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Sweden is one of the few countries in the world that meets the UN  target of giving more than 0.7% of GNI in foreign aid.  In fact, Sweden gives some 0.98% of its GNI as foreign aid annually.  While the government provides for most of the aid, new legislative efforts are underway to promote private donations through tax deductions in an effort to keep pace with the rest of the Scandinavian nations.  Swedish development cooperation (aid) primarily targets fewer areas, with the Swedish government wanting to be a bigger player in fewer recipient states.  The three largest recipient nations of Swedish aid are Tanzania, Afghanistan, and Mozambique.  In addition to its focus on the poorest countries of the world, Sweden also maintains a strong presence and commitment to the democratization process in Eastern Europe and the Baltic Area.

I.  Introduction

A.  Official Development Assistance Figures

According to official Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) figures, Sweden’s preliminary Net Development Assistance for 2010 is US $4,527 million compared to the 2008 high of US $4,732 million.[1]  Stated as a percentage, the estimated aid for 2010 is 0.98% of total gross national income (GNI).[2]  When the Swedish budget for 2011 was set, the goal was 1%.[3]  The administrative costs associated with refugees are deducted from this initial figure.[4]  The budget for development cooperation also includes Swedish Krona (SEK) 20.3 million (approximately US$3.03 million) in administrative costs associated with Sweden’s commitments in the Baltic Area “[which] is not classified as development cooperation.”[5]

Swedish aid is mainly distributed through multilateral, governmental, and public agencies.[6]  Less than 3% of Swedish aid is distributed through private channels.[7]

The distribution of official development assistance (ODA) between different sectors in 2010 was divided as follows: agriculture and forestry, 2%; peace and security, 2%; research, 3%; budget support to fight poverty, 3%; education, 3%; market development, 3%; sustainable development, 4%; environment, 5%; health, 7%; conflict, democracy, human rights, and equality, 9%; humanitarian aid, 15%; and miscellaneous, 42%.[8]

In 2010, Swedish bilateral aid was distributed among twenty countries and totaled SEK 15,413 million (approx. US$2,289 million), including non-ODA countries.[9]  The bilateral aid is about 50% of the total aid, which is SEK 31,430 million (approx. US$4,778 million).[10]  OECD figures for Swedish total development cooperation were US$3,954.96 million in 2006, US$4,338.94 million in 2007, US$4,734.56 million in 2008, US$4,552.37 million in 2009, and US$4,526.62 million in 2010.[11]

On Sweden’s current and past commitments to development cooperation, the OECD Peer Review states: “Sweden is providing crucial leadership within the international donor community.  It remains a leading advocate of increased aid flows to developing countries, and has led by example with aid allocations exceeding the UN target of 0.7% of GNI every year since 1975 and reaching 0.98% in 2008.”[12]

B.  Private Contribution Figures

In 2009, according to official OECD figures, the Swedish Net Private Aid was US$2,473 million.[13]  Swedish private contributions were especially high following the tsunami catastrophe of 2004.[14]  The Swedish Red Cross has published donation figures totaling SEK 299 million (approximately US$45 million) for 2010.[15]  Together with contributions from the European Union (EU) and Swedish government, the Swedish Red Cross budget totaled SEK 851 million (approximately US$87 million), of which approximately half (SEK 433 million) is used for their international efforts.[16]  

C.  Snapshot of Foreign Aid Activity

General

Sweden sends aid to twenty countries, primarily focusing on Tanzania, Afghanistan, and Mozambique, which each received more than SEK 600 million (approx. US$90 million ) in aid during 2010.[17]  Sweden has recently refocused its bilateral resources from certain areas (such as Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam) to others (including Afghanistan, Somalia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, West Bank–Gaza, Colombia, and Guatemala).[18]       

Current projects include a Pungwe River project led by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA).[19]  Anticipated projects include a water project (“Water Aid Innovation Challenge”) in ODA countries.[20]  Through the EU, Sweden also contributes to the payment of Palestinian teachers and doctors.[21]  In addition, Sweden participates in multilateral efforts with organizations such as the International Development Association, the World Bank, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, the UN Development Programme, UNICEF, UN Women, UN-HABITAT, and the Global Water Partnership Organization.[22]

Aid is being used as a tool to promote the Swedish policy of gender equality and to decrease the level of corruption in developing countries.  Allocation of foreign aid is divided in types of aid; thus the budget allocates more aid to certain forms than others.[23]  Favored projects include water safety, gender equality, HIV prevention and treatment, and democratization efforts, among others.

Trade and Aid

Sweden has changed its policies to focus more on increasing trade and less on aid.  Still, trade with African countries constitutes only 3% of total Swedish exports and even less in total imports in 2010.[24]  Examples of current free trade efforts include the Trade Mark East Africa project, to which Sweden has pledged SEK 30 million to be distributed over a three-year period.[25]

The Swedish development cooperation effort has been ranked the best in the world by the US-based Center for Global Development as recently as 2010.[26]

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II.  Legal Framework

A.  Regulation of ODAs

1.  Overview

ODA is accounted for and regulated by the Swedish annual budget (for 2011 in Prop. 2010/11:1 Utgiftsområde 7)[27] and is then distributed by the implementing agencies through a “letter of appropriation” from the government, which specifies the allocation of the budget and the division of resources among different areas and sections of ODA.  Most resources are distributed through multilateral organizations or the public sector.[28]  In 2010, only 3% of all Swedish ODA was distributed through the private sector.[29]

2.  Implementing Agencies

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

The Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs allocates the majority of the Swedish ODA budget through implementation agencies (mainly SIDA) or multilateral organizations.[30]

SIDA – The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency

The main Swedish implementing agency for foreign aid and development is SIDA, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency,[31] which is responsible for approximately 50% of the Swedish ODA budget.[32]  SIDA’s mandate is regulated in Myndighetsförordningen (Agency Regulation)[33] and Regeringens förordning med instruktion för Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete (Government Regulation with Instruction for the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency),[34] as well as yearly appropriation letters and “individual governmental decisions.”  

