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In many countries of the world, the national constitution includes language that proclaims women's equality, states anti-discrimination policies, or both. The following report, presented in list format, offers the jurisdictions that include such language in their constitution, as well as direct citations to where it can be found.

Full Report (PDF, 106KB)

Equality Provision

Angola [1]  Luxembourg [19]  
Argentina [2]  Moldova [20]   
Austria  [3]  Montenegro [21]   
Belarus [4]  Mozambique [22]   
Belgium [5]   Nauru [23]   
Brazil  [6]  Papua New Guinea [24]   
Cape Verde [7]   Paraguay [25]   
Chile [8]   Philippines [26]   
China [9]  Poland [27]   
Congo (DRC)[10]  Portugal [28]   
France [11]  São Tomé e Príncipe [29]   
Georgia [12]  Senegal [30]    
Greece [13] Tajikistan [31]  
Guatemala [14]  Turkey [32]  
Haiti [15] Turkmenistan [33]  
Iran [16] Tuvalu [34]  
Kiribati [17] Vanuatu [35]  
Liechtenstein [18]    

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Non-Discrimination Provision(s)

Albania [36] Falkland Islands [52] Nicaragua [69]
Angola [37] Fiji [53] Nigeria [70]
Armenia [38]  Ghana [54] Panama [71]
Bahrain [39]  Gibraltar [55] Peru [72]
Bosnia-Herzegovina [40]  Guinea Bissau [56]  Romania [73] 
British Virgin Islands [41]  Honduras [57]  Samoa [74] 
Bulgaria [42] India [58]  Slovakia [75] 
Canada [43]  Italy [59]  Slovenia [76]
Colombia [44] Japan [60]  South Africa [77] 
Croatia [45]  Kazakhstan [61]  South Korea [78]
Cyprus [46] Lithuania [62]  Spain [79] 
Czech Rep. [47]  Macao SAR [63] Sweden [80]
El Salvador [48] Macedonia [64] Trinidad and Tobago [81]
Eritrea [49] Malaysia [65] Venezuela [82]
Estonia [50] Mongolia [66] Zambia [83]
Ethiopia [51] Netherlands [67]  
  New Zealand  [68]  

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Both Equality & Non-Discrimination Provisions

Afghanistan [84] Kyrgyzstan [99]  
Algeria [85] Madagascar [100]  
Azerbaijan [86] Malta [101]  
Bolivia [87] Mexico [102]   
Cambodia [88] Pakistan [103]  
Congo, Rep. of [89] Russia [104]  
Cuba [90] Serbia [105]  
Dominican Republic [91] Solomon Islands [106]  
Ecuador [20] Switzerland [107]  
Equatorial Guinea [93] Taiwan [108]  
Finland [94] U.K. [109]  
Germany [95] Ukraine [110]  
Hungary [96] Uzbekistan [111]  
Iceland [97] Vietnam [112]  
Iraq [98]    

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Prepared by Wendy Zeldin
Senior Legal Research Analyst
February 2007

Updated and expanded by Constance A. Johnson
Senior Legal Research Analyst
July 2011


[1] Art. 23(1)(2), Constitution of the Republic of Angola (adopted Jan. 13, 2010), Oxford University Press website, http://www.oceanalaw.com/gateway/gateway.asp?ID=31&SessionID={C6C597D6-E3DE- 435A-B2C9-7073B06E9291} (last visited July 12, 2011) (unofficial source).

[2]  Art. 27, Constitution of Argentina (Aug. 23, 1999), Ministry of Economy legislative database, http://infoleg.mecon.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/0-4999/804/norma.htm (official source).

[3] Art. 7, Federal Constitutional Law of the Republic of Austria, 1920 (as amended in 1929 by BGBl. Nr. 1/1930, available at http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/BgblAltDokument.wxe?Abfrage=BgblAlt& Bgblnummer=1/1930), last amended by BGBl. I Nr. 100/2003, available at http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/ Dokumente/BgblPdf/2003_100_1/2003_100_1.pdf, also available at THE LEGAL INFORMATION SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF AUSTRIA, http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/Bundesnormen/NOR40045877/ NOR40045877.pdf. English text available in Austria, I CONSTITUTIONS OF THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., Oceana Publications, looseleaf, 1971-).

[4] Art. 23, Constitution of the Republic of Belarus (1994, as amended through Oct. 17, 2004), International Labor Organization website, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/--- protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legal document/wcms_127420.pdf.

