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Russian official development assistance (ODA) in 2010 amounted to US$472 million, which is about 0.07% of gross national income and is expected to stay at that level in the near future.  Russian assistance is primarily provided indirectly by writing off debts of developing countries; through participation in various international programs; and by providing humanitarian aid, grants, and trade preferences.  A regulatory and institutional framework for assistance has not been firmly established.  While there is no single legislative act related to the provision of ODA, major principles of assistance are formulated in the government-approved International Development Assistance Concept.  Creation of a federal agency responsible for implementation of assistance policies and coordination of assistance provided has been proposed.  The existing Federal Agency for the Commonwealth of Independent States, Compatriots Living Abroad and International Humanitarian Cooperation is engaged in aid work.  Presently, development assistance is conducted through multilateral mechanisms taking advantage of already established aid delivery channels.  Specific amounts of aid are defined in the budget bills specifying activities of individual executive agencies and Russian funds designated to support the work of international organizations.  Most of Russian ODA is provided as untied aid; however, the government supports the idea of lending tied assistance funds based on certain economic and policy considerations.  The effectiveness of ODA is assessed by the Ministries of Finance and Foreign Affairs.

I.  Introduction

A.  Official Development Assistance Figures

Despite its increasing involvement in international cooperation programs, Russia is not a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and does not report aid flows to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC).[1]

According to the Ministry of Finance, in 2010 Russia spent a total of US$472.32 million,[2] nearly meeting the annual target rate of US$500 million set by the Concept of Russia’s Participation in International Development Assistance (IDA Concept).[3]  Russia’s contribution of US$785 million in 2009 was not a move to a new level of aid volume but was explained by aid allocation to main partners, especially Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) member states, to help them cope with the worldwide economic crisis.[4]  According to Russian officials, within the next few years Russia’s Official Development Assistance (ODA) will remain at the level of about US$500 million.[5]

Russia’s ODA/Gross National Income (GNI) ratio increased from 0.015% in 2004 to 0.065% in 2009 and was expected to reach 0.07% in 2010, which is well below the DAC members’ levels.[6]  The IDA Concept states that “as the necessary socioeconomic conditions are created, Russia will further increase provisions for aid, aiming to steadily move towards the achievement of the United Nations (UN) recommended target: allocation of at least 0.7% GDP for purposes of international development assistance.”[7]

Given limited resources in the previous two decades and large debts under loans provided by the former Soviet Union, Russia contributed to development assistance mostly by writing off debts of developing countries, often within the framework of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative.[8]  In 2003, Russia ranked first in the share of developing countries’ debt relief to its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and third in absolute value after Japan and France.[9]  In 2006, Russia committed to canceling US$11.3 billion worth of debts owed by African countries, including US$2.2 billion of debt relief to the HIPC Initiative.[10]  According to Russian officials, in 2009 the amount of write-offs in favor of African countries reached around US$20 billion.[11]

B.  Private Contribution Figures

Russian philanthropists are encouraged to invest domestically and be involved in resolving domestic problems.  Most of their donations stay in Russia.[12]  Even the large-scale catastrophes of the December 2004 Southeast Asia tsunami and the January 2010 Haiti earthquake did not engender substantial private Russian contributions to international humanitarian and relief operations.[13]

C.  Snapshot of Foreign Aid Activity

The Soviet Union has been actively involved in international development assistance.[14]  It spent around US$26 billion in 1986 alone on friendly poor countries in the communist world, South America, Asia, and Africa.[15]  The economic crisis that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union seriously limited Russia’s participation in development assistance[16] and resulted in Russia’s inclusion on the list of aid recipient countries.[17]  Recent economic revival has enabled Russia to widen the scope and types of its assistance to international development efforts and emerge as a donor.[18]

Russia expends significant resources to support primarily neighboring former Soviet republics through participation in various international programs and provision of humanitarian aid, grants, trade preferences, and other measures.[19]  In recent years Russia mostly contributed to development assistance by writing off debts under loans provided by the former Soviet Union.[20]

