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Swedes, both consumers and producers, are very conscious of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).  GMO use is limited and almost exclusively used in animal fodder products.  The use of GMOs in food is a sensitive topic that generates strong public opinion.  A majority of Swedes consider it important or very important that their milk is GMO free, and dairy farmers therefore avoid GMOs in their fodder.  Sweden, as a European Union Member, has adopted a case-by-case analysis for each GMO.  One GM potato for industrial use has been approved for cultivation in Sweden, but currently no GMOs are being produced.

I.  Introduction

Sweden is generally seen as being reluctant to use genetically modified organisms (GMOs).  Only one genetically modified (GM) product, the GM Amflora potato, has been specifically approved for commercial production in Sweden.  The potato is currently not being cultivated.  Adhering to European Union (EU) regulations, two types of corn are also approved for cultivation although no application or notification for production of GM corn has been received in Sweden.  While the Swedish government has adopted a case-by-case approach guided by the precautionary principle in accordance with the EU position, several local municipalities have taken a hard stance against GMOs and declared themselves “GMO free.”  Imported GMOs are used almost exclusively in fodder.

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II.  Public and Scholarly Opinion

A.  Public Opinion and Its Effect on the Market

Swedes are generally very wary of GM products, especially in food.  In a study conducted by milk farmers, 63% of the respondent consumers held that it was important or very important for the milk they consumed to be GMO free.[1]  Another study conducted by the National Food Agency found that the big players in the Swedish agricultural market try to avoid GMOs and any association of GMOs with their brands.  The National Food Agency study also showed that one corporation was willing to sell GMOs, but only if it could do so under a brand not associated with its own.[2]  The perception that GMOs are dangerous or at least commercially undesirable is further evidenced by the small number of GM products available for human consumption on the Swedish market.  In a 2006 survey the National Food Agency found only one item (out of the ninety-six surveyed products) that contained GMOs and was so labeled, whereas ten products were labeled as free from GMOs.[3]  As part of its environmental policy the Swedish Food Industry continues to strive to reduce and eliminate GMOs.[4]  The GMO Project conducted by the National Food Agency continued into 2009 and is still ongoing.

Public opinion against GMOs is powerful in Sweden.  In 2011, market forces compelled Scan, the largest Swedish meat retailer, to go back to its GMO-free standard for fodder.[5]

B.  Position of the Government and the Opposition 

The official position of the government is that it is neither in favor of nor opposed to GMOs, and the government has implemented a system whereby every use of a GMO should be judged on its own risks and merits.[6]  However, the official policy on GMOs also varies between different governmental agencies as they have a different focuses (promoting research, protecting the environment, etc.).[7]

The opposition (comprised of the Social Democrats, Leftist Party, and Green Party) holds a more restrictive view of GMOs than the center-right coalition government.[8]  The Swedish Green Party in particular strongly opposes the use of GMOs.[9]

A slight shift in public opinion may be deduced from the language describing GMOs, as GMOs during the 1990s were commonly referred to as “manipulated foods” and are now referred to as “genetically modified foods.”[10]  This change could be related to the change of government that occurred in 2006.  There are also vocal members of the public who favor GMOs.[11]

C.  Scholars and NGOs

Swedish scientists have not agreed on a firm conclusion concerning the effects GMOs have on health and the environment.[12]  Therefore, in accordance with the general policy of Sweden, the precautionary principle is applied on a case-by-case basis.

Some NGOs favor and some oppose GMOs.  The greatest opponents of GMO use are environmental activists (such as those belonging to the Green Party and Greenpeace), while the strongest supporters are farmers, who want to use the cheaper GMO fodder.  Even the agricultural community is divided.  The industry organization Federation of Swedish Farmers favors GMOs.[13]  However, in 2003 LRF Dairy Sweden (which is part of the Federation of Swedish Farmers) decided to continue to exclusively use non-GM fodder for its milk-producing cows.[14] The reason was a fear of losing the public’s trust, as most milk consumers consider that it is important or very important for their milk to be GMO free.[15]

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III.  Structure of Pertinent Legislation

An overview in English of the pertinent Swedish legislation and responsible government agencies can be found at a government-run webpage called GMO.nu.[16]  Relevant information is summarized below.  

