Law Library of Congress - Global Legal Monitor: Global Legal Monitor: Constitution http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?home The Global Legal Monitor is an online publication from the Law Library of Congress covering legal news and developments worldwide. It is updated frequently and draws on information from the Global Legal Information Network, official national legal publications, and reliable press sources. You can search previous news by searching the archive. en-us Global Legal Monitor: Japan: Cabinet Adoption of Constitutional Interpretation Allowing Japan to Engage in Collective Self Defense http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404087_text Constitution; Military law; National security - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 04 Aug 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404087_text Global Legal Monitor: Slovak Republic: Marriage Defined as Between One Man and One Woman http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404021_text Constitution; Families ; Human rights; Marriage and family status; Same-sex marriage - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 10 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404021_text Global Legal Monitor: Italy: Constitutional Decision Upholding Decriminalization of Soft Drugs http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404023_text Constitution; Controlled substances; Crime and law enforcement - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 10 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404023_text Global Legal Monitor: Italy: Constitutional Decision Upholding Decriminalization of Soft Drugs http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404016_text Constitution; Controlled substances; Crime and law enforcement - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative:... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 09 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404016_text Global Legal Monitor: Brazil: Constitutional Amendment Approved http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404018_text Constitution; Drug trafficking; Labor - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 09 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404018_text Global Legal Monitor: Armenia: Concept for Constitutional Amendments Announced http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403973_text Constitution; Government - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 09 May 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403973_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Debate over Right of Interim President to Regulate Parliamentary Elections http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403946_text Constitution; Elections and politics - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 25 Apr 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403946_text Global Legal Monitor: Mexico: President Promulgates Electoral Political Reform http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403918_text Constitution; Elections and politics - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 31 Mar 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403918_text Global Legal Monitor: Swaziland: Call for More Women in Parliament http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403899_text Constitution; Legislative bodies; Women's rights - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 21 Mar 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403899_text Global Legal Monitor: Lebanon: Formation of New Government Creates Constitutional Conundrum http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403887_text Constitution; Legislative bodies - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 06 Mar 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403887_text Global Legal Monitor: Mexico: Constitutional Amendment on Energy http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403863_text Constitution; Energy; Oil and gas; Power generation and transmission - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 12 Feb 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403863_text Global Legal Monitor: Nauru: Government Actions Against Judiciary Raise Concerns http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403848_text Constitution; Judiciary - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 03 Feb 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403848_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Constitution Approved in Popular Referendum http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403846_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 30 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403846_text Global Legal Monitor: Tunisia: New Constitution Adopted by National Assembly http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403839_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 28 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403839_text Global Legal Monitor: Romania: Court Finds Immunity Law Unconstitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403832_text Constitution; Corruption; Crime and law enforcement; Officials and employees - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 23 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403832_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: New Law Allows Individuals to Vote at Any Polling Place http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403829_text Constitution; Elections and politics; Voting rights - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 15 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403829_text Global Legal Monitor: Croatia: Constitutional Amendment Banning Gay Marriage Passed by Referendum http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403827_text Constitution; Marriage and family status; Same-sex marriage - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 13 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403827_text Global Legal Monitor: Nepal: Supreme Court Rules Government Ordinance on Truth and Reconciliation Commission to Be Unconstitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403820_text Constitution; Human rights; War crimes - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 08 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403820_text Global Legal Monitor: United States: Pennsylvania Moves Toward Rare Constitutional Change http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403812_text Constitution; Legislative bodies - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 31 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403812_text Global Legal Monitor: Moldova: Romanian Recognized as the Official Language http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403800_text Constitution; Language - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 23 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403800_text Global Legal Monitor: South Korea: Unprecedented Claim Filed with Constitutional Court to Dissolve a Political Party http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403801_text Constitution; Elections and politics - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 23 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403801_text Global Legal Monitor: Switzerland: Referendum Rejects Limits on Executive Pay http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403786_text Constitution; Corporations - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 12 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403786_text Global Legal Monitor: Sierra Leone: Constitutional Amendment Passed by Legislature http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403772_text Constitution; Legislative bodies - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 26 Nov 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403772_text Global Legal Monitor: Guyana: Ruling Limits Old Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403704_text Constitution; Discrimination; Human rights - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 18 Sep 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403704_text Global Legal Monitor: Hungary: Constitutional Amendments Planned http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403696_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 10 Sep 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403696_text Global Legal Monitor: Fiji: New Constitution Signed into Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403695_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 09 Sep 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403695_text Global Legal Monitor: Burma: Constitution Under Legislative Review http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403675_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 23 Aug 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403675_text Global Legal Monitor: Uganda: Gatherings of Three or More People Without Prior Police Approval Outlawed http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403666_text Constitution; Freedom of speech; Police power - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 14 Aug 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403666_text Global Legal Monitor: Thailand: Move by Parliament to Amend the Constitution