Russia identified its main priorities in development cooperation and pledged a significant increase in external aid financing during its G8 Presidency in 2006.[21]  While Russia aims to create a regulatory and institutional framework for assistance, currently it provides development assistance mainly in two ways: by individual executive agencies according to established bilateral treaties and through multilateral mechanisms, taking advantage of well-established aid delivery channels, additional coordination opportunities provided by international organizations, financial monitoring systems, and technical capacity and expertise.[22]  This is consistent with the IDA Concept, which states that pending the establishment of a national development assistance system,

Russia will provide international development assistance mainly on a multilateral basis, that is by making voluntary and earmarked contributions to the international financial and economic institutions, first of all, to UN programs, funds, and specialized agencies, regional economic commissions and other organizations participating in development programs; by participating in global funds; and by implementing special international initiatives of the Group of Eight, the World Bank, IMF, and UN agencies.[23]

Current sectoral priorities of Russia’s development assistance were mainly formulated under the influence of the Russian G8 Presidency in 2006 and include energy, health and education, governance and public administration, conflict resolution, industrial development, and capacity building.[24]

Russian initiatives to help develop energy infrastructure in rural areas of African countries, including the construction of mini-power plants, mini-hydroelectric power plants, and power lines for electric energy access, are carried out under the Global Village Energy Partnership program.  Russia was expected to contribute about US$30 million to this program over four years starting in 2007.[25]

In October 2008, Russia and the World Bank established the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) Trust Fund aimed at enhancing education quality in low-income countries.[26]  The Trust Fund money (US$32 million) is being allocated over five years among seven countries (four in Africa, two in Central Asia, and one in Southeast Asia).[27]

Health care has become a traditional area of development assistance for Russia.[28]  In that sphere, Russian ODA has been allocated in recent years as follows:

  • 2006 – US$20.35 million
  • 2007 – US$102.17 million
  • 2008 – US$110.29 million
  • 2009 – US$90.72 million[29]
  • 2010 – US$80 million[30]
  • 2011 – US$26.47 million (as allocated)[31]

In 2006, Russia terminated its recipient status and compensated the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria (Global Fund) the US$217 million that the Fund had previously spent on its activities in Russia.[32]  Payments to the Global Fund constituted more than half of the total contribution of US$430 million that Russia made to public health services worldwide from 2006 to 2011.[33]  Russian contributions to the fight against tropical diseases amounted to RUB 157 million (US$4.9 million) in 2010 and RUB 240 million (US$7.8 million) in 2011.[34] In the past few years Russia contributed US$28 million in technical assistance to CIS countries to establish national systems for monitoring infectious diseases, and another US$5 million was appropriated in 2010.[35]  Russia pledged to contribute US$75 million to the Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Under-Five Child Health from 2011–2014.[36]

In 2011, Russia’s contribution to global food security efforts remained at the 2010 level (US$98.2 million), and the total sum of Russia’s commitments to the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative in 2009–2011 amounts to US$330 million (humanitarian aid is excluded).[37]  From January 2008 to June 2009, Russia allocated US$73 million to overcome the consequences of the food crisis and ensure food security, including through emergency aid programs.[38]  Russian food aid is allocated through the World Food Programme of the United Nations (WFP) and by one-time emergency donations, such as US$3.5 million in food aid deliveries to Bangladesh, Guinea, and Zimbabwe in 2008.[39]  Russian food assistance contributions reached about US$30 million in 2009.[40]  Russian food aid is received by a relatively small number of countries.  For example, in 2010, contributions were allocated to Afghanistan (US$5 million), Armenia (US$2.5 million), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (US$2 million), Kyrgyzstan (US$5 million), and Tajikistan (US$5.5 million).[41]  An additional US$10 million was set aside for one-time emergency operations, with US$4.2 million from these funds dedicated to food aid to Haiti.[42]  Russia also contributes to WFP infrastructure development by supporting logistical functions carried out by the WFP for the entire UN system.[43]  The WFP and the Russian government are designing school meals programs for long-term projects in CIS countries, starting with Armenia, where such a program funded by a Russian contribution of US$8 million will be implemented in 2010–2012.[44]  Russia plans to donate up to US$15 million for the development of agriculture in developing countries through the World Bank Global Food Crisis Response Program.[45]  Tajikistan received US$6.75 million through this program in 2009 and 2010, and an allocation of US$6.8 million to Kyrgyzstan is being considered.[46]  In 2010, Russia spent US$98.2 million to train farm specialists and to supply technology and resistant seed cultures to Africa, and it appears that in 2011 spending on food security stayed the same.[47]