[5] Art. 11 bis, Constitution of Belgium, EJUSTICE, http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/loi/loi.htm (last visited July 12, 2011); go to nature juridique and scroll down to constitution of 1994, then click on research.

[6] Art. 5(I), Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil (of 1988, as amended in 2010), Brazilian Presidency website, http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Constituicao/Constituiçao.htm.

[7] Art. 23, Constituição da República de Cabo Verde (Lei Constitucional n.º 1/V/99 de 23 de Novembro), Cape Verdean Presidency website, http://www.presidenciarepublica.cv/conteudos/ a_republica/constituicao_da_republica/10/ (last visited July 12, 2011).

[8] Art. 19.2, Political Constitution of Chile (Sept. 17, 2005, updated July 4, 2011, by Law 20515), BCN LEY CHILE, http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar?idNorma=242302 (official source).

[9] Art. 48, Constitution of the People’s Republic of China (adopted Dec. 4, 1982; as amended on Mar. 14, 2004), PEOPLE’S DAILY, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/constitution/constitution.html (last visited Feb. 20, 2007).

[10] Preamble, Constitution (2005), CONSTITUTIONNET, http://www.constitutionnet. org/files/DRC%20-%20Congo%20Constitution.pdf (unofficial source).

[11] Arts. 1 & 4, Constitution de la République Française (Oct. 4, 1958, as in force in 2011), Assemblée Nationale website, http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/connaissance/constitution.asp.

[12] Art. 14, Constitution of the Republic of Georgia (adopted in 1995, amended in 2004), Council of Europe website, http://www.venice.coe.int/docs/2004/CDL(2004)041-e.pdf.

[13] Art. 4(2), Constitution of Greece (adopted on June 11, 1975, as amended in 2001), ICL, http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/gr00c___.pdf; Official translation from the Greek Parliament, http://www.hellenicparliament.gr/Vouli-ton-Ellinon/To-Politevma/Syntagma/ (last visited July 12, 2011).

[14] Art. 4, Constitution of the Republic of Guatemala (of 1985; as amended in 1993), POLITICAL DATABASE OF THE AMERICAS, http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Guate/guate93.html (last visited Feb. 20, 2007) (unofficial source).

[15] Arts. 17, 35-2, 52-3, & 276-1, Constitution of Haiti (1987), HAITI.ORG, http://haiti.org/images/ stories/pdf/1987_constitution.pdf.

[16] Art. 20, Qanuni Assassi Jumhurii Islamai Iran [The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran] 1358 [1980], English translation from the Iran Chamber Society website, http://www.iranchamber.com/ government/laws/constitution.php.

[17] §3, Constitution of Kiribati, Kiribati Parliament website, http://www.parliament.gov.ki/ content/constitution (last visited July 12, 2011) (official source).

[18] Art. 31(2), Constitution of the Principality of Liechtenstein (adopted on Oct. 5, 1921), 15 LIECHTENSTEIN GAZETTE (Oct. 24, 1921), CONSTITUTION FINDER, http://confinder.richmond.edu/ admin/docs/Liechtenstein.pdf  (last visited Feb. 20, 2007). According to Liechtenstein, in XI CONSTITUTIONS OF THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD, supra note 3, amendments to the Constitution adopted in 2003 did not affect article 31. English translation from LANDESVERWALTUNG FURSTENTUM LIECHTENSTEIN, http://www.llv.li/verfassung-e-01-04-11.doc.pdf (last visited July 8, 2011).

[19] Art. 11, Constitution (Oct. 17, 1896, as amended through Sept. 1, 2009), LEXILUX, http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/textescoordonnes/recueils/constitution_droits_de_lhomme/CONST1.pdf (last visited July 12, 2011).

[20] Art. 16, Constitution of Moldova (1994), CONSTITUTION FINDER, http://confinder.richmond. edu/admin/docs/moldova3.pdf.

[22] Arts. 35 & 36, Constituição da República de Moçambique (2004), Government of Moçambique website, http://www.portaldogoverno.gov.mz/Legisla/constituicao_republica/.

[23] §3, Constitution of Nauru, Nauru Parliament website, http://www.naurugov.nr/parliament/ constitution.html (last visited July 12, 2011) (official source).

