Law Library of Congress - Global Legal Monitor: Global Legal Monitor: France http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?home The Global Legal Monitor is an online publication from the Law Library of Congress covering legal news and developments worldwide. It is updated frequently and draws on information from the Global Legal Information Network, official national legal publications, and reliable press sources. You can search previous news by searching the archive. en-us Global Legal Monitor: France: Legislation Requiring Plain Packaging for Cigarettes to Be Developed http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404152_text Marketing and advertising; Tobacco and smoking - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 08 Oct 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404152_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Legislators Considering New Law to Fight Terrorism http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404141_text Civil rights and liberties; Terrorism - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 30 Sep 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404141_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Major Reform of Penal Code http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404112_text Crime and law enforcement; Criminal procedure; Sentencing - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 02 Sep 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404112_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Government Must Apply Law Requiring Anonymous Job Applications http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404081_text Administrative law and regulatory procedures; Discrimination; Employee hiring - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 30 Jul 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404081_text Global Legal Monitor: France: GMO Prohibition Confirmed http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404036_text Agriculture and food; Genetically modified foods - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 19 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404036_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of Racial Profiling http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404005_text Discrimination; Judiciary; Minority rights; Social welfare - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 02 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404005_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Denial of Adoption for Same-Sex Parents of Child Conceived Through Medically Assisted Reproduction http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403989_text Adoption and foster care; Health; Same-sex marriage - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 23 May 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403989_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Animals Granted New Legal Status http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403945_text Animals; Civil code - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 25 Apr 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403945_text Global Legal Monitor: France: New Law Places Limits on Holding Multiple Political Offices http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403872_text Elections and politics; Legislators; Officials and employees - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 18 Feb 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403872_text Global Legal Monitor: France: 2010 Law Banning Full Islamic Veil Challenged in Court http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403814_text Discrimination; Freedom of religion - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 06 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403814_text Global Legal Monitor: France: New Mining Code Under Consideration http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403804_text Environmental Protection; Mining - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 23 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403804_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Official Report Calls for Reform of Rehabilitation Centers for Juvenile Delinquents http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403762_text Juvenile crime and gang violence - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 18 Nov 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403762_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Parliament Passes Legislation to Strike the Word "Race" from All French Laws http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403657_text Human rights - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 06 Aug 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403657_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Provision on Same-Sex Marriage Approved by Legislature http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403479_text Families - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 07 Feb 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403479_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Approval of Same-Sex Marriage Draft Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403402_text Families - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 15 Nov 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403402_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Payment for Abortions and for Contraceptives for Minors http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403387_text Abortion - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 07 Nov 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403387_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Cour de Cassation Decision on Google http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403261_text Intellectual property - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403261_text Global Legal Monitor: France: 2012 Finance Law Amendment http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403233_text Budget - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).)... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 13 Jul 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403233_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Foreign Nationals Cannot Be Placed in Police Custody for Lack of Documentation http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403192_text Crime and law enforcement - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave;... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 15 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403192_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Google Reaches Agreements on E-Books with French Publishers Association and Authors Group http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403193_text Intellectual property - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 15 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403193_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Law on Identity Protection http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403078_text Right of privacy - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 11 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403078_text Global Legal Monitor: European Court of Human Rights; France: Adoption for Same Sex Couples http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403058_text Adoption and foster care - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 30 Mar 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403058_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Law on Digital Exploitation of Unavailable Books http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403052_text Intellectual property - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave;... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 26 Mar 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403052_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Paris Commercial Tribunal Found Google Maps Guilty of Unfair Competition http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402984_text Foreign trade and international finance - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 13 Feb 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402984_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Law on Denial of Recognized Genocide Crimes Challenged Before Constitutional Council http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402969_text Genocide - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 02 Feb 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402969_text Global Legal Monitor: France: New Law on Drug Safety http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402911_text Workers safety and health - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 31 Jan 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402911_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Charter Listing the Rights and Duties of the Citizen http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402887_text Citizenship and nationality - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 18 Nov 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402887_text Global Legal Monitor: France: New Austerity Measures http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402886_text Budget - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion)... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 16 Nov 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402886_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Private Nursery School Internal Code of Conduct May Ban Display of Religious Attire http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402868_text Church and state relations - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 03 Nov 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402868_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Database EVAFISC Lawful http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402846_text Taxation - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 11 Oct 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402846_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals Opposes Extradition of Widow of Rwandan Ex-President http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402834_text Extradition - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 04 Oct 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402834_text Global Legal Monitor: France: New Law on Participation of Citizens in Functioning of Criminal Justice and Adjudication of Minors http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402828_text Crime and law enforcement - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 03 Oct 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402828_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Amended Financial Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402829_text Taxation - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE).... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 03 Oct 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402829_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Energy from Renewable Sources and Bio-Fuels http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402830_text Energy - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 03 Oct 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402830_text Global Legal Monitor: France: New Bioethics Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402748_text Health - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 18 Jul 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402748_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Law on Import and Export of War Material http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402734_text Weapons development - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 06 Jul 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402734_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Law on Immigration, Integration and Nationality http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402731_text Immigration and nationality - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 01 Jul 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402731_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Digital Book Pricing Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402732_text Commerce - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 01 Jul 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402732_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Creation of the "Defender of Rights" http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402682_text Human rights - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 24 May 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402682_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Reform of Police Custody http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402683_text Crime and law enforcement - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 24 May 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402683_text Global Legal Monitor: Court of Justice of the European Union; France: Preliminary Ruling Finds France's Ban on Genetically Modified Corn Illegal http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402598_text Agriculture and food - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 04 Apr 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402598_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Google Fined by National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402589_text Communications - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 25 Mar 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402589_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Implementation of the Law Prohibiting Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402584_text Families - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 23 Mar 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402584_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Constitutional Reform to Balance the Budget http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402581_text Budget - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 22 Mar 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402581_text Global Legal Monitor: France: New Law on Internal Security, Loppsi 2 http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402583_text Crime and law enforcement - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 22 Mar 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402583_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Prohibition of Homosexual Marriages Found Constitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402497_text Families - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 02 Feb 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402497_text Global Legal Monitor: France: 2011 Finance Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402499_text Taxation - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 02 Feb 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402499_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Suspension of Family Allowances in Case of School Absenteeism http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402496_text Education - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 01 Feb 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402496_text Global Legal Monitor: France: New Anti-Piracy Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402479_text Crime and law enforcement - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 20 Jan 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402479_text Global Legal Monitor: European Court of Human Rights; France: Applicant's Police Custody Rights Violated as Public Prosecutor Not Competent Legal Authority Under Article 5 § 3 http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402415_text Human rights - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 13 Dec 