Russia is expected to announce a decision to contribute up to US$200 million to the Green Climate Fund, established for mitigating the consequences of climate change.[48]

In April 2011, the Russian government decided to donate €5 million (US$6.8 million) to the Nuclear Safety Account in 2012 and €20 million (US$27.4 million) annually in 2011 and 2012 to the Chernobyl Shelter Fund.  Russia provided US$27 million to these initiatives in 2005–2006 and 2009–2010.[49]

In the context of the ongoing financial crisis, Russia together with other countries of the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC), which includes Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, has established a US$10 billion Anti-Crisis Fund, with Russia contributing US$7.5 billion.  The proceeds of this fund will be used to support poor countries within the EurAsEC on terms and conditions comparable with ODA criteria.[50]

Russia also provides assistance in the sphere of good governance, such as the support provided by the Federal Service for Fiscal Monitoring to several CIS countries for developing fiscal monitoring systems.[51]

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II.  Legal Framework

A.  Regulation of ODAs

1.  Overview

Russian ODA legislation is still being developed.  A number of important terms and concepts are not defined and some terms have different definitions from those in the DAC documents.[52]  Russia is the only G8 country that does not include the concept of “official development assistance”[53] in its laws.  Foreign aid provision concepts appear in certain laws, treaties, and strategic conceptual documents.[54]

The IDA Concept, approved in 2007, defines the major goals, objectives, principles, and priorities of Russia’s international development assistance policy and aims at establishing a national development assistance system.[55]  The purpose of the IDA Concept is to ensure that the federal government uses a systemic approach to Russia’s participation in international development assistance.[56]  The legal framework for the IDA Concept is provided by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Russian Foreign Policy Concept, the Russian Security Concept, and the Budget Code of the Russian Federation.[57]  The IDA Concept is also based on the UN Charter, the Millennium Declaration, the Monterrey Consensus, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, the 2005 World Summit Outcome, the Paris Declaration, and other international instruments.[58]  The IDA Concept provides that the creation of a national system of international development assistance will occur in several stages, but no time frames or terms have been set for the stages.[59]

The Plan of Measures to Implement the International Development Assistance Concept was adopted in November 2007 and provides for measures to create legal and institutional bases for Russia’s development assistance.[60]  The plan was to be implemented from 2008 to 2010, but institutional changes have not yet been made.[61]  To date there is no document that would enable all concerned agencies to address the tasks set out by the IDA Concept in an integrated and step-by-step fashion.[62]  There are individual acts issued by federal executive agencies, but they have narrow application and do not amount to a unified system of actions to promote and enhance the effectiveness of the ODA.[63]

Plans to establish a specialized governmental agency for development assistance were announced by the Russian Finance Ministry on August 26, 2011.  It appears that a newly created federal agency “will contribute to international development, [and] assist other countries to advance economy and fight poverty.”[64]  According to the draft of the new agency’s statute, it will “develop Russian assistance strategy and monitor its implementation.”[65]  The agency will be subordinated to the federal Ministry of Finance and will coordinate its activities with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[66]

