new light-duty vehicles having an average fuel efficiency of 2 liters (L)/100km [118 miles/gallon] by 2030) and developing the infrastructure for low-carbon transport (charging points for electric cars, etc.).[61]  For low-carbon buildings, the national strategy’s target is to reduce residential-tertiary sector emissions by at least 87% of 2013 levels by 2050, through regulations increasing the energy and environmental performance of new buildings and policies to increase retrofitting efforts for existing buildings.[62]  For low-carbon energy, the goal is to reduce industry emissions by 75% of 2013 levels by 2050, mainly by improving energy efficiency, recycling and reuse of materials, replacing carbon-intensive materials with less carbon-intensive ones, energy recovery, and energy substitution.[63]  The plan also notes that “in the longer term, the development and deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) will play a significant role in achieving targets.”[64]

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VII. National Atmospheric Pollutant Emissions Reduction Plan

In May 2017, the French government issued national objectives on the emissions of several air pollutants.[65] These objectives, defined in reference to 2005-level emissions, are as follows:

From 2020 to 2024

From 2025 to 2029

From 2030 Onward

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

-55 %

-66 %

-77 %

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

-50 %

-60 %

-69 %

Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC)

-43 %

-47 %

-52 %

Ammonia (NH3)

-4 %

-8 %

-13 %

Fine Particles (PM2, 5)

-27 %

-42 %

-57 %

Source: Décret No. 2017-949 du 10 mai 2017 fixant les objectifs nationaux de réduction des émissions de certains polluants atmosphériques en application de l’article L. 222-9 du code de l’environnement art. 1, https://www.legi france.gouv.fr/eli/decret/2017/5/10/DEVR1707211D/jo/texte, archived at https://perma.cc/7WUR-KR5Y.

Concurrently, the government issued a National Air Pollutant Emission Reduction Plan (Plan national de Réduction des Emissions de Polluants Atmosphériques, PREPA),[66] as required by the Environmental Code.[67]  This Plan consists of a long list of measures to be implemented in the 2017–2021 time frame in the industry, transportation, building, and agriculture sectors, as well as measures to improve research, innovation, and participation and coordination between governmental institutions and authorities at all levels.[68]  This Plan is meant to comply with the objectives of the Gothenburg Protocol and European Directive 2016/2284.[69]  It is worth noting that there appears to be a certain amount of overlap between this Plan and the National Low-Carbon Strategy described above.

With regard to industry, the principal measures included in the Plan include the strengthening of air emissions controls, the tightening of regulatory requirements, and the reinforcement of the General Tax on Polluting Activities (Taxe Générale sur les Activités Polluantes, TGAP).[70] 

For transportation, the Plan includes measures towards increased tax convergence between gasoline and diesel, incentives for bicycle usage, more traffic restriction zones, replacement or conversion of existing vehicles, development of infrastructures for clean alternative fuels, limiting the amount of sulfur in marine fuels, verification of actual vehicle emissions, and an initiative with Mediterranean countries to set up a low-emission zone in the Mediterranean area.[71]  For the residential and tertiary building sectors, the Plan includes measures to lower the sulfur content of domestic heating oil, incentives to make existing buildings more energy efficient and for  the replacement of poorly performing heating equipment, support for the development of alternatives to the burning of waste, prohibiting the sale of personal garden incinerators, and raising public awareness.[72]

With regard to agriculture, the National Air Pollutant Emission Reduction Plan includes measures to reduce emissions of ammonia and particulates, develop alternatives to burning agricultural residues, study and monitor the dissemination of phytopharmaceutical products in the air, enforce the prohibition on aerial application of pesticides, provide financial incentives towards the reduction of volatile ammonia, and spread agricultural technologies and practices that help reduce air pollution.[73]

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Prepared by Nicolas Boring
Foreign Law Specialist
June 2018


[1] Pascal Planchet, Droit de l’environnement [Environmental Law] 161–62 (2015). 

[2] Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), Nov. 13, 1979, 1302 U.N.T.S. 217, http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/lrtap/full%20text/1979.CLRTAP.e.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/F9ZJ-DU4Y.

[3] United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), May 9, 1992, 1771 U.N.T.S. 107, http://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/background_publications_htmlpdf/application/pdf/conveng.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/2XMZ-7GKG.

[4] Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto Protocol), Dec. 11, 1997, 2303 U.N.T.S. 162, annex B, http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/3HQM-LT8M.

[6] Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe (Ambient Air Quality Directive), 2008 O.J. (L 152) 1, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32008L0050&from=EN, archived at http://perma.cc/6XF2-QWC4.

[7] Directive (EU) 2016/2284 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2016 on the Reduction of National Emissions of Certain Atmospheric Pollutants, Amending Directive 2003/35/EC and Repealing Directive 2001/81/EC, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32016L2284&from=FR, archived at https://perma.cc/RU7R-DKML.

[8] Décret n° 2010-1250 du 21 octobre 2010 relatif à la qualité de l’air [Decree No. 2010-1250 of 21 October 2010 Regarding Air Quality], https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/decret/2010/10/21/DEVE1016116D/jo/texte, archived at https://perma.cc/RFP9-P6MT.