[24] §55 & Preamble to the Constitution, Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, Ministry of Inter Government Relations website, http://www.igr.gov.pg/constitution.pdf (official source).

[25] Art. 48, Political Constitution of the Republic of Paraguay (adopted June 20, 1992), INTERNATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (ICL), http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/pa00000_.html (unofficial source).  See also Global Legal Information Network (GLIN), ID No. 76156, www.glin.gov.

[26] Art. 2, §14, Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines (adopted Oct. 15, 1986), Philippines Supreme Court website, http://elibrary.judiciary.gov.ph/index7.php?doctype=Constitutions& docid=a45475a11ec72b843d74959b60fd7bd64558f82c40d9d).

[27] Art. 33(1), Constitution of Poland (adopted on Apr. 2, 1997), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe. ch/icl/pl00000_.html.

[28] Art. 13(1)(2), Constituição da República Portuguesa (VII revisão Constitucional, 2005), Portuguse Republic Assembly website, http://www.parlamento.pt/Legislacao/Paginas/Constituicao RepublicaPortuguesa.aspx.

[29] Art. 15(1)(2), Constituição da República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe (Texto quarto da Lei Constitucional n.º 1/03, publicado no Diário da República n.º 2, de 29 de Janeiro de 2003 – Quinta Revisão Constitucional.), National Assembly of São Tomé e Príncipe website, http://www2.camara.gov.br/ saotomeeprincipe/legislacao/legislacao-constitucional/constituicao.pdf/view.

[30] Art. 7, Constitution du Sénégal, Gouvernement du Sénégal website, http://www.gouv.sn/ spip.php?rubrique17.

[31] Art. 17, Constitution (1994), Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan website, http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/untc/unpan003670.htm.

[32] Art. 10, Constitution of Turkey (adopted in 1982, last amended May 10, 2007) ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/tu00000_.html.

[33] Art. 18, Constitution (May 18, 1992), Constitution of Turkmenistan website, http://www.uta. edu/cpsees/TURKCON.htm.

[34] §11, Constitution of Tuvalu, Tuvalu legislation website, http://tuvalu-legislation.tv/ cms/images/LEGISLATION/PRINCIPAL/1986/1986-0001/ConstitutionofTuvalu_1.pdf (official source).

[35] § 5, Constitution of the Republic of Vanuatu, Vanuatu Parliament website, http://www. parliament.gov.vu/constitution.html (official source).

[36] Art. 18, ¶¶2 & 3, Albanian Constitution (adopted Oct. 21, 1998), CONSTITUTION FINDER, http://www.ipls.org/services/constitution/const98/cp2.html.

[37] Art. 18, ¶1, Constitutional Law of the Republic of Angola (adopted Aug. 25, 1992), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ao00000_.html.

[38] Art. 14.1, ¶2, Constitution of the Republic of Armenia, 1995 (adopted July 5, 1995, as amended Nov. 27, 2005), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/am00000_.html.

[39] Art. 18, Constitution of the Kingdom of Bahrain (adopted on Feb. 14, 2002), ICL,http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ba00000_.html.

[40] Art. 2, Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (adopted on Dec. 1, 1995), ICL, http://www. servat.unibe.ch/icl/bk00000_.html.

[41] Art. 9, The Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007, LEGISLATION.GOV.UK, http://www. legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2007/1678/contents/made.

[42] Art. 6(2), Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria (adopted on July 12, 1991; as amended on Feb. 25, 2005), Republic of Bulgaria Council of Ministers website, http://www.government.bg/cgi-bin/e- cms/vis/vis.pl?s=001&p=0159&n=000007&g=.

[43] Title 6, §5, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Part I of the Constitution Act, 1982, being Schedule B to the Canada Act, 1982, ch. 11 (U.K.), Department of Justice, Canada, website, http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/const/index.html (last visited Feb. 21, 2007) (official source). See also Canadian Human Rights Act (R.S., 1985, c. H-6), Department of Justice, Canada, website, http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/showtdm/cs/H-6 (official source).

[44] Art. 13, ¶1, Political Constitution of the Republic of Colombia, 1991 (as amended July 27, 2005), POLITICAL DATABASE OF THE AMERICAS, http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/ Colombia/col91.html (last visited Feb. 21, 2007) (unofficial source).

[45] Art, 14(1), Constitution of the Republic of Croatia (adopted in Dec. 1990, as amended on Apr. 2, 2001), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/hr00000_.html.