2.  Restrictions

Currently more than 75% of Russian ODA is provided as untied aid.[67]  At the same time the Concept for the Long-Term Social and Economic Development of Russia through 2020, approved in November 2008, states that Russian businesses will be supported by tied loans and international development aid mechanisms with a view toward promoting Russian goods and services in the markets of developing countries.[68]  In particular, Russian authorities consider humanitarian food supplies as a measure to support Russian grain exporters.  For example, in April 2009 the Russian government made targeted “tied” contributions to the WFP and the International Civil Defense Organization of US$9.3 million and US$10.7 million, respectively, emphasizing that they will be used to purchase wheat and flour in Russia and to pay Russian organizations for their delivery.[69]  The IDA Concept also states that “[o]ther conditions being equal, preference will be given to projects and programs involving the use of goods and services originating in Russia.”[70]

3.  Policy Considerations

The IDA Concept states that Russia’s economic and political interests will be met by “strengthening Russia’s international position and credibility; stabilizing [the] socioeconomic and political situation in the partner countries; establishing a belt of good neighborliness; prevent[ing] the occurrence of potential focal points of tension and conflict, primarily in the regions neighboring Russia; [and] creating a favorable external environment for Russia’s own development.”[71]  The IDA Concept emphasizes the importance of poverty reduction activities in countries with effective governance and anticorruption programs, and those interested in building a consistent bilateral relationship with Russia.[72]

The IDA Concept charges the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Finance with joint coordination of expenditures on Russia’s IDA, including the determination of priority countries and regions; the political advisability of aid provision; and the amount, delivery channels, types, and terms of such assistance.[73]

Given Russia’s limited resources, the IDA Concept specifies the priority group of aid recipients.  Russia’s regional priorities are one of the main considerations in its IDA system.[74]  The priority group includes the bordering countries—members of the Agreement on the Integrated Economic Space (IES) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC)—and other CIS countries.[75]  The CIS countries are perceived as a security belt around Russia, and social and political stability in these countries enables Russia to conduct more liberal policies and reduce its military expenditures.[76]  The countries of sub-Saharan Africa also are given particular attention as the least developed and most in need of international aid.[77]

Another priority group consists of Russian compatriots living abroad.  Russia provides support to compatriots in ninety-one countries, including through scholarships on equal terms with Russian citizens.[78]

4.  Discretionary Aid

Federal executive agencies coordinate their proposals with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Finance for inclusion in the federal budget of spending items in connection with IDA.  The IDA Concept lists the goals of Russia’s development assistance, principles for avoiding corruption risks and ensuring transparency of decision making, and other factors that must be taken into account in supporting documents prepared by federal executive agencies.  The law on the federal budget generally does not contain restrictions on spending funds appropriated for IDA.

5.  Oversight

The Accounting Chamber of the Russian Federation controls spending of appropriated funds.[79]  Performance assessments of Russia’s participation in specific development assistance projects is carried out in coordination with the authorities of the recipient country and/or the leadership of international organizations.[80]  To avoid the risks of “nurturing” corruption, misuse of allocated funds, and conservation of inefficient public administration in the recipient countries, the IDA Concept includes a number of requirements that recipient countries must meet to be eligible for Russian development assistance, such as the existence of national poverty reduction and sustainable economic development programs, and anticorruption programs.[81]  This requirement does not apply to allocation of emergency aid.  The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, and the Ministry of Finance are charged with compiling factual and analytical data on the implementation of anticorruption activities and efforts to ensure transparency in the use of IDA.[82]  The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Finance are also responsible for assessing the cost-effectiveness of federal spending on IDA.[83]

B.  Regulation of Private Contributions

As noted above, the amount of private Russian contributions to international development is insignificant.  Amendments to the Tax Code enacted in July 2011 and entering into force from January 2012 provide for reducing the taxable income of private individuals to the extent of contributions made to charitable funds and socially oriented nongovernmental organizations.[84]

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III.  Foreign Aid Appropriations Process

According to the IDA Concept, Russia provides assistance on a multilateral basis, a trilateral basis, and a bilateral basis.[85]  The majority of Russian ODA (more than 60% in 2010[86]) is provided through multilateral channels, including through UN organizations and the World Bank (i.e., in the form of untied voluntary contributions), since aid delivery channels and a legislative framework to deliver the aid have yet to be developed.[87]