A.  European Union Law

As a member of the European Union, Sweden is bound by the EU Directives on GMOs.  Sweden has implemented Directives 2009/41/EG and 2001/18/EG, as well as Regulations 1829/2003, 1830/2003, 1946/2003, and 726/2004, through amendments to the Environmental Act and stand-alone legislation.[17]

B.  National Legislation and Definition of GMO

The overarching Swedish legislation on GMOs is found in chapter 13 of the Environmental Code and its accompanying regulations.  Where so designated in the Code, certain government agencies or authorities may also issue instructions that regulate GMOs.

A genetically modified organism is defined as “an organism where the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not happen naturally through mating or natural recombination.”[18]

There is special GMO legislation for food, fodder, medical use, release into water, and release into the general environment.  There are also instructions on the protection of workers handling GMOs, contingency plans for hazardous GMOs, etc.  There are in total ten different pieces of legislation and thirteen agency instructions addressing GMOs.[19]  The government agencies that issue the instructions are the same as the enforcing government agencies.

C.  Local Municipality Instructions and “GMO-Free Zones”

A county or municipality cannot issue a local GMO instruction for its municipality.  Thus, any municipality that desires to be “GMO free” must come to an agreement with the farmers in the region, and entry into such an agreement must be voluntary.  A municipality cannot prevent a farmer from cultivating or using an otherwise allowed GMO.

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IV.  Restrictions on Research, Production, and Marketing

A.  General Provisions

All use of GMOs is regulated by chapter 13 of the Swedish Environmental Code, and all use, whether in a contained laboratory setting or in nature, must receive prior approval from the relevant government authority.[20]  The inspection and oversight required by the Environmental Code is regulated in a special oversight regulation.[21]  The Environmental Code also includes area-specific legislation with more strenuous provisions for GMO use, such as their use in water (chapter 2) and chemicals (chapter 14).[22]

B.  Licensing and Oversight Agencies

Several authorities are part of the process of granting mandatory permits for the use, release, or production of GM products, as well as the oversight and inspections of pertinent GMO use.[23]

1.  Swedish Gene Technology Advisory Board

A special Gene Technology Advisory Board has been set up to “monitor developments in the field of gene technology, oversee ethical issues, and give advice on use of gene technology.”[24]  It receives copies of and recommends decisions for all applications for the use of new GMOs.[25]  The government controls the composition of the Board.[26]  Currently, the composition includes lawyers, political representatives, and experts.[27]

2.  National Environmental Protection Agency

The National Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for field studies of GMOs.  It focuses on the need for increased research on GMOs and their long-term effects on the environment.[28]

3.  Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management

The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management is responsible for the use of GMOs in waterliving organisms, the deliberate placement of waterliving GM organisms, and the release of products that contain waterliving GM organisms.[29]

4.  Swedish Board of Agriculture

The Swedish Board of Agriculture is responsible for the approval and oversight of the intentional release of GMOs into the environment through GM plants, land-based organisms not covered by the Swedish Chemicals Agency, and GM fodder.[30]

5.  The National Board of Forestry

The National Board of Forestry is responsible for the intentional release of GM forest trees intended for timber production.[31]

6.  Swedish Chemicals Agency

The Swedish Chemicals Agency processes applications for approval for studies deliberately releasing GM microorganisms, nematodes, arachnids, and insects into the environment.  The Swedish Chemicals Agency lists one approved study for cultivation of a GM product on its webpage.[32]  The Swedish Chemicals Agency also preapproves the use of biological pesticides.[33]

7.  Swedish Civil Contingency Agency

The Swedish Civil Contingency Agency is responsible for the transportation of such GM material that is classified as “dangerous goods.”[34]

8.  The National Food Agency

The National Food Agency is responsible for “the GMO project,” through which producers are tested concerning GMO use and educated on GMO rules.[35]