[46] Art. 28, item 2, Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus (adopted on Aug. 16, 1960), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/cy00000_.html (unofficial source). Note that on May 5, 1985, the Turkish part of Cyprus adopted a new constitution by referendum.

[47] Art. 3, Constitution of the Czech Republic (adopted on Dec. 16, 1992), states, “Part of the constitutional order of the Czech Republic is the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms.” ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ez00000_.html. Art. 3(1), Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms, is on non-discrimination.

[48] Art. 3, ¶1, Political Constitution of the Republic of El Salvador (promulgated Dec. 15, 1983, as amended through 2000), POLITICAL DATABASE OF THE AMERICAS, http://pdba.georgetown.edu/ Constitutions/ElSal/ElSal83.html
For the Sept. 12, 2001, amendment, see GLIN, ID No. 87235, www.glin.gov.  The amendment does not affect article 3. For the text of the Constitution, see GLIN, ID No. 17811, www.glin.gov.

[49] Art. 14 (1)&(2), Eritrean Constitution, SHAEBIA.ORG, http://www.shaebia.org/constitution. html#ART14_(last visited July 8, 2011). Note that the Constitution was ratified in 1997 but has yet to take effect.

[50] §12, ¶1, Constitution of the Republic of Estonia (adopted June 28, 1992), The President of the Republic of Estonia website, http://www.president.ee/en/estonia/constitution.php?gid=81907 (last visited Feb. 21, 2007) (official source).

[51] Art. 25, Constitution, Parliament of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia website, http://www.ethiopar.net/. (last visited July 8, 2011).

[52] Art. 16, the Falkland Islands Constitution Order 2008, LEGISLATION.GOV.UK, http://www. legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2008/2846/pdfs/uksi_20082846_en.pdf.

[53] §38 (2), Constitution of the Republic of the Fiji Islands (adopted on Sept. 23, 1988, as amended on July 25, 1997, effective July 28, 1998), ICL Website, http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/fj00000_.html (last visited Feb. 21, 2007) (unofficial source). Note that the President of Fiji formally abrogated the Constitution on Apr. 10, 2009, by way of the Fiji Constitution Amendment Act 1997 Revocation Decree 2009, Fiji Government website, http://fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_docman&task=cat_view& gid=59&Itemid=158&limitstart=50 (official source). The current Fijian government has stated that a new constitution will be in place by Sept. 2013, with elections to be held in Sept. 2014, see Fiji Government website, http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=190:statement-at-the- 64th-session-of-the-un-general-assembly-pm-bainimarama&catid=50:speeches&Itemid=168 (last visited July 8, 2011).

[54] §17, Constitution of the Republic of Ghana, Parliament of Ghana website, http://www. parliament.gh/constitution_republic_ghana.html (last visited July 11, 2011).

[55] Art. 14, Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006, LAWS OF GIBRALTAR, http://www.gibraltar laws.gov.gi/constitution/Gibraltar_Constitution_Order_2006.pdf.

[56] Arts. 24 & 25, Constituição da República da Guiné-Bissau (1996), National Popular Assembly of the Republic of Guiné-Bissau website, http://www.anpguinebissau.org/leis/constituicao/constituicao guine.pdf/view.

[57] Art. 60, ¶2, Political Constitution of the Republic of Honduras (issued on Jan. 11, 1982, as amended on May 4, 2005, by Decree 176/ 2004), POLITICAL DATABASE OF THE AMERICAS, http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Honduras/hond05.html (last visited Feb. 21, 2007). For the Jan. 20, 2006, amendment, see GLIN, ID No. 176501, www.glin.gov. The amendments do not affect article 60. For the text of the Constitution, see GLIN, ID No. 158599, www.glin.gov.

[58] Art. 15, Constitution of India (adopted on Nov. 26, 1949, as amended), Ministry of Law & Justice, Government of India, website, http://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/welcome.

[59] Art. 3(1), Constitution of the Italian Republic (adopted Dec. 22, 1947, effective Jan. 1, 1948), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/it00000_.html.  Based on the entry for Italy in IX CONSTITUTIONS OF THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD, supra note 3, amendments to the Constitution adopted on June12, 2003, did not affect article 3.

[60] Art. 14, ¶1, Constitution of Japan (promulgated Nov. 3, 1946; effective from May 3, 1947), Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet Website, http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/constitution_ and_government_of_japan/constitution_e.html.