Bilateral assistance projects focus on a relatively limited number of recipient countries, such as Central Asian countries that share with Russia a common language and legacy of the Soviet health system, and countries where it is possible to make tangible, evaluable contributions.[88]  Assistance provided on a trilateral basis implies application of financial and technical capacity of traditional donor countries and international organizations and delivery of aid through trust funds of the World Bank, the UN institutions, and other organizations.  At the same time, Russia retains the right to select recipient countries and areas of assistance, and to use Russian technical assistance specialists.[89]

Federal budget funds for development assistance activities are allocated according to procedures established by the Budget Code of the Russian Federation.[90]  The Ministry of Economic Development prepares annual plans for ODA in collaboration with international organizations, while the Ministry of Finance ensures that the agreed-upon ODA spending is included in the draft federal budget, informs budget funding administrators and beneficiaries of the overall budget schedule and of limits on ODA spending, and cooperates with the Federal Treasury to ensure timely financing of relevant spending items.[91]  However, proper spending of the funds is the responsibility of the federal executive bodies, which submit proposals each year to the Ministry of Finance on ODA volumes agreed-upon with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs together with justification for inclusion of their proposals in long-term financial plans and the federal budget.[92]

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IV.  Implementing Agencies

The following agencies are responsible for ODA according to the IDA Concept: the President; the Parliament; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the Ministry of Finance; the Ministry of Economic Development; the Ministry of Civil Defense, Emergencies and Disaster Relief; the Ministry of Industry and Trade; and the Ministry of Energy.[93]  The actual list of government agencies involved in implementing ODA policy also includes the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment; the Ministry of Regional Development; the Ministry of Education and Science; the Federal Agency for the CIS, Compatriots Living Abroad and International Humanitarian Cooperation (Rossotrudnichestvo); and other agencies.[94]

The Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Finance are the main decision-making authorities with respect to ODA, including the prioritization of countries and regions, the political expediency of aid, the amount of aid, delivery channels, types, and terms.[95]  They provide information support for ODA operations, submit official information to foreign governments and international organizations, and jointly prepare annual reports on outcomes of Russia’s participation in ODA.[96]  The Ministry of Finance is also responsible for analytical accounting of funds allocated by the Russian Federation to ODA.[97]  Russia’s humanitarian aid is controlled by the Ministry for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters.[98]

Rossotrudnichestvo was established under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is engaged in facilitation and development of international relations between Russia and the CIS member states and other states, as well as in the sphere of international humanitarian cooperation.[99]  It is not the Russian agency for international development, creation of which is expected in the next year or two, because it is involved in aid programs only for the CIS member states.[100]  Experts do not consider Rossotrudnichestvo as a serious IDA actor given its and its predecessors’ specialization in promoting Russian language, culture, science, and educational relations.[101]

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V.  Other Types of ‘Aid’

A.  Emergency Aid

Even during extreme economic hardship in the early 1990s, Russia actively participated in humanitarian operations.  Russian aid provided during the humanitarian operations after the earthquake in Haiti amounted to about US$5 million, and Russia donated an additional US$8 million following the Haiti Donors’ Conference in March 2010.[102]  Russia’s largest single contribution, US$20 million, was made in 2008 in response to the earthquake in the Sichuan Province of China.[103]

B.  College Scholarships to Foreign Students

The Concept for the Long-Term Social and Economic Development of the Russian Federation provides for creation of a system of incentives, including financial incentives, for foreign citizens to study in Russian institutions of higher education and for promotion of exchange programs for the development of economic ties with the countries participating in the joint educational programs.[104]

According to various sources, students from 161 states were granted approximately 9,000 scholarships funded by the Russian federal budget in 2009.[105]  Pursuant to a government decision, the number of foreign citizens and compatriots whose studies in government educational institutions of higher and professional education is supported by federal funds cannot exceed 10,000.[106]

C.  Foreign Remittances

Russia is second only to the United States with respect to the number of migrants in its territory (12.3 million), and it is the fourth largest source of remittances in the world with US$18.6 billion (2% of GDP) transferred in 2010.[107]  The IDA Concept emphasizes the importance of facilitating the simplification and cost-reduction, and enhancing the security and efficiency, of money remittance systems.[108]

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Prepared by Peter Roudik
Director of Legal Research
and Nerses Isajanyan
Foreign Law Consultant
December 2011


[1] Mark Rakhmangulov, Establishing International Development Assistance Strategy in Russia, Int’l Orgs. Res. J. No. 5(31) at 50, 57 (2010), available at http://www.ecsocman.edu.ru/data/2011/05/06/1268030701/9.pdf.