In the Letter of Appropriation for 2011, the Swedish government especially focuses on SIDA’s finances and how SIDA needs to balance its budget and revise its risks.[35]  The Swedish government also specifies “three thematic areas” on which SIDA should focus: “democracy and human rights, environment and climate as well as the promotion of equality and human rights as part of development.”[36]  The Government also calls for more substantial oversight of these specific areas.[37]

The Swedish Förordning (2010:1080) med instruktion för Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete (Sida) (Swedish authority regulation with instruction for SIDA)[38] includes provisions for cooperation with other national and international agencies (5§) as well as special allocation of resources for research and development (9§). A comprehensive list of the agency’s authority is found in section 4, which, among other things, provides that SIDA “may decide on and distribute aid or other type of financing in support of efforts taken [bilaterally].”[39]  SIDA may also cancel procedural agreements (4§ p. 2), and “after agreement with the other party to redistribute resources between bilateral agreements” (4§ p. 3) “demand that a ministry of another country with which Sweden has a bilateral development cooperation agreement, or where Sweden contributes humanitarian aid, provide SIDA with such information which is necessary for its operations.”[40]  Generally SIDA has broad discretion to act in day-to-day operations as well as plan future strategies regarding development aid.[41]  However, if the development cooperation “is of special importance for Swedish [diplomatic relations] with a country or [relations] with an international organization [and] is canceled, SIDA must immediately contact the Government Offices (Ministry of Foreign Affairs).”[42]  In addition to its implementation functions, SIDA also has an advisory function by advising the government on how the budget should be allocated with regard to international development cooperation.[43] 

Folke Bernadotte Academy

Although the main purpose of the Folke Bernadotte Academy[44] is to promote peace and security in the world,[45] the Academy is involved in development cooperation efforts, especially through the “security sector reform program” (SSR program).[46]  Through this program, the Folke Bernadotte Academy mainly provides “grants for capacity development and operational efforts.”[47]

Swedfund International AB

Swedfund is a state-owned corporation with the primary purpose of investing in Swedish projects abroad.  However, it also strives to increase the level of development of the host country.[48]  According to its own records and statements, “Swedfund does not invest in corporations that manufacture or sell weapons, tobacco or alcohol.”[49]

Coordination Between Implementing Agencies

Because Sweden has several agencies that participate in activities that may overlap (e.g., peace and security, development cooperation), the government has assigned each agency one area for which they are primarily responsible for coordination and reporting.  For instance, SIDA is responsible for coordinating international development cooperation.[50]  Folke Bernadotte Academy is responsible for providing the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with a coordination report each month for “security policy efforts.”[51]

In addition, the Swedish government has adopted a Politics for Global Development (PGU) policy aimed at coordinating not only efforts among development cooperation agencies but across government agencies as a whole to make all government efforts, including civil and military, as efficient in fostering development as possible.[52]

3.  Restrictions

General restrictions on exports (and thus also indirectly on foreign aid) are covered by law.  For example, Sweden prohibits trade with weapons[53] and requires licenses for the export of nuclear technology,[54] which, depending on the use of the nuclear technology, may be banned altogether.[55]  However, most restrictions on aid and development are made in the annual letter of appropriation from the government.[56]  For example, SIDA’s development cooperation efforts must comply with the OECD’s “DAC [Development Co-operation Directorate] guidelines covering what can be classified as development cooperation.”[57]  Moreover, “aid may only be given to countries that DAC defines as development countries.”[58]  However, the government has provided an explicit exception from this requirement for the support that goes to “Eastern and Central Europe.”[59]  Restrictions also include the requirement that the use of the appropriation funds be “in accordance with [the applicable] Swedish policy.”[60]  (For further discussion on this topic, see section II.A.4 on Discretionary Aid, below.) 

Criminalization of Certain Types of Aid Measures

Proposed restrictions on development aid include a “permit requirement” for any technical assistance that is given to a third country (i.e., non EU/European Economic Area country) and can be found in Swedish Proposition 2010/11:112 Genomförande av direktiv om överföring av krigsmateriel [Implementation of Directive on Defense Transfers], which is a step in the Swedish implementation of the EU Defense Transfers Directive.[61]  These proposed changes would become effective on June 30, 2012.[62]  The proposed legislation would make it a crime to send technical equipment as aid without first being certified by the Swedish government.[63]

Conditional Aid

Sweden does not use “tied aid,” but it does impose conditions on the recipients of foreign aid.  The distribution of development cooperation aid must comply with special strategies and policy decisions but generally is not regulated by law.[64]  This means that the regulation of Swedish foreign aid is very flexible, but the flexibility of the government to adopt new policies also risks creating a framework that is neither consistent nor predictable.

Aid in Violation of Swedish Policy

Sweden has been criticized for its policies surrounding the sale of JAS 39 Gripen fighter airplanes to South Africa because of suspicion of bribes and corrupt behavior, which were also connected with development aid policies.[65]

4.  Discretionary Aid

The discretion given to the implementing agencies, although broad in terms of the scope and nature of activities within each sector of the budget, is rather limited between sectors or countries on redistribution of appropriated sums.[66]  The annual budget and the letter of appropriation specify the allocation of the resources to be used in different countries as well as the funding for different multilateral efforts.[67]  To increase the flexibility of its operations, the Swedish government has granted SIDA the authority to “exceed [or] alternatively [use less than] the annual strategy amount [appropriated] for a [specific] country or region with 10%” in the “humanitarian efforts and conflict resolution” part of the budget.[68]  However, no corresponding authority has been given for the EU or UN amounts (i.e., SIDA’s multilateral budget).[69]  The power to contract has also been reduced by the letter of appropriation for 2011, which provides that at least 50% of the annual volume should be “unallocated 2 … years after the strategy expires.”[70]

