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Japan was the biggest official development assistance (ODA) donor in the 1990s, but its contribution has declined in the 2000s as the national economy has worsened and the national deficit has grown extraordinarily. 

There is no law that directly regulates ODA. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Finance, and Japan International Cooperation Agency are the biggest players in Japan’s ODA, but many other ministries are also involved.  The lack of comprehensive management of ODA nationwide has been a problem in the past, but this has improved through recent reforms.  Still, it is hard to determine ODA, especially with regard to aid that is not approved by the Diet (Japan’s Parliament). 

I.  Introduction

A.  Official Development Assistance Figures

Japan reported to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) net official development assistance (ODA) of US$9,457 million in 2009, which comprised US$6,167 million in bilateral ODA and US$3,290 million in multilateral ODA.[1]  Japan was the fifth largest donor in the world in net disbursements.  In gross disbursements, Japan was the second largest donor (US$16,440 million) in 2009, next to the United States.[2]  Japan’s net ODA for 2009 represented 0.18% of its gross national income (GNI).[3]

While Japan’s ODA was the largest in the world during the 1990s, its ODA contributions have declined in the 2000s due to a poor economy and huge national budget deficits.[4]  Japan has been the fifth largest donor since 2007.[5]  After Japan was devastated by a massive earthquake and subsequent tsunami in March 2011, the ruling party proposed a 20% reduction in ODA contributions because the damage from the earthquake is huge and there would be no room for Japan to help other countries.[6]  There were arguments both for and against the reduction.  After the earthquake and tsunami, the ODA budget was reduced by about 500 billion yen,[7] or by about 10% of the ODA budget provided by the general budget.[8]

B.  Private Contribution Figures

No information on private contribution figures was located. 

C.  Snapshot of Foreign Aid Activity

Japan’s ODA net disbursements in 2009 included 63.4% to bilateral ODA and 36.6% to international organizations.[9]  Historically, Asia was the geographic focus of its bilateral ODA, but recently the portion of aid allocated for the Middle East and Africa has increased.[10] 

Among the bilateral ODA disbursement, grant aid totaled US$2,208.94 million (23.3% of overall ODA in 2009).  Of this amount, debt relief accounted for US$68.33 million at roughly 0.7%; grant aid through international organizations accounted for around 7.0% at US$660.49 million; and funds for other grant aid accounted for about 15.6% at US$1,480.12 million. Additionally, technical cooperation accounted for approximately 32.9% at roughly US$3,118.40 million, and loan aid accounted for approximately 7.1% at US$673.90 million.[11]

The character of Japan’s ODA is often described as follows:

Although it has a traditionally strong focus on infrastructure and industrial production, Japan is gradually engaging with issues including governance and human security, even if such engagements remain limited.  Japan is also beginning to emphasize poverty reduction as a key objective of aid, to be achieved through economic growth rather than the provision of basic services.[12]

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II.  Legal Framework

A.  Regulation of ODAs

1.  Overview

The philosophy and principles of Japan’s current ODA policies are set forth in the Official Development Assistance Charter (ODA Charter).  The current Charter was adopted in 2003.[13]  The Charter states, “[t]he objectives of Japan’s ODA are to contribute to the peace and development of the international community, thereby helping to ensure Japan’s own security and prosperity.”[14]  Based on the Charter, the Medium-Term Policy on Official Development Assistance and Country Assistance Programs was formulated.[15]  Country Assistance Programs that explicitly set out priorities are drawn up for major recipient countries.[16]  In addition, the Sector-Specific Development Policies, the Priority Issues for International Cooperation, and the Rolling Plans were formulated.[17]

Country-based ODA Task Forces that are made up of overseas diplomatic missions participate in the formulation of assistance policies like Country Assistance Programs and Rolling Plans.  ODA Task Forces also hold policy consultations with the governments of developing countries and offer suggestions on possible collaborations.  They review aid schemes and engage in the formation and selection of candidate assistance projects.[18]