[2] Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, Statements of Director of the International Finance Affairs of Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation A. Bokarev (May 20, 2011), http://www.minfin.ru/en/ pressoffice/quotes/index.php?id4=12751.

[3] Concept of Russia’s Participation in International Development Assistance [IDA Concept] (June 14, 2007), available at http://www.minfin.ru/common/img/uploaded/library/2007/06/concept_eng.pdf.

[4] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 55.

[5] A. Bokarev, It Is Important to Reach New Quality Standards of Russia’s Development Assistance Programmes, International Organisations Research Institute [IORI]  (May 3, 2011), http://www.hse.ru/en/org/ hse/iori/news/29467387.html.

[6] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 55.

[7] IDA Concept, supra note 3, at 10.

[8] Id. at 4.

[9] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 59.

[10] Id.

[11] Interviu Zamestitelia Ministra Inostrannykh Del Rossii A.V. Saltanova, “Rossiia i Blizhnii Vostok” [Interview of the Deputy Foreign Minister of Russia A.V. Saltanov, “Russia and the Middle East”], Mezhdunarodnaia Zhizn’ No. 12 (2009), available at http://www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/0/44F5671485529C4 0C32576AA00491FA7 (in Russian).

[12] Alexander Livshin & Richard Weitz, Civil Society and Philanthropy Under Putin, 8(3) Int’l J. Not-for-Profit L. 6 (May 2006), available at http://www.icnl.org/research/ journal/vol8iss3/special_2.htm.

[13] Id.; Jose Milhazes, Grazhdane Rossii ne Pozhertvovali ni Rublia na Pomosh’ Gaiti [Russian Citizens Did Not Donate a Single Ruble to Help Haiti], Inosmi.Ru (Jan. 26, 2010), http://inosmi.ru/social/20100126/ 157806793.html.

[14] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 50.

[15] Conor Humphries, Russian Aims to Increase Clout with Soft-Power Campaign, Reuters (Feb. 10, 2011), http://in.reuters.com/article/2011/02/10/idINIndia-54800120110210?pageNumber=1.

[16] IDA Concept, supra note 3, at 3.

[17] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 50.

[18] Id.

[19] Eurasia Heritage Foundation [EHF] & United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], Engagement of Russian Business in International Development Assistance in the CIS Countries (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) 9 (Moscow, 2010), available at http://www.undp.ru/index.php?iso=ru&lid= 1&cmd=publications1&id=133.

[20] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 58.

[21] Id. at 56.

[22] IDA Concept, supra note 3, at 9.

[23] Id. at 8.

[24] Id. at 7.

[25] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 60.

[26] Id.

[27] Id.

[28] Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, supra note 2.

[29] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 60–61.

[30] Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, supra note 2.

[31] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 62. 

[32] Id. at 61.

[33] Id. at 62.

[34] IORI, supra note 5.

[35] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 62.

[36] IORI, supra note 5.

[37] Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, supra note 2.

[38] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 62.

[39] Id.

[40] Id.

[41] Id. at 63.

[42] Id.

[43] Id.

[44] Id. at 64.

[45] Id. at 65.

[46] Id.

[47] Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, supra note 2.

[48] IORI, supra note 5.

[49] Id.

[50] Opening Address by Russia’s Minister of Finance A.L. Kudrin at the International Conference on New Partnerships in Global Development Finance (Feb. 17, 2010), http://www.mgdf.ru/eng/press/speeches/ opening_kudrin.

[51] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 59.

[52] Id. at 51.