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402415_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Constitutional Council Validates Provision Indirectly Barring Member of Same-Sex Couple from Adopting Partner's Child http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402409_text Adoption and foster care - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 06 Dec 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402409_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Retirement Reform Found Constitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402385_text Employee benefits - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 22 Nov 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402385_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Creation of an Automated Border Control System http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402386_text Border security - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 22 Nov 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402386_text Global Legal Monitor: France: New Law on Banking and Financial Regulation http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402384_text Banks and financial institutions - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 19 Nov 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402384_text Global Legal Monitor: Africa; France: French Supreme Court Authorizes Corruption Investigation of Three African Heads of State http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402378_text Government ethics and transparency - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 17 Nov 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402378_text Global Legal Monitor: France: New Administrative Authority in Charge of Fighting Internet Piracy Begins Operations http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402351_text Intellectual property - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI),... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 04 Nov 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402351_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Supreme Court Ruled Some Police Custody Provisions Violate European Convention on Human Rights http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402335_text Human rights - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 27 Oct 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402335_text Global Legal Monitor: European Court of Human Rights; France: Rights to Remain Silent and to Be Assisted by a Lawyer http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402318_text Human rights - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself)... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 18 Oct 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402318_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Law Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces Found Constitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402319_text Families - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 18 Oct 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402319_text Global Legal Monitor: France: National DNA Database Found Constitutional, with Reservations http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402288_text War crimes - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 04 Oct 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402288_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Storage of Biometric Data from Foreigners Benefiting from Repatriation Aid http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402289_text Immigration and nationality - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 04 Oct 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402289_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Deportations of Roma: European Commission Assesses Recent Developments http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402291_text Immigration and nationality - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 04 Oct 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402291_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Law to Adapt France's Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402252_text War crimes - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 20 Sep 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402252_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Law on Violence Against Women http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402253_text Domestic violence - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 20 Sep 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402253_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Draft Law on Immigration, Integration, and Nationality http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402255_text Immigration and nationality - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 20 Sep 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402255_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Decree on Flag Desecration http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402254_text Citizenship and nationality - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 20 Sep 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402254_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Provisions of Criminal Procedure Code on Police Custody Found Unconstitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402156_text Crime and law enforcement - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 13 Aug 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402156_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Law on Eliminating Cluster Munitions http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402158_text Weapons development - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 12 Aug 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402158_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Law on National Commitment for the Environment http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402159_text Environmental protection - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 12 Aug 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402159_text Global Legal Monitor: France: French Supreme Court Recognizes Same-Sex Couple Adoption Judgment Rendered by U.S. Court http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402121_text Adoption and foster care - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 23 Jul 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402121_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Bill Prohibiting Cluster Munitions Passed by National Assembly http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402095_text Weapons development - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 07 Jul 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402095_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Draft Law Prohibiting Wearing of Face-Concealing Clothing in Public Spaces http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402028_text Families - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 07 Jun 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402028_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Draft Law on Immigration, Integration, and Nationality http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401929_text Immigration and nationality - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 19 Apr 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401929_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Council of State Advises Against Complete Ban on Full Islamic Veil http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401930_text Families - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 19 Apr 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401930_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Highlights of Parliamentary Report on Wearing of Burqa in France http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401815_text Families - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 17 Feb 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401815_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Gender Identity Disorder Dropped from List of Mental Illnesses http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401819_text Women's rights - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 17 Feb 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401819_text Global Legal Monitor: European Court of Human Rights; France: Registration in French National Sex Offender Database Does Not Violate Rights http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401799_text Human rights - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 27 Jan 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401799_text Global Legal Monitor: France: New Law on Protection of Journalistic Sources http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401787_text Freedom of the press - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File:... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 25 Jan 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401787_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Compensation of Victims of French Nuclear Testing http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401784_text Weapons development - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 22 Jan 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401784_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401786_text Treaties and international agreements/human rights; Civil rights and liberties - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 22 Jan 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401786_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Draft Law on Regulating Banking and Finance http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401758_text Banks and financial institutions - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 06 Jan 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401758_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Constitutional Council Invalidates Carbon Tax http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401759_text Environmental protection - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision On December 29, 2009, France's Constitutional Council, which ensures the constitutionality of laws prior to their promulgation by the President of the Republic, invalidated the carbon tax set forth in article 7 of the draft 2010... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 05 Jan 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401759_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Tax on Bankers' Bonuses http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401761_text Banks and financial institutions - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision On December 29, 2009, France's Constitutional Council, which ensures the constitutionality of laws prior to their promulgation by the President of the Republic, invalidated the carbon tax set forth in article 7 of the draft 2010 On December 16, 2009, following a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, the French Minister of Economy and Finances, announced that any bonuses above 27,500 (about US$39,345) paid to bankers for the year 2009 will be... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 05 Jan 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401761_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Google Infringes Copyright Law in Scanning Excerpts of Books Without Authorization http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401760_text Intellectual property - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision On December 29, 2009, France's Constitutional Council, which ensures the constitutionality of laws prior to their promulgation by the President of the Republic, invalidated the carbon tax set forth in article 7 of the draft 2010 On December 16, 2009, following a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, the French Minister of Economy and Finances, announced that any bonuses above 27,500 (about US$39,345) paid to bankers for the year 2009 will be On December 18, 2009, the Paris Tribunal de Grande Instance (Court of General Competence) ruled that Google has infringed French copyright law by digitalizing and publishing online excerpts of French books without the authorization of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 05 Jan 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401760_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Supreme Court Denies Recognition of an Islamic Divorce in France http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401706_text International affairs - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision On December 29, 2009, France's Constitutional Council, which ensures the constitutionality of laws prior to their promulgation by the President of the Republic, invalidated the carbon tax set forth in article 7 of the draft 2010 On December 16, 2009, following a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, the French Minister of Economy and Finances, announced that any bonuses above 27,500 (about US$39,345) paid to bankers for the year 2009 will be On December 18, 2009, the Paris Tribunal de Grande Instance (Court of General Competence) ruled that Google has infringed French copyright law by digitalizing and publishing online excerpts of French books without the authorization of the In a decision rendered on November 4, 2009, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal decisions, denied recognition in France of an Islamic divorce obtained in Morocco. The spouses, both citizens of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 03 Dec 2009 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401706_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Compensation of Financial Market Professionals http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401670_text Banks and financial institutions - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision On December 29, 2009, France's Constitutional Council, which ensures the constitutionality of laws prior to their promulgation by the President of the Republic, invalidated the carbon tax set forth in article 7 of the draft 2010 On December 16, 2009, following a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, the French Minister of Economy and Finances, announced that any bonuses above 27,500 (about US$39,345) paid to bankers for the year 2009 will be On December 18, 2009, the Paris Tribunal de Grande Instance (Court of General Competence) ruled that Google has infringed French copyright law by digitalizing and publishing online excerpts of French books without the authorization of the In a decision rendered on November 4, 2009, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal decisions, denied recognition in France of an Islamic divorce obtained in Morocco. The spouses, both citizens of On November 3, 2009, the Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment (MEIE) of France issued a regulation on compensation of financial market professionals, more specifically, on variable compensation, e.g. bonuses. The regulation is in line... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 18 Nov 2009 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401670_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Measures to Fight Tax Evasion in Connection with Tax Havens http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401615_text Taxation - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision On December 29, 2009, France's Constitutional Council, which ensures the constitutionality of laws prior to their promulgation by the President of the Republic, invalidated the carbon tax set forth in article 7 of the draft 2010 On December 16, 2009, following a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, the French Minister of Economy and Finances, announced that any bonuses above 27,500 (about US$39,345) paid to bankers for the year 2009 will be On December 18, 2009, the Paris Tribunal de Grande Instance (Court of General Competence) ruled that Google has infringed French copyright law by digitalizing and publishing online excerpts of French books without the authorization of the In a decision rendered on November 4, 2009, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal decisions, denied recognition in France of an Islamic divorce obtained in Morocco. The spouses, both citizens of On November 3, 2009, the Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment (MEIE) of France issued a regulation on compensation of financial market professionals, more specifically, on variable compensation, e.g. bonuses. The regulation is in line The French government has proposed inserting in the Finance Amendment Law 2009, scheduled for adoption by Parliament at the end of the year, several measures to reinforce its fight against tax evasion in uncooperative tax haven... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 09 Oct 2009 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401615_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Internet Piracy Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401590_text Communications - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision On December 29, 2009, France's Constitutional Council, which ensures the constitutionality of laws prior to their promulgation by the President of the Republic, invalidated the carbon tax set forth in article 7 of the draft 2010 On December 16, 2009, following a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, the French Minister of Economy and Finances, announced that any bonuses above 27,500 (about US$39,345) paid to bankers for the year 2009 will be On December 18, 2009, the Paris Tribunal de Grande Instance (Court of General Competence) ruled that Google has infringed French copyright law by digitalizing and publishing online excerpts of French books without the authorization of the In a decision rendered on November 4, 2009, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal decisions, denied recognition in France of an Islamic divorce obtained in Morocco. The spouses, both citizens of On November 3, 2009, the Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment (MEIE) of France issued a regulation on compensation of financial market professionals, more specifically, on variable compensation, e.g. bonuses. The regulation is in line The French government has proposed inserting in the Finance Amendment Law 2009, scheduled for adoption by Parliament at the end of the year, several measures to reinforce its fight against tax evasion in uncooperative tax haven On September 22, 2009, the French Parliament adopted an additional law on Internet piracy to replace a provision of Law 2009-669 of June 12, 2009, on Favoring the Diffusion and the Protection of Creation on the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 01 Oct 2009 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401590_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Carbon Tax Plan http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401575_text Environmental protection - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision On December 29, 2009, France's Constitutional Council, which ensures the constitutionality of laws prior to their promulgation by the President of the Republic, invalidated the carbon tax set forth in article 7 of the draft 2010 On December 16, 2009, following a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, the French Minister of Economy and Finances, announced that any bonuses above 27,500 (about US$39,345) paid to bankers for the year 2009 will be On December 18, 2009, the Paris Tribunal de Grande Instance (Court of General Competence) ruled that Google has infringed French copyright law by digitalizing and publishing online excerpts of French books without the authorization of the In a decision rendered on November 4, 2009, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal decisions, denied recognition in France of an Islamic divorce obtained in Morocco. The spouses, both citizens of On November 3, 2009, the Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment (MEIE) of France issued a regulation on compensation of financial market professionals, more specifically, on variable compensation, e.g. bonuses. The regulation is in line The French government has proposed inserting in the Finance Amendment Law 2009, scheduled for adoption by Parliament at the end of the year, several measures to reinforce its fight against tax evasion in uncooperative tax haven On September 22, 2009, the French Parliament adopted an additional law on Internet piracy to replace a provision of Law 2009-669 of June 12, 2009, on Favoring the Diffusion and the Protection of Creation on the On September 10, 2009, French President Nicolas Sarkozy announced his government's controversial plan to impose a new "carbon tax" (taxe carbone), to take effect on January 1, 2010, on emissions from fossil fuels such as coal,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 21 Sep 2009 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401575_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Tax Treatment of Two Islamic Finance Instruments http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401548_text Taxation - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision On December 29, 2009, France's Constitutional Council, which ensures the constitutionality of laws prior to their promulgation by the President of the Republic, invalidated the carbon tax set forth in article 7 of the draft 2010 On December 16, 2009, following a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, the French Minister of Economy and Finances, announced that any bonuses above 27,500 (about US$39,345) paid to bankers for the year 2009 will be On December 18, 2009, the Paris Tribunal de Grande Instance (Court of General Competence) ruled that Google has infringed French copyright law by digitalizing and publishing online excerpts of French books without the authorization of the In a decision rendered on November 4, 2009, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal decisions, denied recognition in France of an Islamic divorce obtained in Morocco. The spouses, both citizens of On November 3, 2009, the Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment (MEIE) of France issued a regulation on compensation of financial market professionals, more specifically, on variable compensation, e.g. bonuses. The regulation is in line The French government has proposed inserting in the Finance Amendment Law 2009, scheduled for adoption by Parliament at the end of the year, several measures to reinforce its fight against tax evasion in uncooperative tax haven On September 22, 2009, the French Parliament adopted an additional law on Internet piracy to replace a provision of Law 2009-669 of June 12, 2009, on Favoring the Diffusion and the Protection of Creation on the On September 10, 2009, French President Nicolas Sarkozy announced his government's controversial plan to impose a new "carbon tax" (taxe carbone), to take effect on January 1, 2010, on emissions from fossil fuels such as coal, The French Ministry of the Economy recently clarified the tax treatment of two of the main Islamic finance instruments used in France: Murabaha and Sukuk. The term Islamic finance covers all financial transactions and financial products... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 03 Sep 2009 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401548_text Global Legal Monitor: France; New Zealand: The Government of France Changes Its Position on Returning Preserved Tribal Heads to New Zealand http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401457_text Cultural heritage - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision On December 29, 2009, France's Constitutional Council, which ensures the constitutionality of laws prior to their promulgation by the President of the Republic, invalidated the carbon tax set forth in article 7 of the draft 2010 On December 16, 2009, following a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, the French Minister of Economy and Finances, announced that any bonuses above 27,500 (about US$39,345) paid to bankers for the year 2009 will be On December 18, 2009, the Paris Tribunal de Grande Instance (Court of General Competence) ruled that Google has infringed French copyright law by digitalizing and publishing online excerpts of French books without the authorization of the In a decision rendered on November 4, 2009, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal decisions, denied recognition in France of an Islamic divorce obtained in Morocco. The spouses, both citizens of On November 3, 2009, the Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment (MEIE) of France issued a regulation on compensation of financial market professionals, more specifically, on variable compensation, e.g. bonuses. The regulation is in line The French government has proposed inserting in the Finance Amendment Law 2009, scheduled for adoption by Parliament at the end of the year, several measures to reinforce its fight against tax evasion in uncooperative tax haven On September 22, 2009, the French Parliament adopted an additional law on Internet piracy to replace a provision of Law 2009-669 of June 12, 2009, on Favoring the Diffusion and the Protection of Creation on the On September 10, 2009, French President Nicolas Sarkozy announced his government's controversial plan to impose a new "carbon tax" (taxe carbone), to take effect on January 1, 2010, on emissions from fossil fuels such as coal, The French Ministry of the Economy recently clarified the tax treatment of two of the main Islamic finance instruments used in France: Murabaha and Sukuk. The term Islamic finance covers all financial transactions and financial products In recent years, the Government of New Zealand has made concerted efforts to recover preserved Maori heads taken abroad so that they can be returned to the appropriate tribe (iwi) for burial. New Zealand has signed... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 30 Jul 2009 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401457_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Compensation of Victims of French Nuclear Testing http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401420_text Workers safety and health - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision On December 29, 2009, France's Constitutional Council, which ensures the constitutionality of laws prior to their promulgation by the President of the Republic, invalidated the carbon tax set forth in article 7 of the draft 2010 On December 16, 2009, following a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, the French Minister of Economy and Finances, announced that any bonuses above 27,500 (about US$39,345) paid to bankers for the year 2009 will be On December 18, 2009, the Paris Tribunal de Grande Instance (Court of General Competence) ruled that Google has infringed French copyright law by digitalizing and publishing online excerpts of French books without the authorization of the In a decision rendered on November 4, 2009, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal decisions, denied recognition in France of an Islamic divorce obtained in Morocco. The spouses, both citizens of On November 3, 2009, the Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment (MEIE) of France issued a regulation on compensation of financial market professionals, more specifically, on variable compensation, e.g. bonuses. The regulation is in line The French government has proposed inserting in the Finance Amendment Law 2009, scheduled for adoption by Parliament at the end of the year, several measures to reinforce its fight against tax evasion in uncooperative tax haven On September 22, 2009, the French Parliament adopted an additional law on Internet piracy to replace a provision of Law 2009-669 of June 12, 2009, on Favoring the Diffusion and the Protection of Creation on the On September 10, 2009, French President Nicolas Sarkozy announced his government's controversial plan to impose a new "carbon tax" (taxe carbone), to take effect on January 1, 2010, on emissions from fossil fuels such as coal, The French Ministry of the Economy recently clarified the tax treatment of two of the main Islamic finance instruments used in France: Murabaha and Sukuk. The term Islamic finance covers all financial transactions and financial products In recent years, the Government of New Zealand has made concerted efforts to recover preserved Maori heads taken abroad so that they can be returned to the appropriate tribe (iwi) for burial. New Zealand has signed On June 30, 2009, the French National Assembly adopted a draft law on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Projet de loi relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des essais nucl;aires... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 08 Jul 2009 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401420_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Law on Favoring Diffusion and Protection of Internet Creations http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401407_text Communications - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in France by requiring that cigarettes be sold in plain packs. (Press Kit, Programme National de Reduction du Tabagisme [National Program for French legislators are currently considering a proposed new law to reinforce the legal arsenal against terrorism. (Projet de loi renforandccedil;ant les dispositions relatives andagrave; la lutte contre leterrorisme [Draft Law to Reinforce Provisions Regarding the An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d'Etat], 9 juillet The Conseil d'Etat, France's highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known The criminal court of Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, recently found a major provider of social housing guilty of ethnic profiling. (Un bailleur HLM condamn; pour fichage ethnique [A Social Housing Provider Found Guilty of A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaandeuml;lle Dupont, Premier refus d'adoption andagrave; un couple de femmes ayant conandccedil;u un enfant par PMA The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions ex;cutives locales avec le In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one's face in public (Loi nanddeg; 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government On November 13, 2013, the French Comptroller-General of prisons issued a report that is highly critical of two "Centres Educatifs Ferm;s" (CEF, Closed Education Centers). (Contrandocirc;leur g;n;ral des lieux de privation de libert;, JOURNAL OFFICIEL On May 16, 2013, the French legislature passed a draft law to strike the word "race" from all of its legislation. (No Such Thing as 'Race,' Say French Lawmakers, FRANCE 24 (May 17, On February 2, 2013, the French National Assembly approved a provision on the redefinition of marriage as an agreement between two people, rather than between a man and a woman that is part of France's Council of Ministers (Conseil des Ministres, Cabinet) approved a draft law on November 7, 2012, that legalizes marriage for same-sex couples. The proposal gives such couples the rights usually assigned to marriage, as On October 26, 2012, the National Assembly, the lower house of France's legislature, approved a bill to extend government payment for abortions to all French women. Previously, On July 12, 2012, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a search engine that systematically sends users, by automatically suggesting key words associated with their queries, to websites On July 4, 2012, Pierre Moscovici, France's Minister of Economy, presented a revision of the 2012 Finance Law to the Council of Ministers. (Loi de finances rectificative pour 2012, Portail du Gouvernement (July 4, 2012).) In an opinion rendered on June 5, 2012, the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, found