[9] Loi No. 61-842 du 2 aout 1961 relative à la lutte contre les pollutions atmosphériques et les odeurs et portant modification de la loi du 19 décembre 1917 [Law No. 61-842 of 2 August 1961 Regarding the Fight Against Atmospheric Pollutions and Odors and Amending the Law of 19 December 1917], https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jo_pdf.do?id=JORFTEXT000000684032, archived at https://perma.cc/V4X2-HVWC.

[10] Loi n° 96-1236 du 30 décembre 1996 sur l’air et l’utilisation rationnelle de l'énergie [Law No. 96-1236 of 30 December 1996 on Air and Rational Energy Usage], https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte= JORFTEXT000000381337&categorieLien=id, archived at https://perma.cc/JHB9-GKZ7.

[11] Id. art. 1 (all translations by author); Planchet, supra note 1, at 162.

[12] Loi n° 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l’environnement [Law No. 2010-788 of 12 July 2010 for a National Commitment to the Environment], https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/loi/2010/ 7/12/DEVX0822225L/jo/texte, archived at https://perma.cc/4XM8-JQ4B.

[13] Loi n° 2015-992 du 17 août 2015 relative à la transition énergétique pour la croissance verte [Law No. 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 Regarding Energy Transition for Green Growth], https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/loi/2015/ 8/17/DEVX1413992L/jo/texte, archived at https://perma.cc/T9JN-P9NH.

[15] Planchet, supra note 1, at 165; C. environnement, arts. L222-1, L229-26.

[16] Michel Prieur, Droit de l’environnement [Environmental Law] 665–66 (2016).

[17] Id.; Le dispositif de surveillance de la qualité de l’air en France [The Air Quality Monitoring System in France], Ministère de la transition écologique et solidaire [Ministry for Environmental and Solidarity Transition] (Nov. 14, 2017), http://www.statistiques.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/lessentiel/ar/227/0/dispositif-surveillance-qualite-lair-france.html, archived at https://perma.cc/674H-4TPG.

[18] Id.; C. environnement, art. R221-9.

[19] Le dispositif de surveillance de la qualité de l’air en France [The Air Quality Monitoring System in France], Ministère de la transition écologique et solidaire, supra note 17.

[20] Planchet, supra note 1, at 163.

[21] Id.

[23] Code de la construction et de l’habitation [Building and Housing Code], arts. L111-9 to L111-10-5, R111-21, R111-21-1, https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006074096&date Texte=20180413, archived at https://perma.cc/WZ4D-GEQN.

[24] C. environnement, art. L222-4, L222-5.

[25] Id. art. L221-1.

[26] Id. art. R221-1; Les critères nationaux de qualité de l’air [National Air Quality Criteria], Airparif [Licensed Association for Air Quality Monitoring], https://www.airparif.asso.fr/reglementation/normes-francaises (last visited Apr. 13, 2018), archived at https://perma.cc/PV7N-YNZ3.

[27] Id.

[28] Id.

[29] C. environnement, art. L223-1.

[30] Id.

[31] Planchet, supra note 1, at 163.

[32] C. environnement, art. L223-1.

[33] Id. art. L223-2.

[34] Circulation alternée à Paris et en banlieue: qui peut rouler ? [Alternating Traffic in Paris and Suburbs: Who Can Drive?], Le Parision (Dec. 7, 2016), http://www.leparisien.fr/info-paris-ile-de-france-oise/transports/circu lation-alternee-qui-peut-rouler-mardi-05-12-2016-6415992.php, archived at https://perma.cc/M3D5-QGPR.

[35] Id.

[36] Id.

[37] Id.

[38] Circulation différenciée ou alternée: qui est affecté et qui peut circuler? [Differentiated or Alternate Traffic: Who is Affected and Who May Drive?], Le Monde (Jan. 23, 2017), http://www.lemonde.fr/pollution/article/2017/ 01/22/pics-de-pollution-qui-est-affecte-et-qui-pourra-circuler-en-voiture-lundi_5066989_1652666.html, archived at https://perma.cc/44EX-968D.

[39] Id.

[40] Id.

[41] Pollution: la circulation différenciée reconduite mardi et mercredi en Ile-de-France [Pollution: Differentiated Traffic Rules Renewed for Tuesday and Wednesday in Ile-de-France], Le Parisien (Jan. 23, 2017), http://www.leparisien.fr/info-paris-ile-de-france-oise/transports/paris-la-circulation-differenciee-reconduite-mardi-23-01-2017-6608367.php, archived at https://perma.cc/24YH-KJNQ.

[42] Circulation différenciée: les véhicules polluants interdits ce jeudi dans Paris [Differentiated Traffic: Polluting Vehicles Forbidden in Paris this Thursday], Le Parisien (June 22, 2017), http://www.leparisien.fr/info-paris-ile-de-france-oise/transports/les-vehicules-polluants-interdits-ce-jeudi-dans-paris-21-06-2017-7075470.php, archived at https://perma.cc/4ZZV-L9TN.