9.  Medical Products Agency

The Medical Products Agency is responsible for the intentional release of drugs that contain GMOs as well as the release into the environment of GMOs.[36]  There is currently no medical GMO on the market.  Clinical testing in humans is generally considered as a release of GMOs into the environment.[37]  Tests that do not necessitate a release into the environment, such as certain animal tests, require GMO approval from the Swedish Work Environment Authority rather than the Medical Products Agency.[38]  All medical products containing GMOs must be labeled “This product contains genetically modified organisms.”[39]

10.  Swedish Work Environment Authority

The Swedish Work Environment Authority oversees the issuance of permits and the registration of use of GMOs in a contained setting (such as laboratory use), and the work conditions for all workers handling GMOs.  Based on the classification of harm to the people working with the product the use will require registration or a permit from the user.[40]

C. Labels

Fodder, food, and pharmaceuticals that include GMOs must be labeled.[41]  Products from livestock that have been fed GMO fodder need not be labeled.

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V.  Restrictions on Releasing Organisms into the Environment

A. General Provisions

The release of GMOs into the environment is regulated by EU Directive 2001/18/EG as implemented through Regulation SFS 2002:1086.  Release is restricted and requires a license.[42]  Agencies must apply the precautionary principle and ensure that appropriate measures are taken to avoid negative effects on human health or the environment that may result from the intentional release of GMOs into the environment.[43]  Additional guidelines may be issued by the relevant agency, and the release must be ethically justifiable to be granted a permit.[44]  Before an application for use of GMO is approved, the public is offered an opportunity to comment on the application.[45]  The agency must also send a copy of the application to the European Commission, the National Environmental Protection Agency, and the Gene Technology Advisory Board.[46]  Once a release is approved and has commenced, it must be followed by a report by the GMO user describing the effects of the release and all other requirements dictated by the relevant authority.[47]  All GMO studies conducted in Sweden can be found on the EU website, according to which there has been a total of forty-eight studies with plants[48] and nine studies with nonplants.[49]

B. Reporting Requirements and Inspections

Inspections are carried out by the relevant authority as specified in the Environmental Oversight Regulation.[50]  Each authority issues its own instructions for the inspections but they must be in compliance with the Environmental Code.

C. Protection of Neighboring Cultivation

EU Member States set their own policies and regulations for cultivating GMOs in the proximity of another non-GM product.  In Sweden a farmer must maintain a distance of fifty meters between GM and non-GM corn and three meters between GM and non-GM potatoes.[51]  As mentioned above, only the GM Amflora potato has been approved for cultivation in Sweden, but is currently not being produced.  The Swedish Board of Agriculture regulates the distance required between GM and non-GM products.[52]  The Swedish Board of Agriculture has issued an instruction as a guide for application of the precautionary principle in the cultivation of GMOs.[53]

D.  Development of “GMO Free Zones”

Although there are restrictions on releasing and cultivating GM products, there is no legal basis for a Swedish municipality to proclaim itself to be GMO free.[54]  A municipality may reach an agreement with its farmers not to produce GMOs, provided these agreements are voluntary. Several Swedish municipalities and one county have declared themselves “GMO free.”[55]

Other municipalities source locally and organically without calling themselves GMO-free zones because they deemed it “practically impossible” to rid an area of GM organisms.[56]  Regardless of the municipality’s approach to GMOs, the granting of GMO licenses for agriculture is still carried out by the Swedish Board of Agriculture on a national level.  Municipalities can thus not prevent local farmers from producing or using EU-approved GMOs.

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VI.  Restrictions on GMOs in Foodstuffs

A. The Precautionary Principle

As mentioned above, Sweden together with the EU previously relied on the precautionary principle when restricting GMOs in food and animal fodder.[57]  Although GMOs are now allowed in the EU, the principle is applied to each application on a case-by-case basis.[58]

B. Implementing Authorities and Authorizing Procedures

The Swedish Board of Agriculture oversees the use of GMOs in fodder, and the National Food Agency oversees GMOs in food intended for human consumption.[59]

C.  GMOs in Food for Human Consumption

GMOs in food is regulated in Livsmedelslagen[60] and Livsmedelsförordningen,[61] implementing EU Regulations 852/2004, 178/2002, and 853/2004.[62]  Foods that contain GMOs need to be labeled.[63]  However, animal products intended for human consumption originating from animals raised on GM fodder need not be labeled (such as eggs from hens, beef, etc.).  Swedish honey is not tested for GMOs.[64]  GMOs that have not been approved by the EU may not be used in food products.  It is the European Food Safety Agency that decides which GMOs are fit for human consumption and which are not.  The Swedish National Food Agency merely implements the European Food Safety Agency’s decision.