Moreover, because there are currently investigations into the effectiveness of foreign aid distributed through international funds, SIDA “shall until further notice refrain from making decisions on new economic commitments to foreign funds, corporations and non-governmental or multilateral institutions that are used to channel aid.”[71]

Restrictions on the implementing agencies’ discretion include government-imposed ceilings for “global subject strategic development efforts” covering each international organization (such as the International Center for Transitional Justice and the International Legal Assistance Consortium (ILAC)), as specified in the letter of appropriation.[72]  Also, the appropriation decision covering the allocation heading “Research” specifies sub-requirements; for example, at least SEK 75 million (approx. US$11.3 million) should go toward “diseases that primarily affect poor children and at least SEK 25 million [approximately US$3.7 million] should cover research on securing future food supplies.”[73] 

5.  Oversight

Foreign Ministry

The Foreign Ministry has its own oversight agency, UD-USTYR, which is responsible for the “direction and methods of development cooperation.”[74]  UD-USTYR has oversight over the complete development cooperation budget and investigates the efficiency of the aid and cases pertaining to SIDA’s activities, among other things.[75]

Riksrevisionen

The main oversight agency in Sweden is the Riksrevisionen (Swedish National Audit Office).  Riksrevisionen conducts yearly investigations of Swedish government actions.  These investigations are made pursuant to Swedish legislation that requires audits of governmental activity.[76]  An investigation into Swedish contributions to international operations (Svenska bidrag till internationella insatser) was conducted in 2011.[77]  The most recent report by the agency criticized the lack of concrete examples and statistics on development cooperation provided by the government to the Riksdag (parliament).[78]

SADEV

SADEV, the Swedish Agency for Development Evaluation (Institutet for utvärdering av internationellt utvecklingssamarbete),[79] is governed by Myndighetsförordningen (Agency Regulation) and a special governmental instruction.[80]  Thus, unlike SIDA, SADEV’s mission is not reviewed annually through a letter of appropriation but through a more lengthy process of revising the instruction.  The main purpose of SADEV is to evaluate the entire Swedish international development cooperation effort.[81]

OECD

Internationally, Swedish development efforts are also scrutinized by the OECD.  The OECD, although very positive about Swedish ODA efforts overall, still recognizes problem areas in the Swedish ODA approach, mainly with respect to the fact that “Sweden has not yet been able to address previous recommendations, notably in reducing the complexity of the policy framework and providing independent monitoring and evaluation of policy coherence for development.”[82]  This continued to be the Swedish “Achilles’ heel” during 2011.[83]

SIDA

Oversight is also maintained by the implementing agencies themselves.  SIDA has an internal audit system, Sekretariatet för utvärdering (UTV) (Secretariat for Evaluation), that contributes to both international and domestic evaluations.[84] 

Moreover, SIDA must submit an annual financial report to the government each year analyzing the successes and effectiveness of its efforts.[85]  The report is divided into subparts corresponding to each of the government’s delegated activities and includes statistics on the number of efforts, the cooperation partners, other agency involvement, and the costs associated with each effort.[86]  In addition, in 2010 SIDA commissioned an evaluation of its humanitarian assistance, which was published in November 2010.

To safeguard against fraud and corruption, SIDA has adopted an anticorruption code of conduct.[87]  The SIDA definition of corruption is “abuse of trust, power or position that results in improper benefit.”  According to SIDA’s anticorruption code, corruption includes “[the giving and taking of bribes,] blackmail, nepotism, but also embezzlement, scams and conflicts of interest.”[88]

Ekonomistyrningsverket

The Ekononomistyrningsverket (ESV) (Swedish National Financial Management Authority)[89] coordinates all accounting of Swedish finances, including spending for development cooperation.[90]  ESV does not itself conduct any accounting but coordinates the accounting by various governmental agencies.[91]  In addition, it analyzes relevant spending policies and assess risks associated with the budget.[92]

6.  Policy Considerations

The Swedish government applies what it refers to as a “country focus process” (focused bilateral development cooperation), which is outlined in a memorandum by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[93]  The memo highlights five issues to address when choosing a bilateral development partner: (1) the needs of the recipient country, (2) the prospective efficiency of the results, (3) the potential influence Sweden might have on the democratization process, (4) whether Sweden has a comparative advantage in the recipient country compared to other donor nations, and (5) “Sweden’s overall links with each country.”[94]  

However, certain types of aid remain unaffected by the “country focus approach.”[95]  Examples include “humanitarian aid, multilateral aid, support to Swedish nongovernmental organisations via the frame organisations, [and] independent research cooperation.”[96]  Sweden has expressed a devotion to the promotion of human rights and in 2008 reduced the amount of aid distributed through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as a direct result of Sweden’s belief that UNDP was not adequately committed to “pushing for” human rights protections.[97]  Swedish efforts also include a focus on gender equality in the distribution of aid.[98]

Reevaluation of Aid Policy

The Swedish government is currently overhauling the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.[99]  The overhaul includes analyses of which countries should receive development cooperation and how aid measures are monitored and reported.