2.  Implementing Agencies

According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), “[i]n Japan, the Cabinet Office and the 12 ministries and agencies are involved in development assistance.”[19]  Because many agencies are involved, there have been criticisms of the lack of an overall national policy[20] and of inefficiencies arising from overlapping projects.[21]  The Cabinet established the Overseas Economic Cooperation Related Cabinet Members Council within its jurisdiction in 1988,[22] and again in 1993,[23] and the Overseas Economic Cooperation Council in 2006, to tactically and efficiently implement overseas economic cooperation.[24]  However, it seems that a lack of leadership is still a problem; calls for a strong headquarters for ODA persist.[25]  For the collaboration between related government ministries and agencies, there are the Inter-Ministerial Meeting on ODA, the Experts Meeting on Technical Cooperation, and the Experts Meeting on ODA Evaluation.[26]  MOFA was identified as the center for the coordination of the entire government in terms of overall ODA planning since Central Government Reform in 2001.[27]

In the bilateral aid arena, MOFA has a central role in ODA policymaking.  MOFA set up the International Cooperation Bureau in 2006, which comprehensively plans and drafts policies relating to ODA and coordinates with other agencies.[28]  While MOFA makes policies, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is responsible for aid implementation.  JICA has undertaken “the integrated management of three modalities of assistance—technical cooperation, ODA loans, and grant aid”—since October 2008.[29]  There are also grants that ministries implement by themselves.[30]  Regarding ODA loans, MOFA consults with the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Ministry of Finance (MOF).[31]  Faster implementation of ODA loans was discussed and measures to achieve this were implemented among them.[32] 

JICA had a more limited role until recently.  JICA was reorganized from 2006 to 2008.  The former JICA carried out only technical cooperation and promotion of executing grant aid.  The Overseas Economic Cooperation operation under the former Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) was in charge of providing ODA loans.  JICA has now merged with JBIC.  Also at that time, some of the actual implementation duties for grant aid that had previously belonged to MOFA were transferred to the new JICA.[33]

3.  Restrictions

Japan’s ODA Charter states that any use of ODA for military purposes or to provoke international conflicts should be avoided.[34] 

With regard to the procurement system, in 2007, the ratio of Japan’s untied ODA worldwide was 95.1%.[35]  Tied aid “often prevents recipient countries from receiving good value for money for services, goods, or works.”[36]  Japan has untied ODA beyond the requirements of the Recommendation to Untie Official Development Assistance to the Least Developed Countries that was adopted by the DAC High Level Meeting in April 2001.[37]

4.  Oversight

MOFA primarily focuses on evaluations of policies and programs. JICA, as the implementer of individual projects, mainly takes on project evaluations.  ODA-related ministries and agencies also conduct evaluations of their ODA activities.  MOFA holds the Inter-Ministerial Liaison Meeting on ODA Evaluation and collects results of ODA evaluations conducted by each government ministry.[38]  Policy evaluations by Japanese ministries expanded when the Government Policy Evaluations Act was enforced in 2002.[39]

Regarding MOFA’s policy and program-level evaluations, “evaluations are conducted from the perspectives of the relevance of the policy, the effectiveness of the results, and the appropriateness of the process.”[40]  To guarantee the objectivity and transparency of the evaluations, many MOFA ODA evaluations are carried out by third parties.  Joint evaluations with partner country governments and organizations are also carried out.[41]

JICA developed a common, post-project evaluation method for all three forms of ODA: Technical Cooperation, ODA Loans, and Grant Aid.  “Each project is evaluated on (1) relevance, (2) effectiveness (impact), (3) efficiency, and (4) sustainability.”[42]

5.  Policy Considerations

Japan provides ODA “taking into account developing countries’ need for assistance, socio-economic conditions, and Japan’s bilateral relations with the recipient country.”[43]  In addition, Japan pays attention to recipient countries’ environmental conservation and development, military expenditures and activities against international peace and stability, efforts to promote democratization, introduction of a market-oriented economy, and protection of basic human rights and freedoms.[44]

It is important that the developing countries’ development policies and assistance needs are aligned with Japan’s assistance policies.  The Japanese government engages in dialogue and policy consultations with developing countries.  It carries out policy consultations with governmental parties from the partner country prior to the aid request from the country.[45]

B.  Private Contributions

There are ways for individuals and companies to deduct or reduce taxable income through charitable contributions.[46]  Private contributions to qualified organizations in Japan that engage in development assistance in developing countries may be tax deductible.  Individuals’ donations to designated trusts for public purposes may be tax deductible.  To qualify for tax-deductible contributions, a trust’s purpose must reflect one of those purposes specified in the law.  One such purpose is monetary donations for economic cooperation in developing countries.[47]

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III.  Foreign Aid Appropriations Process