http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403594_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 21 May 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403594_text Global Legal Monitor: Sri Lanka: Government Drafting Constitutional Amendment http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403593_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 17 May 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403593_text Global Legal Monitor: Mexico: New Amparo Law is Enacted http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403575_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 30 Apr 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403575_text Global Legal Monitor: Germany: Constitutional Court Rejects Petition for Declaratory Judgment Brought by the National Democratic Party http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403571_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 25 Apr 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403571_text Global Legal Monitor: Germany: Minor Constitutional Flaws in Anti-Terrorist Database http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403573_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 25 Apr 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403573_text Global Legal Monitor: Indonesia: Court Rules on Role of Regional Representative Council http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403537_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 04 Apr 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403537_text Global Legal Monitor: Zimbabwe: Draft New Constitution Approved in Referendum http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403527_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 26 Mar 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403527_text Global Legal Monitor: Hungary: Constitutional Amendments Adopted http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403520_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 19 Mar 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403520_text Global Legal Monitor: Zimbabwe: New Constitution Approved by Parliamentary Committee http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403481_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 07 Feb 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403481_text Global Legal Monitor: Albania: Constitutional Amendment on Parliamentary Immunity Passed http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403443_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 31 Dec 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403443_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Constitutional Court Objects to Its Status in New Draft Constitution http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403385_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 01 Nov 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403385_text Global Legal Monitor: Turkey: Individual Access to Constitutional Court http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403364_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 12 Oct 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403364_text Global Legal Monitor: Tunisia: Vote on Final Draft of Constitution Scheduled for April 2013 http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403287_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 16 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403287_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: President Issues New Constitutional Declaration http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403282_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 15 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403282_text Global Legal Monitor: Somalia: New Constitution Approved http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403274_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 09 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403274_text Global Legal Monitor: Turkey: Constitutional Reform Underway http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403275_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 09 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403275_text Global Legal Monitor: Thailand: Court Rules on Draft Constitutional Amendment http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403270_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 07 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403270_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Presidential Decree Reinstates the Dissolved Parliament, Court Invalidates Decree http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403237_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 12 Jul 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403237_text Global Legal Monitor: Norway: Proposed Constitutional Amendment to Tighten Parliamentary Control over Foreign Deployment of Armed Forces http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403214_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 27 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403214_text Global Legal Monitor: Norway: Four Different Constitutional Amendment Proposals in Parliament http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403219_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 27 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403219_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Supreme Council of Armed Forces Issues a New Supplementary Constitutional Declaration http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403209_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 25 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403209_text Global Legal Monitor: Denmark: Court Determines Lisbon Treaty Signing Constitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403204_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 20 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403204_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Supreme Constitutional Court Decision Dissolves One-Third of the Parliament http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403195_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 18 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403195_text Global Legal Monitor: Nepal: Court Orders Government to Finish Constitution; Failed Efforts Result in Disbanding of Legislature http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403169_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 29 May 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403169_text Global Legal Monitor: Bahrain: Constitutional Amendments Issued http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403168_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 24 May 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403168_text Global Legal Monitor: Uganda: Proposal to Re-Introduce Presidential Term Limits http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403114_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 25 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403114_text Global Legal Monitor: South Africa: Constitutional Court Declares Five Provincial Acts Unconstitutional, Suspends Ruling Temporarily http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403093_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 16 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403093_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Administrative Judicial Court Suspends the Constitutional Panel http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403099_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 16 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403099_text Global Legal Monitor: Mali: Constitution to Be Reinstated http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403077_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 09 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403077_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Government Rejects Draft Law on the Impeachment of the President http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403055_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 27 Mar 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403055_text Global Legal Monitor: Brazil: Provisional Measures Must Follow Procedure Established in the Constitution http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403028_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 14 Mar 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403028_text Global Legal Monitor: Australia: Panel Recommends Changes to Constitution to Recognize Indigenous Peoples http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402952_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 24 Jan 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402952_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; Hungary: Criticism of Laws on the Judiciary, Data Protection, and the National Bank http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402953_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 23 Jan 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402953_text Global Legal Monitor: Equatorial Guinea: Referendum on Constitutional Changes http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402890_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 23 Nov 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402890_text