The Swedish government is attempting to make aid more efficient and focused, leaving certain areas in favor of others, and mainly focusing on Africa and the Baltic Region.  No change in the amount allocated is intended, but rather a shift in purpose.[100]

The Minister for International Development Cooperation, Gunilla Carlsson, has made it her priority to open up access to foreign aid data and has launched a website devoted solely to making foreign aid data, and especially the fight against corruption, transparent and accessible.[101]  The project is outlined in the Swedish report Öppna biståndet (Make the Aid More Transparent)[102] and summarized in English on the English website version.[103]  Sweden has also launched a website covering the Swedish ODA and military operations in Afghanistan, as a part of its policy to make its international involvements more transparent.[104]

B.  Regulation of Private Contributions

Sweden is the only Scandinavian country that does not provide a tax deduction for private aid donations to nonprofit organizations, such as the Red Cross.[105]  However, Aktiebolag (Incorporated Shareholder Corporations) do have a right to deduct Christmas gifts, which may include planting a tree in the name of an employee.  A more controversial example is that Rädda Barnen (Save the Children, Sweden) sold Christmas trees for SEK 150,000 (approx. US$22,387), for the benefit of their local and international efforts, which could be given as Christmas presents to their corporate employees and thereby become deductible.[106]  Less expensive alternatives included a box of chocolates for SEK 5,500[107] (approx. US$821) and a Christmas flower for SEK 8,000 (approx. US$1,194).[108]  The right to deduct the difference between the market value for a chocolate box and the paid price depends on the quantity of sponsoring services the donor receives.[109]

The Christian Democrat Party (currently part of the governing coalition) has suggested that a tax deduction be introduced for both corporations and individuals and that such action could double the current total Swedish ODA.[110]  A state investigation as part of a legislative effort has also been conducted.[111]  The proposed fall budget (höstbudget),[112] which was delivered to the Riksdag on September 20, 2011, proposed to make “gifts to organizations, nonprofit organizations, religious and belief-based communities” deductible, provided that the recipient is involved in activities that benefit people in need “or promote research and development.”[113]  However, this newly proposed deduction is intended only for private individuals and not legal persons such as corporations or state actors.[114]  The proposal would cover gifts ranging between SEK 200 (approx. US$30) and SEK 6, 000 (approx. US$895) and donors would receive a 25% tax deduction.[115]

According to the government proposal, the recipients of deductible gifts under this new law should be limited to organizations with “an objective of conducting support activity to the benefit of people in need or to promote scientific research or completely or in part conduct such activity.”[116]

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III.  Foreign Aid Appropriations Process

A.  General

Budget and Appropriation Procedure Law

The appropriation process for the Swedish budget is governed by the Swedish Constitution[117] and budget law.[118]  The Riksdag decides on the budget after receiving a budget proposal from the government.[119]  The governmental proposal is supposed to include guidelines for expenditures beyond the current budget year (RF 9:6) as well as a budget ceiling for the upcoming three years.[120]  The governmental expenditure appropriation must be made as general appropriations (3 ch. 2§), but the government may make limitations and conditions for “the use of the [appropriated funds]” (3 ch. 11§).[121]  Before submitting a budget, the government hears suggestions from the relevant implementing agencies.

General Procedure

The government generally sends a vårbudget (Spring Fiscal Policy Bill) to the Riksdag in April (April 15 at the latest) and the Riksdag decides on the budget in June.[122]  The Spring Fiscal Policy Bill covers the general policy with a long-term perspective.[123]  There is also a budget proposition during the fall, höstbudget (Budget Bill), which outlines the actual budget for the upcoming year.[124]  The Riksdag decides on this Budget Bill in December after discussions between the government and Riksdag.[125] 

B.  Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements

The government enters into all agreements with foreign states as well as multilateral organizations (RF 10:1).  However, the Riksdag must accept certain agreements (RF 10:3).  As part of its power to enter into agreements with states and multilateral organizations, the Swedish government may also assign contracting powers to relevant governmental agencies to enter into such agreements, provided that those agreements do not require the Riksdag’s or Utrikesnämnd’s[126] participation (RF 10:2).  Thus, in regard to foreign aid, the Swedish government may delegate its mandate by asking SIDA (or another government agency) to enter into bilateral agreements. 

C.  Allocation – Bilateral/Multilateral Aid

When presenting the budget to the Riksdag, the government includes a special budget for development assistance, which also includes a minor allocation for certain administrative costs associated with the Swedish asylum process.[127]  In addition, the government sends the implementing agencies “letters of appropriation” that specify in greater detail the allocation of both bilateral and multilateral aid.[128]  The letters of appropriation include separate posts for bilateral aid (divided into regions), multilateral aid, and administrative costs.[129]

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IV.  Other Types of ‘Aid’

A.  Aid to College and University Students from ODA Countries

Until recently, university education in Sweden was free for all foreign students.  As of July 31, 2011, college and university education is now avgiftsbelagd (tuition based) for all students who are not citizens of an EEA (European Economic Area) country (commonly known as third-country citizens), or are not permanent residents of Sweden or the family members of EES citizens who have permanent residence in Sweden.  These students must also pay an application fee unless they are participating in an exchange program or have studied at a Swedish University during the preceding semester.[130]  Non-EES citizens who are legally present in Sweden for reasons other than pursuing a university education are also exempted.[131]

The change in policy has mainly been a result of the rapid increase in foreign students at Swedish universities.  Since 1999 the number has tripled and now “constitute[s] more than eight percent of all students in Sweden.”[132]  To accommodate talented students with limited means, the Swedish government has made two different scholarship programs available, one covering both the education fee and living expenses and one covering only the education fee.[133]  In total, 90 million SEK (approximately US$13.5 million) will be spent on these scholarships in the 2011–2012 academic year.[134]

Because the education fee must be paid to the educational institution even before a visa is granted by the Immigrationsmyndigheten (Immigration Authority), it is probable that the number of students from developing countries will decrease significantly.

Government student loans and grants are given to students who are Swedish citizens or EU-members or “likställda EU medborgare” (persons who by law are to be treated equally to EU citizens).[135]  These policies tend to disadvantage citizens of ODA recipient countries because most Swedish ODA recipient countries are not part of the EES.

B.  Aid Through Asylum or Emigration

With a large number of asylum seekers each year (31,819 in 2010),[136] of whom more than half come from Serbia, Somalia, and Afghanistan, Sweden has taken steps to provide more humane living conditions for noncitizens and undocumented immigrants.