[43] Loi n° 2015-992 du 17 août 2015 relative à la transition énergétique pour la croissance verte [Law No. 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 Regarding Energy Transition for Green Growth], art. 48, https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/loi/ 2015/8/17/DEVX1413992L/jo/texte, archived at https://perma.cc/T9JN-P9NH.

[44] C. route, arts. L318-1, R411-19.

[45] France Has Introduced the Crit’Air Vignette!, CRIT’Air, https://www.crit-air.fr/en.html (last visited Apr. 16, 2018), archived at https://perma.cc/UYT3-7XUB.

[47] France Has Introduced the Crit’Air Vignette!, CRIT’Air, supra note 46.

[48] Arrêté du 21 juin 2016 établissant la nomenclature des véhicules classés en fonction de leur niveau d’émission de polluants atmosphériques en application de l’article R. 318-2 du code de la route [Order of 21 June 2016 Establishing the Nomenclature of Vehicles Categorized According to their Levels of Air Pollution Emissions in Application of Article R.318-2 of the Road Code], Annex, https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do; jsessionid=083F314642589299B51CFF4776A6E309.tplgfr21s_1?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000032749723&dateTexte=20160623, archived at https://perma.cc/5KHB-L4AS.

[49] Id.

[50] La France se dote de «budgets carbone» pour réduire ses émissions de CO2 [France Adopts “Carbon Budgets” to Reduce its CO2 Emissions], Le Parisien (Nov. 18, 2015), http://www.leparisien.fr/environnement/energies/la-france-se-dote-de-budgets-carbone-pour-reduire-ses-emissions-de-co2-18-11-2015-5289663.php, archived at https://perma.cc/398V-M6KC; Décret n° 2015-1491 du 18 novembre 2015 relatif aux budgets carbone nationaux et à la stratégie nationale bas-carbone [Decree No. 2015-1491 of 18 November 2015 Regarding National Carbon Budgets and the National Low-Carbon Strategy], https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORF TEXT000031493783&categorieLien=id, archived at https://perma.cc/5MDK-FA9Q.

[51] C. Environnement, art. L222-1A.

[52] C. Environnement, art. L222-1B.

[53] Id.

[54] Id.

[55] Adoption of the National Low-carbon Strategy for Climate, Gouvernement.fr (Nov. 27, 2015), http://www.gouvernement.fr/en/adoption-of-the-national-low-carbon-strategy-for-climate, archived at https://perma.cc/8XYM-2BPY.

[56] Décret n° 2015-1491 du 18 novembre 2015 relatif aux budgets carbone nationaux et à la stratégie nationale bas-carbone [Decree No. 2015-1491 of 18 November 2015 Regarding National Carbon Budgets and the National Low-Carbon Strategy], art. 3.

[57] Id.

[58] Ministère de l’écologie, du développement durable et de l’énergie [Ministry of the Environment, Sustainable Development, and Energy], Stratégie Nationale Bas-Carbone [National Low-Carbon Strategy]: Summary for Decision-Makers 5, https://unfccc.int/files/focus/long-term_strategies/application/pdf/national_low_carbon_ strategy_en.pdf (last visited Apr. 16, 2018), archived at https://perma.cc/QP2N-ND8U.

[59] Id. at 7–16.

[60] Id. at 8.

[61] Id. at 11.

[62] Id. at 12.

[63] Id. at 14.

[64] Id.

[65] Décret No. 2017-949 du 10 mai 2017 fixant les objectifs nationaux de réduction des émissions de certains polluants atmosphériques en application de l’article L. 222-9 du code de l’environnement [Decree No. 2017-949 of 10 May 2017 Establishing National Objectives for the Reduction of Emissions of Certain Atmospheric Pollutants, in Application of Article L.222-9 of the Environmental Code], https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/decret/2017/ 5/10/DEVR1707211D/jo/texte, archived at https://perma.cc/7WUR-KR5Y.

[66] Arrêté du 10 mai 2017 établissant le plan national de réduction des émissions de polluants atmosphériques [Order of 10 May 2017 Establishing the National Air Pollutant Emission Reduction Plan], https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/ jo_pdf.do?numJO=0&dateJO=20170511&numTexte=37&pageDebut=&pageFin=, archived at  https://perma.cc/WN4U-VS63.

[67] C. Environnement, art. L222-9.

[68] Arrêté du 10 mai 2017 établissant le plan national de réduction des émissions de polluants atmosphériques, Annex.

[69] Claire Rosevègue & Nadine Allemand, Ministère de la Transition Écologique et Solidaire [Ministry for Environmental and Solidarity Transition], French Plan to Reduce Emissions of Air Pollutants 3 (June 2, 2017), https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/documents/2017/AIR/WGSR/1_French_plan_to_ reduce_emissions_of_air_pollutants_Claire_Rosevegue.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/ZV5P-P2C6.

[70] Arrêté du 10 mai 2017 établissant le plan national de réduction des émissions de polluants atmosphériques, Annex.

[71] Id.

[72] Id.

[73] Id.

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Last Updated: 07/09/2018