D.  Fodder for Livestock

GMOs are mainly used for fodder for livestock in Sweden, as evidenced by the applications for the use of GMOs.[65]  A list of GMOs approved to be used in fodder can be found at the Swedish Board of Agriculture website.[66]  The rules governing fodder can also be found there.[67]  The approved GMOs include eight strands of cotton, twenty-seven types of corn, three strands of colza, one sugar beet, seven types of soybeans, and one potato.[68]  For a fee, a survey of the Swedish GM fodder market can be accessed at the Swedish Board of Agriculture’s website.[69]

E.  “GMO Free” and Commonly Used Labels Indicating Green Products

GMO-free labels are technically not allowed in Sweden but are common.[70]  Following an inspection by the National Food Agency they have been replaced by other labels such as “organically grown” and “KRAV” (indicating approval by a special labeling organization by the same name).[71]  Products do not live up to the labeling standard if they contain genetically modified products.[72]  As mentioned above, animal products from animals fed with GM produce do not require a special label.[73]  The Leftist and Green Parties argue that this makes it impossible for consumers who want to avoid GMO products to do so, and therefore these parties want to limit all imports of GM colza.[74]  The use of the Svenskt Sigill (Swedish Seal) requires the use of GMO-free fodder.[75] 

F.  Recent Licenses for GMO Use

Despite public resistance to GMOs, all of the most recent (seven out of seven) applications for import licenses for GM products have been approved by the Swedish Gene Technology Advisory Board.[76]  The Board’s general position on GMOs can be found in its annual GMO reports.[77]

The Swedish Board of Agriculture lists all approved GM products.[78]  Out of forty-eight products only the GM Amflora potato is approved for cultivation.[79]  Note that this potato is not suitable nor intended for human consumption.[80]  Forty-five of the other forty-seven products are suitable only for fodder.  All but eight are suitable for import.[81]  Current field studies of GM plants in Sweden include oil cabbage, potato, aspen, cress, and apple and pear trees.[82] 

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VII.  Liability Regime

Breaches of the Environmental Code are regulated in its chapter 29.  Beginning November 5, 2013, violations of the stipulated precautions in relation to the release of GMOs into the environment are subject to a fine and up to two years of imprisonment.[83]  Also, obstructions of environmental inspections may result in fines or imprisonment for up to two years.[84]  Fines may also be issued for failure to comply with GMO-specific legislation, such as observing the mandatory distance between GM and non-GM products; failing to label products as GM when required to do so; and failing to inform, identify, and document the transport of GMOs.[85]  There is no liability for minor breaches.[86]  Animals, plants, etc. used in these violations can be confiscated.[87]  There is currently no special legislation granting a private cause of action for others’ GMO violations.  Thus, the general culpability rules for torts apply.[88]  

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VIII.  Judicial Decisions / Prominent Cases

There are no prominent cases on the national level that directly control the use of GMOs.  The most prominent EU case applicable also to Sweden is the EU honey case.[89]

A.  Misleading Advertisement (“GMO Free”)

In 2004 the Market Court found that an advertisement for chicken stating, among other things, that it was GMO free was improper and misleading as the chicken included up to 2% GMO, whereas Swedish custom at the time defined “free from GMO” as including less than 1% GMO.[90]  The advertisement was therefore banned.

B.  Municipalities’ Control over Leased Land

In a January 15, 2013, decision the Göta Court of Appeals found that a municipality could generally change the terms of a lease for land only if the change in terms did not lead to unreasonable burdens on the lessee (farmer).[91]  However, in this case the Court found that the desired change into an ecological, GMO-free type of agriculture would be unreasonably burdensome for the farmer and therefore prevented the municipality from placing such a burden on the farmer.  The lessee terms could therefore not be changed and the farmer was not required to farm ecologically.