1.  Free Health and Dental Care for Undocumented Immigrants

Sweden is considering a proposal to give all undocumented immigrants health care and to provide free schooling for undocumented children between the ages of six to sixteen, or up to age eighteen if the student wishes to pursue a secondary education.[137]  Undocumented children are already receiving free health care in Sweden.  Adult undocumented immigrants, however, only receive emergency treatment.

2.  Foreign Remittance

Foreign remittances were officially calculated to be about SEK 4 billion in 2006.[138]  An article published in the Nordic Africa Institute’s periodical, Policy Notes Report, argues that actual foreign remittances in 2007 were 30% higher than official figures, however.[139]  This would mean that foreign remittances corresponded to approximately 0.175% of Sweden’s GNI.[140]  The Swedish government has worked to promote the transfer of foreign remittances by reducing the costs associated with international transfers without facilitating money laundering and the financing of terrorist activity.[141]

3.  The Kosmopolit Project

The Swedish Minister for Trade, Ewa Bjoerling, started the project Kosmopolit in an effort to increase trade and integration.[142]  The project allocates funds to stimulate and increase foreign trade with the immigrant’s native country.[143]

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Prepared by Edith Palmer, Chief
Foreign, Comparative and International Law Division II
Global Legal Research Center
and Elin Hofverberg
Law Library Intern
November 2011


[1] Development Aid: Net Development Assistance (ODA), DOI 10.1787/20743866-table 1 (measured in US dollars), OECDiLibrary (Apr. 13, 2011), available at http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/development/development-aid-net-official-development-assistance-oda_20743866-table1.

[2] Id.

[3] See Regeringskansliet (Swedish government website), http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/3102/a/114382 (last visited Sept. 6, 2011).

[4] Frågor och svar om bistånd [Questions and Answers on Development Assistance], Regeringskansliet (Mar. 18, 2008; updated Sept. 15, 2011), http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/4759.

[5] Id.

[6] Multilateral organizations-53%, public sector-24%, international organizations-8%, Swedish organizations-8%, organizations in the recipient country-3%, private and miscellaneous-3%, and unspecified-1%.  Vem genomför biståndet? [Who Implements Assistance?], Open Aid (government website), http://www.openaid.se/organizations (last visited .

[7] Id.

[8] Vad används biståndet till? [What Is the Assistance Used For?], Open Aid, http://www.openaid.se/sectors/ (last visited Sept. 6, 2011).

[9] Sveriges utvecklingssamarbete i siffror [Sweden’s Development Cooperation in Numbers]: Multilateralt utvecklingssamarbete [Multilateral Development Cooperation], SIDA (June 1, 2011), http://sidapublications.citat. se/interface/stream/mabstream.asp?filetype=1&orderlistmainid=3159&printfileid=3159&filex=4352431991895

[10] Id.

[11] ODA by Donor (Sweden), OECD.StatExtracts, http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode= ODA_DONOR (also provides detailed statistics on bilateral and multilateral aid) (data extracted on Sept. 20, 2011).

[12] Sweden (2009) DAC Peer Review – Main Findings and Recommendations, OECD, http://www.oecd.org/document/1/0,3343,en_2649_34603_43278401_1_1_1_1,00.html (last visited Sept. 7, 2011).

[13] Table 5. Total Net Private Flows by DAC Country, OECD, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/31/38/ 47452671.xls (last visited Sept. 20, 2011). 

[14] See Röda Korset, http://www.rodakorset.se (last visited Sept. 14, 2011).

[15] See Svenska Röda Korset 2010 [Swedish Red Cross (Annual Report) 2010] Röda Korset  at 24, http://www.redcross.se/PageFiles/1046/Arsredovisning_2010.pdf

[16] Id.

[17] SIDA, supra note 9.

[18] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Focused Bilateral Development Cooperation (Aug. 27, 2007) at 8, http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/08/66/21/496f32e6.pdf.  For additional information regarding Sweden’s policy shift, see infra, section II.A.6.

[19] Pungwefloden–en gemensam vattenresurs för miljontals människor [Pungwe River–A Common Water Resource for Millions of People], SIDA (Aug. 17, 2011; updated Sept. 20, 2011), http://www.sida.se/Svenska/Lander--regioner/Afrika/Mocambique/Program-och-projekt1/Pungwefloden-en-gemensam-vattenresurs/

[20] Press Release, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Regeringens satsningar inom biståndspolitiken [Government Initiatives in Development Policies] (Sept. 20, 2011), available at http://www.regeringen.se/sb/a/175917.

[21] Svenska biståndspengar går till läkare och lärare i Palestina [Swedish Aid Money Goes to the Doctors and Teachers in Palestine], SIDA (Sept. 1, 2011; updated Sept. 2, 2011), http://www.sida.se/Svenska/Nyhetsarkiv/2011/September-2011/Svenska-bistandspengar-till-Palestina/.

[22] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Regleringsbrev för budgetåret 2011 avseende Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete [Appropriation for the Year 2011 Regarding the Board for International Development Cooperation] (July 28, 2011) (III:2) UF2011/45027/UD/USTYR at 12–15, available at http://www.esv.se/Verktyg--stod/Statsliggaren/Regleringsbrev/?RBID=13684.

[23] See id.

[24] See Exportrådet [Swedish Trade Council], Svensk Export 2010 [Swedish Export 2010], http://www.swedishtrade.se/PageFiles/134234/Exportstatistik_2010_110307.pdf (last visited Sept. 20, 2011).

[25] See Konkurrenskraftig handel i Östafrika [Competitive Trade in Eastern Africa], SIDA (Jan. 26, 2011), http://www.sida.se/Svenska/Kontakta-oss/For-medier/Aktuella-Beslut/Aktuella-beslut-2010/Aktuella-beslut-december/Konkurrenskraftig-handel-i-Ostafrika/.