[61] Art. 14, Constitution (1995), President of the Republic of Kazakhstan website, http://www. akorda.kz/en/official_documents/the_constitution/the_constitution.

[62] Art. 29, ¶2, Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania (adopted on Oct. 25, 1992, as amended on June 13, 2004), Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania website, http://www.lrkt.lt/Documents2_e.html (last visited Feb. 21, 2007) (official source).

[63] Macao is a Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China. As such it has a basic law that functions as a constitution document. Art. 25, The Basic Law of Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (adopted Mar. 31, 1993, effective Dec. 20, 1999), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China website, http://www.mfa.gov.cn/eng/wjb/zzjg/tyfls/tyfl/ 2626/t15467.htm.

[64]  Art. 8 & 9, Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia [formally known as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, FYROM] (adopted on Nov. 17, 1991, effective on Nov. 20, 1991; as amended on Jan 6, 1992), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/mk00t___.html

[65] Art. 8(2), Federal Constitution of Malaysia (as amended by §3 of Act A1130 of 2001), Malaysia Attorney General's Chambers website, http://www.agc.gov.my/images/Personalisation/Buss/pdf/Federal %20Consti%20%28BI%20text%29.pdf (official source).

[66] Art. 14(2), Constitution of Mongolia (adopted on Jan. 13, 1992; in force on Feb. 12, 1992), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/mg00000_.html. ICL states that this document does not include a May 2001 amendment.

[67] Art. 1, Constitution of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2002 (adopted on Feb. 17, 1983; as amended in 2002), Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations website, http://www.minbzk.nl/ contents/pages/6156/grondwet_UK_6-02.pdf .

[68] §19, New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990, New Zealand Government Legislation website, http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1990/0109/latest/DLM225519.html#DLM225519 (official   source).  Provision refers to the prohibited grounds of discrimination in section 21, Human Rights Act 1993, New Zealand Government Legislation website, http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1993/ 0082/latest/DLM304475.html#DLM304475 (official source).

[69]  Arts. 27, 48, & 73, Political Constitution of the Republic of Nicaragua (issued Jan. 9, 1987; as amended through Apr. 5, 2005), POLITICAL DATABASE OF THE AMERICAS, http://pdba.georgetown.edu/ Constitutions/Nica/nica05.html (last visited Feb. 21, 2007) (unofficial source).

[70] Art. 15(2), Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (in force May 29, 1999), International Centre for Nigerian Law & The Chambers of E.C.M. Obata Website, http://www.nigeria- law.org/ConstitutionOfTheFederalRepublicOfNigeria.htm.

[71] Art. 19 Constitution of the Republic of Panama (enacted Oct. 11, 1972, as amended through 2004), Panamanian Congress website, http://www.asamblea.gob.pa/main/LinkClick.aspx? fileticket=fDgmRvYW8cY%3D&tabid=123 (unofficial source).

[72] Art. 2, item 2, Political Constitution  of the Republic of Peru (approved Sept. 27, 1993; as amended up to Oct. 2005), POLITICAL DATABASE OF THE AMERICAS, http://pdba.georgetown. edu/Constitutions/Peru/per93reforms05.html.  See also GLIN, ID No. 42843, http://www.glin.gov.

[73] Art. 4 (2), Constitution (Dec. 8, 1991), ICL http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ro00000_.html.

[74] §15, Constitution of the Independent State of Samoa 1960, Pacific Legal Information Institute website, http://www.paclii.org/ws/legis/consol_act/cotisos1960438/ (unofficial source).

[75] Art. 12(2), Constitution of the Slovak Republic (adopted Sept. 1, 1992; as amended through Constitutional Act No. 90/2001), the Public Defender of Rights of the Slovak Republic website, http://www.vop.gov.sk/en/legal_basis/constitution.html (official source).

[76] Art. 14(1), Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia (adopted Dec. 23, 1991; as amended Mar. 7, 2003), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/si00000_.html.

[77] Art. 9, items 3-5, Constitution of the Republic of South Africa of 1996 (signed into law  Dec. 10, 1996), South African Government Information website, http://www.info.gov.za/documents/constitution/ (official source).

[78] Art. 11(1), Constitution of the Republic of Korea (adopted July 17, 1948; as amended on Oct. 29, 1987), English translation available from National Assembly website, http://korea.assembly.go.kr/res/ low_01_read.jsp?boardid=1000000035 (last visited July 11, 2011)..