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Elin Hofverberg
Foreign Law Research Consultant
March 2014


[1] Frågor och svar om GMO-fritt foder, Lantbrukarnas Riksförbund, http://www.lrf.se/PageFiles/137196/ 20130913_fos_gmofritt_foder.pdf (revised Sept. 13, 2013).

[2] Livsmedelsverket, Undersökning av tillämpning av lagstiftningen rörande genetiskt modifierade livsmedel (GMO) [Investigation of the Application of Legislation on GMOs] (Feb. 14, 2007), http://www. slv.se/upload/dokument/rapporter/genteknik/gmorapport_tillynsavdelningen_20070214.pdf.

[3] Id.

[4] Id. at 11.

[5] Enbart GMO-fritt foder till Scans grisar, Cision.com (Mar. 23, 2011), http://news.cision.com/se/scan-ab/r/enbart-gmo-fritt-foder-till-scans-grisar,c556350.

[6] Genetiskt modifierade organismer, Regeringskansliet, http://www.regeringen.se/sb/d/6421/a/58280 (last updated July 1, 2013).

[7] For one view, see a study by the Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvårdsverket).  Ekologiska effekter av GMO, Naturvårdsverket (Sept. 2006), available at http://www.popgen.su.se/pdf/GMO620-5597-6.pdf.

[8] The largest coalition party, the Moderaterna, does not specifically mention GMOs in its manifesto, which is available at Moderaterna.se, http://www.moderat.se/jordbruk/mat.  The Green Party position is available at Miljopartiet, http://www.mp.se/sala/just-nu/sala-gmo-fri-kommun.  The Social Democrats want the EU Member States to have the opportunity to ban the cultivation of GMO plants and oppose their use for health reasons.  See Socialdemokraterna, http://www.socialdemokraterna.se/Webben-for-alla/EU/EU/Ledamoterna-/maritaulvskog/ Mediany/Nyheter/GMO-grodor-ar-upp-till-medlemslanderna/ (last visited Oct. 18, 2013).

[9] See, e.g., Carl Schlyter, Op-Ed., Genmanipulation ger inte ett uthålligt jordbruk, Svenska Dagbladet (Mar. 26, 2012), http://www.svd.se/opinion/brannpunkt/genmanipulation-ger-inte-ett-uthalligt-jordbruk_6951821.svd, and Kew Nordqvist’s voting record on the Board, Addendum 1 of each of the following: 040/2013-4.1.1., 034/2013-4.1.1., 007/2013-4.1.1., 007/2013-4.1.1., 005/2013-4.1.1., 004/2013-4.1.1., 104/2012-4.1.1, 103/2012-4.1.1., available at Gentekniknämnden, http://www.genteknik.se/sv/2013---yttranden (last visited Oct. 18, 2013).

[10] Genmanipulerade vs. Genmodifierade (translation by author).

[11] See, e.g., Nyttig genmanipulerad mat stoppas av skräckpropaganda, Dagens Nyheter (Mar. 11, 2009), http://www.dn.se/debatt/nyttig-genmanipulerad-mat-stoppas-av-skrackpropaganda/.

[12] Lars Brander, Kan genmanipulerad föda ge skador?, AlltOmVetenskap magazine(May 4, 2010), http://www. alltomvetenskap.se/nyheter/kan-genmanipulerad-foda-ge-skador.

[13] LRFs genpolicy, Lantbrukarnas Riksförbund, http://www.lrf.se/Medlem/Politik--Paverkan/Miljo--vatten/ Genteknik/LRFs-genpolicy/ (last visited Nov. 15, 2013).

[14] Fortsatt GMO-fritt till svenska mjölkkor, Lantbrukarnas Riksförbund, http://www.lrf.se/Om-LRF/Kontakta-LRF/Press/Pressmeddelanden/2013/Fortsatt-GMO-fritt-till-svenska-mjolkkor/ (last visited Sept. 25, 2013).

[15] Frågor och svar om GMO-fritt foder, Lantbrukarnas Riksförbund, supra note 1.