[26] See Country Report Sweden, Center for Global Development, http://www.cgdev.org/section/ initiatives/_active/cdi/_country/sweden (last visited Sept. 7, 2011).  For a summary, visit the Swedish news site, TheLocal.se, which provides Swedish news in English at http://www.thelocal.se/16158/20081205/ (last visited Sept. 7, 2011).

[27] Proposition [Prop.] 2010/11:1 Budgetpropositionen för 2011 Utgiftsområde 7 Bilaga 1 [government bill], available at http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/15/33/07/53ddf3aa.pdf.

[28] Vem genomför biståndet?[Who Implements the Aid], Open Aid, http://www.openaid.se/organizations (last visited Sept. 6, 2011). 

[29] Id.

[30] See Budgetlag (Svensk Författningssamling [SFS] 2011:203).

[31] SIDA, http://www.sida.se/English/About-us/Organization/ (last visited Sept. 6, 2011).

[32] Sida förfogar över hälften av Sveriges biståndsbudget [SIDA Has More Than Half of Sweden’s Aid Budget], SIDA (June 24, 2009; updated Jan. 26, 2011), http://www.sida.se/Svenska/Om-oss/Budget/

[33] Myndighetsförordning (Svensk författningssamling [SFS] 2007:515), available at http://www.riksdagen.se/webbnav/index.aspx?nid=3911&bet=2007:515

[34] Regeringens förordning med instruktion för Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete (Svensk Författningssamling [SFS] 2010:1080), http://www.riksdagen.se/webbnav/ index.aspx?nid=3911&bet=2010:1080.  

[35] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Regleringsbrev för budgetåret 2011 avseende Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete [Swedish Government Letter of Appropriation for 2011 regarding the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency] (Dec. 22, 2010), available at http://www.sida.se/Global/About%20 Sida/Regleringsbrev/Regleringsbrev%202011.pdf (translation by author).

[36] Id. (translation by author).

[37] Id

[38] Regeringens förordning med instruktion för Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete [Government Regulation with Instruction for International Development Cooperation] (Svensk Författningssamling [SFS] 2010:1080), http://www.riksdagen.se/webbnav/?nid=3911&bet=2010:1080 (translation by author).

[39] Id. 4 § no. 1 (translation by author).

[40] Id. 4 § no. 11 (translation by author).

[41] See id. 4 § nos. 1–11, which includes assigning powers to another agency, conferring powers, and “cooperating with other nations, EU, international and multilateral organizations” (no. 6) (translation by author), etc.  

[42] Id. 4 § para. 2. (translation by author).

[43] SIDA, supra note 9.

[44] Folke Bernadotte Academy, http://www.folkebernadotteacademy.se/en/About-FBA/ (last visited Sept. 20, 2011). 

[45] Id.

[46] SSR-programmet [SSR Program], Folke Bernadotte Academy, http://folkebernadotteacademy. se/Kunskapsomraden/Sakerhetssektorreform/SSR-programmet/ (last visited Sept. 9, 2009) (translation by author). 

[47] See id. (translation by author).

[48] See Ägaranvisningar för Swedfund International AB (556436-2084) (Apr. 27, 2011), http://www.swedfund.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Agaranvisningar-201104271.pdf.

[49] See Swedfund International AB website, http://www.swedfund.se/om-swedfund/ (translation by author).

[50] See SIDA’s most recent report on joint efforts and coordinated projects, Sveriges utvecklingssamarbete i siffror 2011, supra note 9.

[51] Samordning av svenska insatser [Coordination of Swedish Efforts] (Jan. 13, 2010), Folke Bernadotte Academy http://folkebernadotteacademy.se/Utlandsuppdrag/Vara-insatser/Samordning-av-svenska-insatser/.

[52] Politik för Global Utveckling [Policies for Global Development] (June 9, 2009, updated Mar. 31, 2011), Sida, http://www.sida.se/Svenska/Bistand--utveckling/Internationellt-samarbete-/Politik-for-global-utveckling-PGU/.

[53] 4 § Lag om krigsmateriel (Svensk författningssamling [SFS] 1192:1300), available at http://www.riksdagen.se/webbnav/index.aspx?nid=3911&bet=1992:1300.  Note that the new 6§ para. 2 no. 5 Lag om krigsmateriel, which will come into force on June 30, 2012, specifies that “humanitarian aid [in response to a] catastrophe” is exempt.  Id.

[54] 7c § Lag om kärnteknisk verksamhet (Svensk författningssamling [SFS] 1984:3), available at http://www.riksdagen.se/webbnav/index.aspx?nid=3911&bet=1984:3.  

[55] 9 § Lag om kontroll av produkter med dubbla användningsområden och av tekniskt bistånd (Svensk författningssamling [SFS] 2000:1064), available at http://www.riksdagen.se/webbnav/index.aspx? nid=3911&bet=2000:1064.

[56] See Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Regleringsbrev för budgetåret 2011 avseende Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete [Swedish Government Letter of Appropriation for 2011 regarding the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency] (Dec. 22, 2010), available at http://www.sida.se/Global/About%20 Sida/Regleringsbrev/Regleringsbrev%202011.pdf.

[57] Id. at 8.

[58] Id.

[59] Id. at 8 (translation by author).  Note, however, that in 2011 no appropriation was provided for.  Id.

[60] See, e.g., the requirement that appropriation funds for HIV/AIDS “must be used in accordance with the policy for Sweden’s international HIV and AIDS work.”  Regleringsbrev, infra note 69, at 17 (translation by author).

[61] Proposition [Prop.] 2010/11:112 Genomförande av direktiv om överföring av krigsmateriel [government bill], available at http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/16/67/70/94dc42de.pdf.

[62] Id.

[63] Id.  The proposed legislation thus would expand the certification requirements from nuclear technologies to all technical assistance.

[64] For a comprehensive list of Sweden’s policies and strategies on development cooperation, see SIDA’s website, http://www.sida.se/Svenska/Om-oss/Sa-styrs-vi/Policyer-och-strategier/.