[79] Art. 14, Spanish Constitution (adopted on Dec. 29, 1978; as amended on Aug. 27, 1992), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/sp00000_.html .  See also GLIN, ID No. 128756, www.glin.gov.

[80] Art. 16, Ch. 2, Fundamental Rights and Freedoms, Sweden’s Instrument of Government (adopted on Jan. 1, 1975; as amended by Law No. 1469 of 1994), ICL http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/sw00000_.html .

[81] Constitution of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (1976, as amended through 2000), Georgetown POLITICAL DATABASE OF THE AMERICAS, http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/ Trinidad/trinidad76.html .

[82] Arts. 21.1, 88, & 89.5, Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (issued on Dec. 30, 1999), POLITICAL DATABASE OF THE AMERICAS, GOBIERNO EN LÍNEA, http://www.gobiernoenlinea.ve/ legislacion-view/sharedfiles/ConstitucionRBV1999.pdf (official source).

[83] Art, 23, Constitution of the Republic of Zambia (Constitution of Zambia Act adopted in 1991;  as amended by the Constitution of Zambia Act 1996, Act No. 17 of 1996, adopted May 28, 1996), National Assembly website, http://www.parliament.gov.zm/index.php?option=com_content& task=view&id=21&Itemid=49.

[84] Art. 22, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (in force as of Jan. 4, 2004), QANOONI ASSASSI AFGHANISTAN [Constitution], http://moj.gov.af/content/files/official gazette/0801/og_0818.pdf; English translation, International CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (ICL) website, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/af00000_.html (last visited July 12, 2011) (unofficial source).

[85] Art. 29, Constitution of the Democratic People’s Republic of Algeria (adopted Nov. 19, 1976, as amended Nov. 28, 1996), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ag00000_.html

[86] Art. 25, ¶¶2 &3, Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic (adopted Nov. 12, 1995), ICL http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/aj00000_.html

[87] Arts. 11.1, 26.1, 48.5, 48.6, 66, 147, 210.2, 395.1, 402, Political Constitution of Bolivia (Feb. 7, 2009), INFOLEYS BOLIVIA website, http://bolivia.infoleyes.com/shownorm.php?id=469 (unofficial source).

[88] Art. 31, ¶ 2, & arts. 34-36, Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia (adopted Sept. 21, 1993; as amended Mar. 4, 1999), Constitution Society website, http://www.constitution.org/cons/cambodia.htm (unofficial source).

[89] Art. 11, Constitution of the Congo (adopted on Mar. 15, 1992) ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/cf00000_.html

[90] Arts. 42 & 44, Constitution of the Republic of Cuba (Feb. 24, 1976, as amended through 2002), GACETA OFFICIAL DE LA REPUBLICA DE CUBA, http://www.gacetaoficial.cu/html/constitucion_de_la_ republica.html (unofficial source).

[91] Art. 39, §4, Constitution of the Dominican Republic, adopted Jan. 26, 2010, Dominican Republic Office of the Legal Counsel of the Executive Branch website, http://www.consultoria.gov. do/constituciones%201844-2008/Constitucion%202010.pdf (official source).

[92] Arts. 11.2, 61.7, 69.3, & 70, Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador (Oct. 20, 2008), DERECHO ECUADOR.COM, http://www.derechoecuador.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id= 4742&Itemid=498 (unofficial source).

[93] Art. 5, §c, art. 13 §c, & art. 15 Constitution of Equatorial Guinea (1995), Yale Law School website, www.law.yale.edu/rcw/rcw/jurisdictions/afm/equatorialguinea/Eq_Guinea_Const_Span.doc (last visited July 11, 2011) (unofficial source).

[94] §§ 6(2) & (4), Constitution of Finland (adopted on June 11, 1999, in force on 2000), ICL Website, http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/fi00000_.html (unofficial source).

[95] Arts. 3(2) & (3), Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany (Basic Law) (adopted May 23, 1949, as updated July 18, 2003), Institut für Öffentliches Recht, Bern University website, http://www.jurisprudentia.de/jurisprudentia.html.  English translation available from the German Federal Ministry of Justice, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/ englisch_gg/englisch_gg.html#GGengl_000P3 (last visted July 8, 2011).