[16] Welcome Page, GMO Regulations in Sweden, http://www.gmo.nu/gmoenglish.4.778a5d1001f29869a7fff 935.html (last visited Sept. 25, 2012).

[17] Miljöbalk [MB] [Environmental Code] (Svensk författningssamling [SFS] 1998:808) 13:4. For a more detailed discussion of EU law, see the survey of EU law included in this report at page ***.

[18] Environmental Code 13:4. 

[19] See also Part IV(B), below.  For a list of GMO legislation see the official website of the Swedish gene technology authorities, at http://www.gmo.nu/toppmeny/lagstiftning.4.1d07c3f108381dd74480001062.html (last visited Nov. 12, 2013).

[20] See Part IX(B), below.

[21] Miljötillsynsförordning [Regulation on Environmental Oversight] (SFS 2011:13), issued with delegation through ch. 26 of the Environmental Code, http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/lag/20110013.htm.

[22] Miljötillsynsförordning [Regulation on Environmental Oversight] (SFS 2011:13) chs. 2, 14. 

[23] Id. 2 ch. 12–18 §§.

[24] The Swedish Gene Technology Advisory Board, Gentekniknämnden, http://www.genteknik.se/sv/in-english (last visited Nov. 12, 2013).

[25] Förordning om utsättning av genetiskt modifierade organismer i miljön [Regulation on the Release of Genetically Modified Organisms into the Environment] (SFS 2002:1086) ch. 2:11st2. 

[26] Environmental Act ch. 13:19 §.

[27] Gentekniknämndens ledamöter och personliga ersättare, Gentekniknämnden, http://www.genteknik.se/sv/ ledamoter (last visited Oct. 23, 2013). 

[29] Fiskeriverkets föreskrifterom genetiskt modifierade vattenlevande organismer [Fishery Ministries Regulations on Genetically Modified Organisms Living in Water] (Fiskeriverkets föreskrifter [FIFS] 2004:2), amended by Havs- och vattenmyndighetens författningssamling [HVMFS] 2011:3, available at https://www.havochvatten.se/download/18.312592e0130 1d753523800017708/1348912773023/ HVMFS+-+FIFS+ +2004-2-keu-1107...pdf

[31] Miljötillsynsförordning [Regulation on Environmental Oversight] (SFS 2011:13), ch. 2:17 §; Skogsstyrelsen, http://www.svo.se (last visited Nov. 12, 2013).

[32] Genmodifierade organismer, GMO, Kemikalieinspektionen, http://www.kemi.se/Innehall/Bekampningsmedel/ Genmodifierade-organismer-GMO/ (last visited Nov. 12, 2013).

[33] Id.

[34] Swedish Civil Contingency Agency, https://www.msb.se/en/ (last visited Nov. 12, 2013).

[35] See annual reports on the GMO project in Swedish at Livsmedelsverket, http://www.slv.se/sv/grupp3/ Rapporter/Genteknik/ (last visited Oct. 23, 2013).

[36] Governed by SFS 2011:13, ch. 2:16 §, which implements 2001/18/EG.

[37] Läkemedelsverkets föreskrifter och allmänna råd om avsiktlig utsättning vid klinisk prövning av läkemedel som innehåller eller består av genetiskt modifierade organismer [Medical Products Agency’s Regulation on Advice on Intentional Release During Clinical Trials of Drugs Containing Genetically Modified Organisms] (Livsmedelsverkets föreskrifter [LVFS] 2004:10) 4 § 3p, available at http://www.lakemedelsverket.se/upload/lvfs/LVFS_2004-10.pdf.

[38] Id. at 4 §.  Läkemedelsverket still requires a general application for all medical testing, but does not oversee the GMO aspect of the testing.

[39] Translation by author of Denna produkt innehåller genetiskt modifierade organismer.”  LVFS 2004:10 12 §.

[40] Innesluten användning av genetiskt modifierade mikroorganismer [Contained Use of Genetically Modified Organisms] (Arbetsmiljöverkets Föeskrifter [AFS] 2011:2) at 14–16 §§.

[41] See Instruction LVFS 2004:10 12 §, and The National Food Agency Instruction, both issued under the delegation in Environmental Code ch. 13:18 §.