According to MOFA’s chart in the ODA White Paper, “Budgetary Financing Sources for the ODA Project Budget and Expenditure by Type of Assistance,” Japan uses four financing sources for ODA: the General Account, the Special Account, issuance of government bonds, and fiscal loans and investments.[48]

A.  Complexities of Japanese Public Finance

The word “budget” is sometimes confusing when used to describe Japan’s public finances.  As the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications stated, “Japan’s national budget consists of the general account, special accounts, and the budget for government-affiliated agencies.”[49]  Although it is separate from the national budget, the Fiscal Investment and Loan Program (FILP) is sometimes described as part of the budget.  FILP “uses various interest-bearing public funds, such as the Fiscal Loan Fund, which issues FILP bonds in the financial market to implement various public policies such as social infrastructure and policy-based loans.”[50]  FILP is “so large as to earn the appellation ‘the second budget.’ ”[51]  The financial source of Japan’s ODA includes FILP. 

In the national budget, the General Account may be the most important category because, using revenues from general sources such as taxes, it covers core national expenditures such as social security, education, and national defense.[52]  Special Accounts are “established by legislation under specific conditions.  The accounts may be instituted when the government needs to carry out specific projects, to administer and manage specific funds, or to administer revenues and expenditures separately from the General Account.”[53]  Government-affiliated agencies are “entities established by special laws and are entirely funded by the government.”[54]  JICA’s Loan Aid Section is one such agency.

B.  General Account Budget Process

The Cabinet prepares the budget and presents it to the Diet.[55]  First, the Cabinet issues the Guidelines for Budget Requests that set initial expenditure ceilings for major programs such as public works and social security for the next fiscal year’s budget to ministries and agencies. “These ceilings are usually expressed in terms of absolute or percentage increase (decrease) vis-à-vis the previous fiscal year’s amount.”[56]  Each ministry must prepare its budget request within the limits of these guidelines.  About a month later, each ministry submits its budget request to the MOF.[57]  Following the submission of budget requests, budget examiners of the Budget Bureau in MOF begin a series of hearings with each ministry and agency on the details of their budget requests.  After the discussion between MOF and the Cabinet, the Cabinet releases guidelines for formulation of the budget.[58]  Following this decision, a draft of the draft budget is finalized by MOF and presented to each ministry and agency.[59]  After final negotiations on the budget requests between the MOF and each ministry and agency, the draft budget is approved by the Cabinet.[60]  The Cabinet first submits it to the House of Representatives.[61]  After approval by the House of Representatives the budget is sent to the House of Councilors. Following its passage in the House of Councilors, the budget becomes effective on April 1, the beginning of the Japanese fiscal year.[62]

C.  Procedure for FILP

The FILP process is basically the same as the budget process.  Government ministries and agencies submit their requests for FILP to MOF.  MOF holds hearings with related organizations, reviews requests, negotiates changes, and then finalizes the FILP plan at the same time as the draft budget is formed.  The FILP plan is not subject to Diet approval but is submitted to the Diet as an attachment to the Special Account Budget.[63]  

D.  ODA Budget Sources

The General Account is the main source of funding for grant aid, technical cooperation, and contributions through the United Nations (UN) or UN-related organizations. Government bonds are the main source of funding for contributions through multilateral development banks (MDBs).  FILP is mainly used for yen loans.[64]  It was not possible to locate a comprehensive explanation of the entire ODA budget of Japan.

Regarding the General Account ODA budget, each ministry and agency includes its ODA budget in the budget request, as stated above.  The General Account ODA budget consisted of 35% of the gross ODA project budget in 2010.  Two-thirds of that amount was under MOFA jurisdiction.[65]  One percent of the ODA gross project budget is from a Special Account.[66]

Issuance of government bonds constitutes 16.6% of the ODA gross project budget.[67]  It was not possible to locate an explanation as to why MDB contributions are outside of the General Account.  Matters regarding MDBs are under the jurisdiction of MOF.[68]

FILP provides 47.3% of the ODA gross project budget.  This is mainly used for yen loans. A yen loan is decided after several processes. First, a developing country government requests consideration of a loan.  Then, MOFA conducts a preliminary investigation at its office in the developing country.  If necessary, an investigator is dispatched from Japan.  Next, JICA examines the case, and MOFA drafts a plan. MOFA discusses the proposed loan with MOF, METI, other relevant ministries (if any), and JICA.  If the loan is approved by them, a draft of the exchange note for the yen loan is sent to the Cabinet.  The Cabinet makes the final decision.[69] 

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IV.  Other Types of ‘Aid’

The following are examples of different types of development assistance provided by the Japanese government that are outside of the general ODA framework described above.