[65] See Nils Resare, Mutor, makt och bistånd : JAS och Sydafrikaaffären; see also Holmström, Mikael, Saab anklagar BAE for mutbrott [Saab Accuses BAE of Bribe Crimes], SVD (June 16, 2011), available at http://www.svd.se/naringsliv/saab-anklagar-bae-for-mutbrott_6249666.svd.

[66] See Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Regleringsbrev för budgetåret 2011 avseende Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete, (July 28, 2011) (III:2) UF2011/45027/UD/USTYR, available at http://www.esv.se/Verktyg--stod/Statsliggaren/Regleringsbrev/?RBID=13684.

[67] For a detailed overview of the spending allocated to the World Bank Group, including regional development banks, see id. at 12. 

[68] Id. at 7 (“General conditions covering appropriation items ap.1, ap.2, ap.5, ap.6, ap.7, ap.9, ap.17, ap.21, ap.22, ap.23, ap.24, ap.25, ap.26, ap.26.1, ap.26.2, ap.32 and ap.33”) (translation by author).

[69] See id. at 6–7 (appropriation posts 34-38 are not included in the +/- 10% exception).

[70] Id. at 7.

[71] Id. at 8 (translation by author) (emphasis added by author).

[72] Id. at 10 (translation by author).

[73] Id. at 12 (translation by author).

[74] Swedfund International AB, http://www.swedfund.se/om-swedfund/ (last visited Sept. 14, 2011) (translation by author).

[75] Regeringskansliet, Enheten för styrning och metoder i utvecklingssamarbetet [The Section for Governance and Methods in Development Cooperation] (Feb. 2, 2006, updated Sept. 21, 2010), http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2868/a/57420.

[76] See 2 § para. 1 and 9 § Lagen om revision av statlig verksamhet m.m. (Svensk Författningssamling [SFS] 2002:1022).

[77] Riksrevisionen, RiR 2011:14 Svenska bidrag till internationella insatser (Swedish National Audit Report) (Mar. 29, 2011), available at http://www.riksrevisionen.se/PageFiles/10853/Anpassad_11_14%20 Svenska%20bidrag%20till%20internationella%20insatser.pdf.

[78] Id. at 29.

[80] Myndighetsförordningen (Svensk författningssamling [SFS] 2007:515) and Instruktion för Institutet för utvärdering av internationellt utvecklingssamarbete [Instruction for Swedish Agency for Development Evaluation] (Svensk Författningssamling [SFS] 2007:130), available at http://www.riksdagen.se/webbnav/index. aspx?nid=3911&bet=2007:1300.

[81] SADEV website, supra note 79.

[82] OECD Sweden (2009) DAC Peer Review – Main Findings and Recommendations, available at http://www.oecd.org/document/1/0,3343,en_2649_34603_43278401_1_1_1_1,00.html (last visited Sept. 7, 2011).

[83] See Betänkande 2010/11:UU2 Utgiftsområde 7 – Internationellt Bistånd [Parliamentary Committee Report], available at http://www.riksdagen.se/webbnav/index.aspx?nid=3322&rm=2010/11&bet=UU2.  

[84] SIDA website (June 15, 2009, updated June16, 2011), Så arbetar vi med utvärdering, http://www.sida.se/Svenska/Om-oss/Sa-arbetar-vi/Utvardering/Ansvar-utvardering/

[86] See id.

[87] SIDA, Antikorruptionsregel [Anti-Corruption Rule], http://www.sida.se/Global/About%20Sida/ Sidas%20antikorruptionsregel.pdf (last visited Sept. 9, 2011).

[88] See Vårt arbete mot korruption – Korruption hindrar utveckling [Our Efforts Against Corruption – Corruption is an Obstacle for Development] (June 24, 2009, updated Mar. 25, 2011). Sida, http://www.sida.se/Svenska/Om-oss/Sa-arbetar-vi/Vart-arbete-mot-korruption/ (translation by author).

[89] Ekonomistyrningsverket’s website, http://esv.se/Snabblankar-i-toppen/English1/ (last visited Sept. 14 2011).  

[90] 3 § no. 4 Förordning med instruktion för Ekonomistyrningsverket (Svensk författningssamling [SFS] 2010:1764), available at http://www.riksdagen.se/webbnav/index.aspx?nid=3911&bet=2010:1764.

[91] Ekonomistyrningsverket, http://www.esv.se (last visited Sept. 14, 2011). 

[92] Id.

[93] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Focused bilateral development cooperation (Aug. 27, 2011), available at http://www.sweden.gov.se/content/1/c6/08/66/21/496f32e6.pdf.

[94] See id. at 4–5.

[95] Id. at 9.

[96] Id.

[97] See Gunilla Carlsson, Mindre bidrag till FN [Less Assistance to United Nations],January 4, 2008,  Regeringskansliet, http://www.regeringen.se/sb/d/10080/a/95478 (translation by author).

[98] See Swedish Government Report, On Equal Footing: Policy for Gender Equality and the Rights and Role of Women in Sweden’s International Development Cooperation 2010-2015 (Article no: UD 10.062 ISBN: 78-91-7496-428-8) (Aug. 2010), available at http://www.sweden.gov.se/content/1/c6/15/22/97/a962c4c8.pdf

[99] See Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bistånd och utveckling, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2355 (last visited Sept. 9, 2011).

[100] Id.

[101] See Open Aid, http://www.openaid.se (last visited Sept. 20, 2011).

[102] Öppna Biståndet – Genomförandeplanen, http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/13/53/41/f90270ba.pdf (last visited Sept. 6, 2011), and http://www.oppnabistandet.nu.

[103] Government Offices of Sweden, Swedish Development Cooperation, http://www.sweden.gov. se/sb/d/3102/a/86621 (last visited Sept. 6, 2011).