that foreign nationals cannot be placed in police custody (garde andagrave; On June 11, 2012, Google and the French Soci;t; des Gens de Lettres (SGDL) announced that they had signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit on copyright infringement begun against Google in 2006. The primary mission Law 2012-410 of March 27, 2012, on Identity Protection was published in France's official gazette of March 28, 2012, without several of its original provisions. (Loi nanddeg; 2012-410 du 27 mars 2012 relative andagrave; la On March 15, 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) determined that there is no right of a person in a same-sex union to adopt a partner's child under the European Convention for the Protection France's Law 2012-287, of March 1, 2012, on the Digital Exploitation of 20th Century Unavailable Books, was published in France's official gazette of March 2, 2012. (LOI nanddeg; 2012-287 du 1er mars 2012 relative andagrave; On February 1, 2012, the Paris Commercial Tribunal found Google and its French subsidiary guilty of unfair competition. The plaintiff, the French cartography company Bottin Cartographes, claimed that Google was abusing the dominant position of its On January 23, 2012, the French Senate adopted, without any modifications, the draft law passed earlier by the National Assembly making a criminal offense "the denial or extreme minimization of one or several genocide crimes as On December 29, 2011, the French Parliament adopted Law No. 2011-2012, on reinforcing drug safety, aimed at restoring public trust in the drug regulatory system following the scandal that erupted in France in connection with the On November 15, 2011, France's Haut conseil andagrave; l'int;gration (High Council for Integration) presented to the Minister of the Interior a draft of a charter listing the rights and duties of the French citizen. Foreign nationals On November 7, 2011, the French Council of Ministers announced new austerity measures aimed at further reducing the public debt and achieving financial balance by 2016. The government hopes to save 17.4 billion (about US$23.5 billion) On October 27, 2011, the Court of Appeal of Versailles found that it is lawful for a private nursery school to prohibit the display of religious symbols at work under its internal code of conduct. This On August 24, 2011, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, rejected the request of a Swiss subsidiary of the British bank HSBC to have the database EVAFISC set aside. EVAFISC is designed to On September 28, 2011, the Investigating Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeals issued a decision opposing the extradition of Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of former Rwandan President Juv;nal Habyarimana. Mrs. Habryarimana is sought by the Law 2011-939 of August 10, 2011, on the Participation of Citizens in the Functioning of Criminal Justice and the Adjudication of Minors, was published in France's official gazette of August 11, 2011, after the Constitutional Council Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement europ;en Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi nanddeg; 2011-814 France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi nanddeg; 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre num;rique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, Two laws relating to the creation of a "Defender of Rights" were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au d;fenseur des droits [Law The French Parliament adopted Law 2011-392 of April 14, 2011, on Police Custody, following a decision of the Constitutional Council on July 30, 2010, which held that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing On February 3, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's Supreme Court for administrative matters, referred several questions on interpretation of European Union law regarding genetically modified organisms to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a preliminary On March 17, 2011, the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libert;s (National Commission on Information Technology and Liberty, CNIL) fined Google 100,000 (about US$141,000) for violating French data privacy laws. (D;liberation 2011 de la On March 3, 2011, a circular implementing Law 2010-1192 on Prohibiting the Wearing of Clothing Concealing One's Face in Public Spaces was published in France's Official Gazette (Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative andagrave; la The French government has recently prepared draft provisions to be inserted in the 1958 Constitution that would amend in depth the governance of public finances. The proposal aims to balance the budget. (Projet de loi A new Law on Guidelines and Programming for the Performance of Internal Security was published in France's official gazette on March 15, 2011. (Loi no. 2011-267 du 14 mars 2011 d'orientation et de programmation pour On January 28, 2011, the French Constitutional Council found that the French Civil Code's provisions providing that marriage must be between a man and a woman are not in violation of the Constitution (Décision 2010-92 QPC Law 2010-1657 of December 29, 2010, on Finances for 2011 contains measures aimed at reducing France's public deficit from a level of 7.7% of the gross domestic product to 6%. The ultimate goal is to reduce Decree 2011-89 of January 21, 2011, sets forth the modalities under which family allowances may be either suspended or revoked, in totality or partly, when a child fails to attend school as provided by Law 2010-1127 The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-13 of January 5, 2011, on Fighting Piracy and on State Police Powers at Sea. It is aimed at reinforcing the intervention capabilities of the French state, in particular, on On November 23, 2010, in the case of Moulin v. France, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that France violated article 5, section 3 (right to liberty and security), of the European Convention on On October 6, 2010, the French Constitutional Council ruled on an application for a priority preliminary ruling lodged by the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, on the issue of the On November 9, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that the reform of the retirement system, which raised the legal minimum retirement age from 60 to 62 and the age for receipt of a full pension Decree 2010-1274 of October 25, 2010, creates an automatic personal data processing system referred to as PARAFE, Passage Rapide aux Frontiandegrave;res Ext;rieures (Automated Fast-Track Crossing at External Borders) to decrease the cost of border control and On October 22, 2010, the French Parliament adopted a very complex Law on Banking and Financial Regulation that implements the decisions of the 2009 G20 meeting in Pittsburgh at the national level. (Loi 2010-1249 du 22 On November 9, 2010, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, overruled the decision of the Indictment Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal of October 29, France's newly independent administrative authority, the High Authority for the Distribution of Works and the Protection of Rights on the Internet (Haute Autorit; pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la protection des droits sur internet, HADOPI), On October 19, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled in three decisions that some of the provisions of French law on police custody (garde andagrave; vue) violate On October 14, 2010, the European Court of Human Rights condemned France for violating article 6, sections 1 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself) In its decision number 2010-613 DC of October 7, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found the law prohibiting the wearing of clothing covering one's face in public spaces constitutional, with one reservation. (Decision no. 2010-613DC du The French Constitutional Council recently reviewed the constitutionality of several articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure relating to the National DNA Database (Fichier National Automatis; des Empreintes G;n;tiques (FNAEG)). (Conseil Constitutionnel, D;cision 2010-25 QPC du Starting October 1, 2010, biometric data (digital photographs and fingerprints) of foreigners who benefited from repatriation aid will be stored in a database referred to as OSCAR (Outil Simplifie de Controle des Aides au Retour- Tool On September 29, 2010, members of the European Commission met to discuss France's recent deportations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, to determine whether the French government either 1) is complying with European Union law on France's Law 2010-930 of August 9, 2010, on adapting the Criminal Code to the International Criminal Court, aims at implementing the principle of complementarity contained in article 1 of the Rome Statute of July 1998, which The French Parliament has adopted Law 2010-769, of July 9, 2010, on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children, which sets forth new means of protection against The debate on a draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality is scheduled to begin September 28, 2010, before the French National Assembly (Assembl;e Nationale, Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la France's Decree 2010-835 of July 21, 2010, on the offense of desecration of the national flag, prescribes that, in addition to the cases covered by article 433-5-1 of the Criminal Code, the desecration of the flag On July 30, 2010, the French Constitutional Council found that certain provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the general regime of police custody (garde andagrave; vue) are unconstitutional. The Council gave the government until The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-819 of July 20, 2010, on the Elimination of Cluster Munitions. The Law adds a Chapter IV, entitled "Cluster Munitions," to Title IV, Book III, of the Defense Code. The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-788 of July 12, 2010, on National Commitment for the Environment, also referred to as the "Grenelle II Law." (Loi 2010-788 du 12 juillet 2010 portant engagement national pour l'environnement, On July 8, 2010, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters, ruled that a judgment rendered by the Superior Court of the County of Dekalb, Georgia, authorizing the adoption of a On July 6, 2010, the French National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of cluster munitions; the vote was unanimous. The bill had been approved previously by the Senate, also by a unanimous vote. On May 19, 2010, the French Council of Ministers endorsed a draft law, prepared by the Ministry of Justice, that would prohibit the wearing of clothing that covers the face in public spaces (Projet de loi On March 31, 2010, the French Immigration Minister presented a new draft law on immigration, integration, and nationality to the Council of Ministers. (Projet de loi relative andagrave; l'immigration, andagrave; l'int;gration et andagrave; la nationalit;, LEGIFRANCE, On March 30, 2010, the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, acting in its capacity as legal adviser to the French government, presented a report on the legal basis for a complete ban on the wearing On January 26, 2010, the President of the National Assembly published on the Assembly website the report prepared by the Parliamentary Commission to Study the Wearing of the Full Veil in France. (Assembl;e Nationale, Rapport d'information The French Ministry of Health has issued a decree that removes gender identity disorder, also referred to as transsexualism, from the list of officially recognized mental illnesses. The Decree 2010-125, of February 8, 2010, was published On December 17, 2009, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found that registration in the French national sex offender database did not violate article 7, andsect;1 (no criminal penalty without a law) and article 8 The French Parliament adopted Law 2010-1 of January 4, 2010, on the Protection of Journalistic Sources. (Loi 2010-1 du 4 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la protection du secret des sources des journalistes, legifrance, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr (File: The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2010-2 of January 5, 2010, on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Loi 2010-5 du 5 janvier 2010 relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des On December 31, 2009, the French Parliament adopted Law 2009-1791 of December 31, 2009, ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention was signed on March 30, 2007, and entered into On December 16, 2009, at a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Economy and Finances, unveiled a draft law on regulating banking and finance aimed at implementing, at the national level, the decision On December 29, 2009, France's Constitutional Council, which ensures the constitutionality of laws prior to their promulgation by the President of the Republic, invalidated the carbon tax set forth in article 7 of the draft 2010 On December 16, 2009, following a Council of Ministers meeting, Christine Lagarde, the French Minister of Economy and Finances, announced that any bonuses above 27,500 (about US$39,345) paid to bankers for the year 2009 will be On December 18, 2009, the Paris Tribunal de Grande Instance (Court of General Competence) ruled that Google has infringed French copyright law by digitalizing and publishing online excerpts of French books without the authorization of the In a decision rendered on November 4, 2009, the Cour de Cassation, France's Supreme Court for civil and criminal decisions, denied recognition in France of an Islamic divorce obtained in Morocco. The spouses, both citizens of On November 3, 2009, the Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment (MEIE) of France issued a regulation on compensation of financial market professionals, more specifically, on variable compensation, e.g. bonuses. The regulation is in line The French government has proposed inserting in the Finance Amendment Law 2009, scheduled for adoption by Parliament at the end of the year, several measures to reinforce its fight against tax evasion in uncooperative tax haven On September 22, 2009, the French Parliament adopted an additional law on Internet piracy to replace a provision of Law 2009-669 of June 12, 2009, on Favoring the Diffusion and the Protection of Creation on the On September 10, 2009, French President Nicolas Sarkozy announced his government's controversial plan to impose a new "carbon tax" (taxe carbone), to take effect on January 1, 2010, on emissions from fossil fuels such as coal, The French Ministry of the Economy recently clarified the tax treatment of two of the main Islamic finance instruments used in France: Murabaha and Sukuk. The term Islamic finance covers all financial transactions and financial products In recent years, the Government of New Zealand has made concerted efforts to recover preserved Maori heads taken abroad so that they can be returned to the appropriate tribe (iwi) for burial. New Zealand has signed On June 30, 2009, the French National Assembly adopted a draft law on the compensation of victims of French nuclear testing (Projet de loi relative andagrave; la reconnaissance et andagrave; l'indemnisation des victimes des essais nucl;aires Law 2009-669 of June 12, 2009, on Favoring the Diffusion and Protection of Creations on the Internet, also known as the HADOPI Law, was published in the Journal Officiel, France's official gazette, on June 13, 2009,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 06 Jul 2009 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401407_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Creation of Commission to Study Wearing of Burqa http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401399_text Families - The French Health Minister has announced a new plan to reduce tobacco use in Fr