[42] Environmental Code ch. 13:12–14 §§, Förordning om Utsättning av genetiskt modifierade organismer i miljön (SFS 2002:1086) ch. 2:2 and 3:2.

[43] Förordning om Utsättning av genetiskt modifierade organismer i miljön [Regulation on Release of Genetically Modified Organisms into the Environment] ch.1:3 §.

[45] Förordning om Utsättning av genetiskt modifierade organismer i miljön ch. 2:10 §.

[46] Id. chs. 2:9, 2:11, 2:11 st2.

[47] Id. ch. 2:17.

[48] Deliberate Release and Placing on the EU Market of GMOs – GMO Register, European Commission, http://gmoinfo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/gmp_browse.aspx (last visited Oct. 23, 2013).

[49] Id.

[50] Miljötillsynsförordning (SFS 2011:13) ch. 2:11–18 §§, http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/lag/20110013.htm.

[51] 4 § Försiktighetsåtgärder vid odling av genetiskt modifierade grödor [Precautionary Measures for Cultivation of Genetically Modified Plants] (Statens jordbruksverks föreskrifter [SJVFS] 2008:34).

[52] 9 § Försiktighetsåtgärder vid odling och transport m.m. av genetiskt modifierade grödor (SFS 2007:273).

[53] Försiktighetsåtgärder vid odling av genetiskt modifierade grödor (SJVFS 2008:34), http://www. jordbruksverket.se/download/18.26424bf71212ecc74b080001053/1242046883569/2008-034.pdf.

[54] Compare with Latvia, which allows its municipalities to decide about GMO use.  GMO i nordisk perspektiv, Bygdekvinnelaget (Nov. 6, 2012), http://bygdekvinnelaget.no/gmo-i-nordisk-perspektiv.

[55] See, e.g., Östersunds kommun är Sveriges första GMO-fria kommun, Hej Då GMO! (Mar. 30, 2009), http://hejdagmo.se/2009/03/30/ostersunds-kommun-ar-sveriges-forsta-gmo-fria-kommun/; Nordanstig, http://www.nordanstig.se/Kommunen/Kost-och-stad/Kost/GMO-fri-kommun.html (last visited Nov. 11, 2013); Greenpeace, http://www.greenpeace.org/sweden/se/nyheter/nyheter/aennu-en-kommun-blir-gmo-fri/ (last visited Nov. 11, 2013).  Jämtland County has declared itself GMO free as a benchmark, hoping that farmers will follow suit.  So far no GMO has been produced in Jämtland.  Jämtland vill vara GMO-fri zon, ATL (May 7, 2009), http://www.atl.nu/lantbruk/jamtland-vill-vara-gmo-fri-zon.

[56] E.g., Meeting Minutes, City Council, Gotland (Apr. 24, 2006), http://www.gotland.se/25174.

[57] Ordlistan, försiktighetsprincipen, Europa, http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/glossary/precautionary_ principle_sv.htm (last visited Nov. 12, 2013).

[59] Miljötillsynsförordning (SFS 2011:13) at 15, 18 §§.

[62] Food Act (SFS 2006:804); Food Regulation (SFS 2006:813).

[63] See Instruction by the Livsmedelsverket, issued after specific designation in SFS 2006:804 ch.1:6 § st1. p2, and Environmental Code ch. 13:18 §.

[64] Honung med pollen från GMO, Livsmedelsverket, http://www.slv.se/sv/grupp1/Markning-av-mat/Gen modifierad-mat-GMO/Honung-med-pollen-fran-GMO/ (last updated Apr. 29, 2013).

[65] See Gene Technology Board applications, Yttranden 2013, http://www.genteknik.se/sv/2013---yttranden, and Livsmedelsverket, Undersökning av tillämpning av lagstiftningen rörande genetiskt modifierade livsmedel (GMO) [Investigation of the Application of Legislation on GMOs] (Feb. 14, 2007), http://www.slv.se/upload/dokument/rapporter/genteknik/gmorapport_tillynsavdelningen_20070214.pdf.