A.  Emergency Aid

“Japan has three tools for emergency assistance for overseas disasters: (i) Dispatch of Japan Disaster Relief Team; (ii) Provision of Emergency Relief Goods; and (iii) Emergency Grant Aid.”[70]  Depending on “the magnitude of the disaster and requests from the affected country,” one or more of these tools are chosen.[71]  Japan began dispatching emergency medical teams abroad in 1979.  Since then, a Japan Disaster Relief Team (JDR) was expanded to include a rescue team and other post-disaster experts.[72]  The Law Concerning Dispatch of the Emergency Relief Team was enacted in 1987.[73] 

B.  Funding Assistance for Japanese NGOs

The Japanese government has a program, Grant Assistance for Japanese NGO Projects, for providing government funds for economic and social development projects undertaken by Japanese NGOs in developing countries and regions.  In Japan’s fiscal year 2006, approximately 2,000 million yen (about US$26 million) was provided as Grant Assistance for Japanese NGO Projects.  The assistance was used for eighty-eight projects in twenty-six countries conducted by about thirty-nine organizations.[74]

C.  Cooperation Among Trade, Investment, and Other Official Flows

In addition to ODA, Japan uses Other Official Flows (OOFs)[75] to support promotion of small- and medium-size enterprises in developing countries, the transfer of industrial technology, and other economic policies.[76]  

Regarding access to Japanese markets, Japan adopts lower tariff rates than the general rates for exports of products from developing countries.  According to a MOFA White Paper, “Duty-Free and Quota-Free measures are also taken for Least Developed Countries (LDCs).  Japan also actively promotes Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), and supports economic growth in developing countries through the liberalization of trade and investment.”[77]

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Prepared by Sayuri Umeda
Senior Foreign Law Specialist
October 2011

[1] ODA by Donor, OECD.StatExtracts, (select Japan in “Donor” field, then select Net Disbursements in “Flow type” field) (last visited Oct. 19, 2011).

[2] Id. (select Gross Disbursements in “Flow type” field).

[3] GNI is “the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) less net taxes on production and imports, less compensation of employees and property income payable to the rest of the world plus the corresponding items receivable from the rest of the world.”  Glossary of Statistical Terms: Gross National Income (GNI), OECD, glossary/detail.asp?ID=1176 (last updated Mar. 5, 2003).

[4] Editorial, Japan’s ODA Strategy, Asahi Newspaper (Jan. 27, 2010), english/TKY201001260328.html

[5] Nihon no ODA, zennen to onaji sekai 5i, 16.8% zōgaku [Japan’s ODA, Same No. 5 as Previous Year, Increased 16.8%], Asahi Newspaper (Apr. 6, 2011), TKY201104060393.html.  The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) provides main donors’ contribution charts for 2001 to 2010.  Shuyō enjokoku no ODA jisseki no suii [Changes in ODA Contributions by Main Donors], MOFA, shiryo/jisseki.html (last visited Oct. 19, 2011).

[6] “ODA sakugen shi fukkō zaigen ni” Minshutō, naikaku ni mousi ire [“Providing a financial source for the reconstruction by reducing ODA,” Democratic Party of Japan, proposed to the Cabinet], Asahi Newspaper (Apr. 7, 2011),

[7] At the October 19, 2011, exchange rate, US$1 is about 77 yen.

[8] National Diet Library, Heisei 23 nendo dai1ji hosei yosan to kongo no kadai [Issues of the First Amended Budget of 2011 from Now On], Issue Brief No. 711 at 1 (May 24, 2011), publication/issue/pdf/0711.pdf.

[9] MOFA, Japan’s ODA White Paper 2010: Japan’s International Cooperation, pt. III, ch. 1, at 39 (click “Part III, Chapter 1”).

[10] Id. at 41, Chart III-2.

[11] Id. at 39.

[12] Event Report summarizing Alina Rocha Menocal’s speech, in The Future of Japan’s ODA: Defining Donor Identity in a Crowded Marketplace, Overseas Development Institute (July 14, 2011),

[13] MOFA, Economic Co-operation Bureau, Japan’s Official Development Assistance Charter [hereinafter Japan’s ODA Charter] (Aug. 29, 2003),

[14] Id. at 1.