[53] IDA Concept, supra note 3, at 3.

[54] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 51.

[55] Id.

[56] IDA Concept, supra note 3, at 2.

[57] Id.

[58] Id.

[59] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 52.

[60] Id.

[61] Id. at 53.

[62] EHF & UNDP, supra note 19, at 12.

[63] Id.

[64] Evgeniia Pismennaia & Ekaterina Kravchenko, Minfin Rossii Khochet Pomoch Drugim Stranam v Likvidatsii Bednosti (Russian Finance Ministry Wants to Help Other Countries to Eliminate Poverty), Vedomosti (Aug. 26, 2011), http://www.vedomosti.ru/finance/news/1349485/agentstvo_ pomoschi#ixzz1dzsrsxM4.

[65] Id.

[66] Id.

[67] Muskoka Accountability Report, G8 Member Reporting: Aid and Aid Effectiveness 8 (June 2010), available at http://canadainternational.gc.ca/g8/assets/pdfs/mar_annex51.pdf.

[68] Government Regulation No. 1662 of Nov. 17, 2008,  Sobranie Zakonodatelstva Rossiiskoi Federatsii [SZ RF] [official gazette] 2008, No. 47, Item 5489.

[69] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 64.

[70] IDA Concept, supra note 3, at 12.

[71] Id. at 5.

[72] Russia: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs/The Ministry of Finance, PARIS 21, http://www.paris21.org/ globaldirectory/Bilaterals/id/170 (last updated 2008).

[73] IDA Concept, supra note 3, at 10.

[74] National Strategies on Development Assistance: Russia, Research Centre for International Cooperation and Development [RCICD], http://en.rcicd.org/national-strategies-on-development-assistance/russia/ (last visited Nov. 16, 2011).  

[75] IDA Concept, supra note 3, at 7.

[76] EHF & UNDP, supra note 19, at 8.

[77] IDA Concept, supra note 3, at 7.

[78] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 65.

[79] EHF & UNDP, supra note 19, at 9.

[80] IDA Concept, supra note 3, at 13.

[81] Id. at 6–7.

[82] Id. at 12.

[83] Id.

[84] Sotsial’nye uslugi osvobodili ot NDS, a blagotvoritel’nost’ – ot NDFL [Social Services Are Exempted From VAT, and Charity From the Personal Income Tax], Kadis (July 25, 2011), http://www.kadis.ru/news/98058 (in Russian).

[85] RCICD, supra note 74.

[86] Claire Provost, The Rebirth of Russian Foreign Aid, guardian.co.uk (May 25, 2011), http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2011/may/25/russia-foreign-aid-report-influence-image.

[87] Paris 21, supra note 72.

[88] Center for Strategic and International Studies, Russia’s Global Health Leadership (May 29, 2011), http://csis.org/files/attachments/110519Summary.pdf.

[89] IDA Concept, supra note 3, at 9.

[90] Id. at 10.

[91] EHF & UNDP, supra note 19, at 10.

[92] Id.

[93] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 53.

[94] EHF & UNDP, supra note 19, at 9.

[95] Id. at 9.

[96] Id.

[97] Id.

[98] Country Profile: Russia, Global Humanitarian Assistance, http://www.globalhumanitarian assistance.org/countryprofile/russia (last visited Nov. 16, 2011).

[99] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 53.

[100] Id.

[101] EHF & UNDP, supra note 19, at 13.

[102] IORI, supra note 5.

[103] Global Humanitarian Assistance, supra note 98.

[104] Rakhmangulov, supra note 1, at 59.

[105] Id. at 60.

[106] Ministry of Education Resolution No. 179, May 26, 2009, Rossiiskaia Gazeta, June 24, 2009, at http://www.rg.ru/2009/06/24/inostrancy-vuzy-dok.html (official publication).

[107] The World Bank, Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011 at 1, 15 & 16 (2d ed.), available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLAC/Resources/Factbook2011-Ebook.pdf.

[108] IDA Concept, supra note 3, at 9.

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Last Updated: 06/09/2015