[66] For a list of all approved GMOs, see Godkända genetiskt modifierade växter, Jordbruksverket, http://www. jordbruksverket.se/amnesomraden/djur/foder/genteknikgmo/godkandagenetisktmodifieradevaxter.106.7c4ce2e813deda
4d30780001930.html
(last updated Apr. 15, 2013).

[67] Genteknik och foder, Jordbruksverket, http://www.jordbruksverket.se/amnesomraden/djur/foder/genteknik gmo.4.207049b811dd8a513dc80004212.html (last modified Apr. 16, 2013).

[68] Godkända genetiskt modifierade växter, Jordbruksverket, supra note 66.

[69] Jordbruksverket, GMO på fodermarknaden, Rapport 2009:17, http://webbutiken.jordbruksverket.se/sv/ artiklar/gmo-pa-fodermarknaden.html.

[70] See Annual GMO project reports, available at http://www.slv.se/sv/grupp3/Rapporter/Genteknik/ (last visited Nov. 12, 2013).

[71] Id.

[73] Gentekniknämnden, Yttrande 2013-0417, Diarienr 034/2013-4.1.1 Bilaga 1, http://www.genteknik.se/Uploads/ Files/034_2013_raps_MS8xRF3xGT73.pdf.

[74] Id.

[75] See Svenskt Sigill, supra note 72.

[76] Decision Nos. 040/2013-4.1.1, 034/2013-4.1.1, 007/2013-4.1.1, 007/2013-4.1.1, 005/2013-4.1.1, 004/2013-4.1.1, 104/2012-4.1.1, and 103/2012-4.1.1, available at http://www.genteknik.se/sv/2013---yttranden.

[77] Genteknikens utveckling 2007-2012, Gentekniknämnden, http://www.genteknik.se/sv/--2012 (last visited Nov. 12, 2013).

[78] Godkända genetiskt modifierade växter, Jordbruksverket, http://www.jordbruksverket.se/amnesomraden/ odling/genteknikgmo/kommersiellanvandning/godkanda.4.300b18bd13d103e79ef80002529.html (last updated July 31, 2013).

[79] For more information on the potato, see Stärkelsepotatisen Amflora, Jordbruksverket, http://www.jordbruks verket.se/amnesomraden/odling/genteknikgmo/kommersiellanvandning/starkelspotatisenamflora.4.300b18bd13d103e79e
f80002589.html
(last updated May 16, 2013). 

[80] Id.

[82] See List of 2013 field studies of GMO plants, Försök med genetiskt modifierade växter, Jordbruksverket, http://www.jordbruksverket.se/amnesomraden/odling/genteknikgmo/faltforsok/2013arsforsok.4.300b18bd13d103e79e
f80002609.html
(last updated July 8, 2013).  A list of all EU-approved GMOs can be found on the EU Register of Authorised GMOs, European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/food/dyna/gm_register/index_en.cfm (last visited Nov. 12, 2013).

[83] Environmental Code ch. 29:4 § 1st h & i.

[84] Id. ch. 29:5 § 4.

[85] Id. ch. 29:9 §§ 5–8.

[86] Id. ch. 29:11.

[87] Id. ch. 29:12.

[88] See Skadeståndslagen [Torts Liability Act] (SFS 1972:207).  For a full discussion of the liability issue with regard to cultivation of GMO plants, see Statens Offentliga Utredningar [SOU] 2007: 46 Ansvarsfrågan vid odling av genmodifierade grödor [government report series].

[89] Case C-442/09, Karl Heinz Bablok and Others v. Freistaat Bayern (Sept. 6, 2011), http://curia.europa.eu/juris/ document/document.jsf?text=&docid=109143&pageIndex=0&doclang=EN&mode=lst&dir=&occ=first&part=1&cid=809490, case summary available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/legal_service/arrets/09c442_en.pdfSee also case discussion in EU survey, supra at 78.

[90] Marknadsdomstolen [Market Court], MD 2004:8, Mar. 24, 2004 (on file with author).

[91] Decision from Göta Court of Appeals, Jan. 15, 2013, No. ÖÄ 2956-12 (on file with author).

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Last Updated: 05/29/2014