[15] Id. at 5.  ODA policies are available on MOFA’s website at policy.html (last visited Oct. 19, 2011). 

[16] Japan’s ODA Charter, supra note 13, at 5–6.

[17] White Paper 2010, supra note 9, pt. III, ch. 2, § 1, at 45–48.

[18] Id. pt. III, ch. 2, § 5, at 121.

[19] Id. at 121.

[20] Seisaku Koso [Policy Building] Forum, Teigen [Suggestion] No. 43, Seifu Kaihatsu enjo (ODA) no kokka senryaku o tsukure [Make ODA National Strategy] at 1–2 (July 17, 2001), forum/pdf01/odasenryaku.pdf.

[21] Keidanren, ODA kaikaku ni kansuru teigen [Proposal on ODA Reform] § 3(2) (Oct. 16, 2001),

[22] Statement of Kimio Fujita, Gaikō·sōgō anzen hoshō ni kansuru chōsakai kokusai keizai·shakai shō iinkai uchiawase kai [International Economy, Public Affairs, Small Committee Under Foreign Affairs Security Committee], Minutes, No. 1 (Mar. 8, 1989), House of Councilors, 114th Diet Session, SENTAKU/sangiin/114/1489/main.html.

[23] Kakuryō kaigi no kaisai ni tsuite [Regarding Having Cabinet Member Meeting], Cabinet Oral Agreement (Aug. 24, 1993),  Though all Cabinet member meetings were abolished in 1993, some of them were reestablished.

[24] Kaigai keizai kyōryoku kaigi no secchi ni tsuite [Regarding Establishment of Overseas Economic Cooperation Council], Cabinet Decision (Apr. 28, 2006),

[25] Izumi Ohno, ODA kaikaku: 5tsu no teigen [Five Recommendations for Future Development Cooperation], slide 5 (Dec. 13, 2010),

[26] White Paper 2010, supra note 9, pt. III, ch. 2, § 5, at 120.

[27] Chūō shōchō tō kaikaku kihon hō [Basic Act on Central Government Reform], Law No. 103 of 1998, art. 19, item 4.

[28] White Paper 2010, supra note 9, pt. III, ch. 2, § 5, at 120.

[29] Strategy 1: Integrated Assistance, Mission Statement, JICA, mission/index.html#vision (last visited Oct. 19, 2011).

[30] Enjo jisshi taisei [Aid Implementation System], MOFA, keitai/taisei.html (see notes on the bottom illustrated chart) (last visited Oct. 20, 2011).

[31] There appears to be no particular legal basis for this three-ministry consultation system.  The consultation system is mentioned casually in various documents, but no explanation is provided.  E.g., Enjo jisshi taisei [Aid Implementation System], MOFA, (see bottom illustrated chart) (last visited Oct. 20, 2011). 

[32] Press Release, MOFA, En shakkan no jinsokuka ni tsuite [Faster Process of Yen Loan] (June 18, 2007),; Press Release, MOFA, MOF, METI & JICA, En shakkan no jinsokuka ni tsuite [Faster Process of Yen Loan] (July 15, 2010), policy/economic_assistance/press_release/enshaku-jinsokuka-honbun.pdf.

[33] White Paper 2010, supra note 9, pt. III, ch. 2, § 5, at 121.

[34] Japan’s ODA Charter, supra note 13, at 5.

[35] Q2, ODA Q&A, Embassy of Japan in the Philippines (July 2010),

[36] Untying Aid: The Right to Choose, OECD,,3746,en_2649_ 33721_46345330_1_1_1_1,00.html (last visited Oct. 21, 2011). 

[37] Id.

[38] ODA Evaluation Division, International Cooperation Bureau, MOFA, ODA Evaluation Guidelines 11 (6th ed., Feb. 2009),

[39] Gyōsei kikan ga ukonau seisaku no hyōka ni kansuru hōritsu [Government Policy Evaluations Act], Law No. 86 of 2001.

[40] White Paper 2010, supra note 9, pt. III, ch. 2, § 5, at 132.

[41] ODA Evaluation Division, supra note 38, at 10.

[42] JICA, Annual Evaluation Report 2010 at 18, reports/2010/pdf/part2-1.pdf (last visited Oct. 20, 2011).

[43] Japan’s ODA Charter, supra note 13, at 5.

[44] Id.

[45] White Paper 2010, supra note 9, pt. III, ch. 2, § 5, at 121.