[96] Art. 66(1) & 70A(1) & (2), Constitution of the Republic of Hungary (adopted Aug. 20, 1949; as amended to 2003), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/hu00000_.html.

[97] Art. 65, Constitution of the Republic of Iceland (adopted June 17, 1944, as amended June 24, 1999), Government Offices of Iceland website, http://government.is/constitution/ (last visited Feb. 21, 2007) (official source).

[98] Art. 14, Iraqi Constitution of 2005, OFFICIAL GAZETTE No. 4012, Dec. 28, 2005.

[99] Art. 16 (3), Constitution [in Russian] (May 20, 2010), President of Kyrgyz website, http://www.kyrgyz-el.kg/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=245&Itemid=1&lang=russian; English translation of the superseded Constitution of 2007 is available from CONSTITUTION FINDER, http://confinder.richmond.edu/admin/docs/Kyrgyzstan2007English.pdf.

[100] Preamble & arts. 8 & 28, Constitution, National Assembly website, http://www.assemblee- nationale.mg/fr/plan.php (see constitution on left) (last visited July 12, 2011). No date for the Constitution on the website but news sources report it was approved by referendum on Nov. 22, 2010, see Alain Iloniaina, Madagascar’s New Constitution Approved in Ballot, RETUERS (Nov. 22, 2010), http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/11/22/us-madagascar-referendum-idUSTRE6AL2QX20101122.

[101] Art. 14, 32, & 45, Constitution of Malta (adopted on Sept. 21, 1964; as amended by Act V of 2003), Ministry for Justice and Home Affairs, Government of Malta, Website, http://docs.justice.gov.mt/lom/legislation/english/leg/vol_1/chapt0.pdf (last visited Feb. 21, 2007) (official source).

[102] Arts. 1, 2 (§A-III), 3 (§II-c), 4, 123 (§§ A-VII & B-V), Constitución Politica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, Diario Oficial de la Federación (Feb. 5, 1917, as amended through 2011), Mexico’s House of Representatives website, http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/1.pdf.

[103] Art. 25, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, PAKISTANI.ORG, http://www. pakistani.org/pakistan/constitution/ (last visited July 12, 2011).

[104] Art. 19(2) & (3), Constitution of the Russian Federation (adopted on Dec. 12 1993; as amended in 1996), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/rs00000_.html.

[105] Art. 21, Constitution (2006), Serbian government website, http://www.srbija.gov. rs/cinjenice_o_srbiji/ustav.php?change_lang=en.

[106] §§ 3 & 15, Constitution of the Solomon Islands 1978, Pacific Legal Information Institute website, http://www.paclii.org/sb/legis/consol_act/c1978167/ (unofficial source).

[107] Arts. 8(2) & (3), Federal Constitution of  the Swiss Confederation (adopted Apr. 18, 1999, in force since Jan. 1, 2000; as amended Feb. 8, 2004), ICL website, http://www.servat.unibe. ch/icl/sz00000_.html, English translation from Federal Authorities of the Swiss Federation website, http://www.admin.ch/ch/e/rs/c101.html (last visited July 11, 2011).

[108] Art. 7, Constitution of the Republic of China (on Taiwan) (adopted on Dec. 25, 1946, and effective from Dec. 25, 1947), Office of the President of the Republic of China (Taiwan) website, http://english.president.gov.tw/Default.aspx?tabid=1107; art. 10, Additional Articles of the Constitution, as (promulgated June 10, 2005), Office of the President of the Republic of China (Taiwan) website, http://english.president.gov.tw/Default.aspx?tabid=1037#10.

[109] Art. 14, Schedule I, Part I, of the Human Rights Act 1998 of the United Kingdom (incorporating the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law), LEGISLATION.GOV.UK, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/42/contents. Equality Act 2010, c. 15, LEGISLATION.GOV.UK, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/15/contents. Being brought into force section by section.

[110] Art. 24, Constitution (June 28, 1996), the Constitution Court of Ukraine website, http://www.ccu.gov.ua/doccatalog/document?id=12084.

[111] Art. 18, Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan (Dec. 8, 1992), PRAVO, http://www. pravo.uz/english/resources/doc/constitution.php3.

[112] Art. 63(1) & (2), Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (adopted Apr. 15, 1992, as amended Dec. 25, 2001, in force Aug. 15, 2002), ICL, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/vm00000_.html.

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Last Updated: 01/21/2015