[104] See Swedish Government website on Sweden’s efforts in Afghanistan, http://www.swedeninafghanistan.se/ (last visited Sept. 7, 2011).

[105] See Statens Offentliga Utredningar [SOU] 2009:59 Skatteincitament för gåvor till forskning och ideell verksamhet [Tax Incentives for Gifts to Research and Non-Profits] [government report series] at 60-63, available at http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/12/85/17/e37b11c9.pdf.  For an overview of the Danish and Norwegian systems, see http://um.dk/da/danida/det-goer-vi (Denmark), http://www.skatteetaten.no/en/Artikler/Donations-to-certain-voluntary-organisations-and-religious-and-beliefs-based-communities-/ (Norway).

[106] E24, En julgran för 150 000 (Oct. 11, 2010, 15:59, updated 17:37) http://www.e24.se/entreprenor/en-julgran-for-150-000_2357233.e24.

[107] E24, Rädda barnens julkampanj, Bildspel (picture 2), http://www.e24.se/entreprenor/radda-barnens-julkampanj_2352621.e24#?imgID=1.

[108] E24, Rädda Barnens julkampanj, Bildspel (picture 3), http://www.e24.se/entreprenor/radda-barnens-julkampanj_2352621.e24#?imgID=2.

[109] See Statens Offentliga Utredningar [SOU] 2009:59 Skatteincitament för gåvor till forskning och ideell verksamhet [Tax Incitements for Gifts to Research and Non Profit Activity][government report series], at 71, available at http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/12/85/17/e37b11c9.pdf.

[110] Hasse Boström, Avdragsrätt ska öka det frivilliga biståndet, Dagen, (Mar. 5, 2008, 06:00) http://www.dagen.se/dagen/article.aspx?id=150696 (translation by author).

[111] Statens Offentlia Utredningar [SOU] 2009:59 Skatteincitament för gåvor till forskning och ideell verksamhet, supra note 111.

[112] See discussion on Swedish fall budget above.

[113] Lars Larsson, Gåvor föreslås bli avdragsgilla[Gifts Suggested to Become Deductible], DN.se (Sept. 1, 2011, 6:17 PM), http://www.dn.se/ekonomi/gavor-foreslas-bli-avdragsgilla (translation by author).

[114] Id. (emphasis added by author).

[115] Annika Creutzer, Skatteavdrag för gåva ett dumt förslag[Tax Deduction for Gift a Stupid Suggestion], Dagens Industri, (Sept. 2, 2011, at 12:59 PM, updated Sept. 5, 2011, at 10:25 AM), http://www.e24.se/ pengar/din-ekonomi/skatter-och-deklarationer/sankt-skatt-for-gava-i-budgetpropositionen_3029722.e24.

[116] Statens Offentlia Utredningar [SOU] 2009:59 Skatteincitament for gåvor till forskning och ideell verksamhet, Stockholm June 17, 2009 [government report series] at 91, available at http://www.regeringen.se/ content/1/c6/12/85/17/e37b11c9.pdf (translation by author).

[117] Regeringsformen [RF] [Constitution].

[118] Budgetlag (Svensk Författningssamling [SFS] 2011:203).

[119] Regeringsformen [RF] 9:1-2 [Constitution].

[120] 2 ch. 2 § para. 2 Budgetlag (SFS 2011:203).

[121] Budgetlag (Svensk Författningssamling [SFS] 2011:203).

[122] Government Offices of Sweden, State Budget Procedure (Apr. 23, 2004, updated Apr. 8, 2011), http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2855/a/18833

[123] Id.

[124] Id.

[125] Id.

[126] The Utrikesnämnd is a samrådsorgan, which discusses relevant issues following a request by four of its members.  The Utrikesnämnd provides the Government with relevant information on issues that are of importance to Sweden’s foreign affairs (Regeringsformen (RF) [Constitution] 10:6).  The Utrikesnämnd does not have a decision mandate.

[127] See Proposition [Prop.] 2010/11:1 Budgetpropositionen för 2011 Utgiftsområde 7 Bilaga 1[Budget Bill for 2011 Expense Post 7 Attachment 1], available at http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/15/33/07/53ddf3aa.pdf.

[128] See Regleringsbrev SIDA, Swedfund.

[129] For a detailed example, see 2011 Letter of Appropriation for SIDA, supra note 35.

[130] See Regeringsbeslut U2009/7345/UH Uppdrag om förberedande åtgärder inom högskoleområdet (Dec. 17, 2009) at 1–2, available at http://www.vhs.se/Global/Anm%c3%a4lningsavgifter/Regeringsuppdrag%20om%20 anm%c3%a4lningsavgifter.pdf?epslanguage=sv.

[131] Id.

[132] Proposition [Prop.] 2009/10:65 Konkurrera med kvalitet – studieavgifter för utländska studenter [government bill][Compete With Quality – Student Fees for Foreign Students], available at http://www.sweden. gov.se/sb/d/12489/a/140001 (translation by author).

[133] Id.

[134] See id. at 31. 

[135] See Studiestödslag (Svensk författningssamling [SFS] 1999: 1395). 

[137] Statens Offentliga Utredningar [SOU] 2011:48 Vård efter behov och på lika villkor – en mänsklig rättighet[Health Care According to Need and on Equal Terms – a Human Right] [government report series], Stockholm 2011.

[138] Mattias Engdahl, Migrant Remittances: An Overview of Global and Swedish Flows, Policy Notes 2009/5 at 3, published by The Nordic Africa Institute, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration, http://nai.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:233024 (last visited Sept. 8, 2011).

[139] Id.

[140] See id.

[141] Skrivelse [Skr.] 200/08:89 Sveriges politik för global utveckling [government communications series] at 28, available at http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/10/10/82/03480187.pdf.

[142] See Swedish government webpage on the Kosmopolit project at http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/14317 (in English; last visited Oct. 21, 2011).

[143] Id.

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