[46] Income Tax Law, Law No. 33 of 1965, last amended by Law No. 6 of 2010, arts. 78 & 120; Corporation Tax Law, Law No. 34 of 1965, last amended by Law No. 65 of 2010, art. 37; Tax Special Measures Law, Law No. 29 of 1957, last amended by Law No. 65 of 2010, arts. 41-18, 41-18-3, 41-19 & 66-11-2, and related regulations.

[47] Income Tax Law Enforcement Order, Order No. 96 of 1965, last amended by Order No. 50 of 2010, art. 217-2, para. 3, item 7.

[48] White Paper 2010, supra note 9, pt. IV, ch. 1, § 1, at 139, Chart IV-7.

[49] Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), Statistical Handbook of Japan, ch. 4.1, “National and Local Government Finance,” data/handbook/index.htm (last visited Oct. 20, 2011).

[50] Understanding the Japanese Budget 2004, pt. I.4.1, Budget Bureau, Ministry of Finance (MOF), (last visited Oct. 20, 2011).

[51] Tanaka, Hideaki, Postal Reform and the Fiscal Investment and Loan Program: Toward Democratic Control of Government Finances (1), Tokyo Foundation (June 23, 2010), en/articles/2010/postal-reform-and-the-fiscal-investment-and-loan-program-toward-democratic-control-of-government-finances-1.

[52] Statistics Bureau, MIC, supra note 49.

[53] Budget Bureau, MOF, supra note 50, pt. I.2.2.

[54] Statistics Bureau, MIC, supra note 49.

[55] Nihonkoku Kenpō [Constitution of Japan] (1946), art. 73, item 5.

[56] Budget Bureau, MOF, supra note 50, pt. I.7.1 (click “next page” at the bottom of the page).

[57] Id.; Zaisei hō [Public Finance Law], Law No. 34 of 1947, last amended by Law No. 152 of 2002, art. 17, para. 2.

[58] Public Finance Law, art. 18, para. 1.

[59] Budget Bureau, MOF, supra note 50, pt. I.7.2.

[60] The Minister of Finance drafts the budget and the Cabinet approves it.  Public Finance Law, art. 21.

[61] The budget must first be submitted to the House of Representatives. Constitution of Japan, supra note 55, art. 60, para. 1.

[62] Budget Bureau, MOF, supra note 50, pt. I.7.3.

[64] Hayawakari ODA [Quick View of ODA], MOFA, hayawakari/hayawakari_4.html (last visited Oct. 20, 2011); MOFA, Heisei 20 nendo ODA jigyō yosan no gaiyō to sono zaigen [Budget Source and Summary of 2008 ODA], pdfs/20_gai_zai.pdf (last visited Oct. 20, 2011). 

[65] White Paper 2010, supra note 9, pt. IV, ch. 1, § 1, at 139, Chart IV-7.

[66] Id.

[67] Id.

[68] Zaimusho secchi hō [Law Concerning Establishment of MOF], Law No. 95 of 1999, last amended by Law No. 74 of 2011, art. 4, item 52.

[69] MOFA, 2009 nen ban sankō shiryō shū [2009 Reference Materials], at 73, http://www.mofa.go. jp/mofaj/gaiko/oda/shiryo/hakusyo/09_hakusho_sh/pdfs/s2-7.pdf

[70] Humanitarian Assistance/Emergency Assistance, MOFA, (last visited Oct. 20, 2011).

[71] Id.

[72] Kokusai kinkyū enjotai hossoku no keii to enkaku [Establishment of JDR and JDR History], JICA, (last visited Oct. 20, 2011).

[73] Kokusai kinkyū enjotai no haken ni kansuru hōritsu [Law Concerning Dispatch of Emergency Relief Team], Law No. 93 of 1987, last amended by Law No. 118 of 2006.  

[74] MOFA, International Cooperation Bureau, Non-Governmental Organizations Cooperation Division, International Cooperation and NGOs: Partnership Between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Japanese NGOs 7 (Nov. 2007),

[75] OOFs are “Transactions by the official sector with countries on the List of Aid Recipients which do not meet the conditions for eligibility as Official Development Assistance or Official Aid, either because they are not primarily aimed at development, or because they have a Grant Element of less than 25 per cent.” Definition, Other Official Flows (OOFS), Glossary of Statistical Terms, OECD, (last visited Jan. 10, 2012).

[76] White Paper 2010, supra note 9, pt. III, ch. 2, § 2, at 58.

[77] Id. at 58.