Global Legal Monitor: Spain: Proposed Constitutional Amendment to Include Debt Ceiling Provision http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402790_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 30 Aug 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402790_text Global Legal Monitor: French Polynesia: New Law on the Functioning of Governing Institutions http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402778_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 16 Aug 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402778_text Global Legal Monitor: Mexico: Constitutional Reforms on Expulsion of Foreigners http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402769_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 08 Aug 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402769_text Global Legal Monitor: Nigeria: Proposal for Constitutional Amendment to Reduce Presidential and Gubernatorial Tenure to Single Term http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402762_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 01 Aug 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402762_text Global Legal Monitor: Mexico: Constitutional Reforms to Fight Human Trafficking http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402754_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 25 Jul 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402754_text Global Legal Monitor: Ukraine: Constitutional Court Bans Official Display of Red Flags http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402728_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 01 Jul 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402728_text Global Legal Monitor: Morocco: New Constitution Drafted http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402725_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 29 Jun 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402725_text Global Legal Monitor: Australia: High Court Declares Anti-Gang Law Invalid http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402724_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 27 Jun 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402724_text Global Legal Monitor: Brazil: Freedom of Assembly and Expression Upheld by Federal Supreme Court http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402717_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 20 Jun 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402717_text Global Legal Monitor: Hungary: New Constitution Signed into Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402652_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 29 Apr 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402652_text Global Legal Monitor: Poland: Court Rules 1981 Martial Law Unconstitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402593_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 30 Mar 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402593_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Constitutional Amendments Passed http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402585_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 25 Mar 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402585_text Global Legal Monitor: Burma: Group Questions Legality of Cabinet Appointments http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402570_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 14 Mar 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402570_text Global Legal Monitor: Finland: Constitutional Reforms Approved by Legislature http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402532_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 22 Feb 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402532_text Global Legal Monitor: Kazakhstan: Constitutional Amendment and Early Presidential Elections http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402510_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 09 Feb 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402510_text Global Legal Monitor: Kenya: Constitutionality of Government Memo Imposing Racial Profiling Challenged http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402477_text Constitution; Discrimination - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 20 Jan 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402477_text Global Legal Monitor: Denmark: Supreme Court Permits Suit Against Prime Minister over Lisbon Treaty http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402471_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 14 Jan 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402471_text Global Legal Monitor: Kazakhstan: Parliament Supports Extension of President's Term of Office http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402461_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 06 Jan 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402461_text Global Legal Monitor: Mongolia: Constitutional Amendment Procedures to Be Discussed by Parliament http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402441_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 28 Dec 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402441_text Global Legal Monitor: Zimbabwe: Proposal to Strengthen Legislature http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402365_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine In late October 2010, the Law Society of Zimbabwe (LSZ) submitted its model constitution to the Constitutional Select Committee and to the Constitutional Affairs Minister, Eric Matinenga. Zimbabwean leaders, including President Robert Mugabe, have agreed that... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 10 Nov 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402365_text Global Legal Monitor: Australia: Referendum on Recognizing Indigenous People in Constitution Announced http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402366_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine In late October 2010, the Law Society of Zimbabwe (LSZ) submitted its model constitution to the Constitutional Select Committee and to the Constitutional Affairs Minister, Eric Matinenga. Zimbabwean leaders, including President Robert Mugabe, have agreed that On November 8, 2010, the Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, announced that an expert panel will be established to lead a national discussion on recognizing indigenous people in Australia's Constitution. The panel will be tasked with... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 10 Nov 2010 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402366_text Global Legal Monitor: Netherlands; Netherlands Antilles: Constitutional Reform for Netherlands Antilles Takes Effect http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402309_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine In late October 2010, the Law Society of Zimbabwe (LSZ) submitted its model constitution to the Constitutional Select Committee and to the Constitutional Affairs Minister, Eric Matinenga. Zimbabwean leaders, including President Robert Mugabe, have agreed that On November 8, 2010, the Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, announced that an expert panel will be established to lead a national discussion on recognizing indigenous people in Australia's Constitution. The panel will be tasked with On October 10, 2010, an agreement between the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles on constitutional reform went into effect. It was announced in September that these two parties had signed a final declaration that completed the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 13 Oct 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402309_text Global Legal Monitor: Ukraine: The 1996 Constitution Is Reinstated http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402303_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine In late October 2010, the Law Society of Zimbabwe (LSZ) submitted its model constitution to the Constitutional Select Committee and to the Constitutional Affairs Minister, Eric Matinenga. Zimbabwean leaders, including President Robert Mugabe, have agreed that On November 8, 2010, the Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, announced that an expert panel will be established to lead a national discussion on recognizing indigenous people in Australia's Constitution. The panel will be tasked with On October 10, 2010, an agreement between the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles on constitutional reform went into effect. It was announced in September that these two parties had signed a final declaration that completed the On October 4, 2010, the coalition of ruling party factions in the Ukrainian Parliament was dissolved, and a unified parliamentary majority was formed. This move reflected Ukraine's Constitutional Court ruling of October 1, 2010, which repealed... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 08 Oct 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402303_text Global Legal Monitor: Uganda: Draft Law on Public Gatherings Criticized http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402293_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine In late October 2010, the Law Society of Zimbabwe (LSZ) submitted its model constitution to the Constitutional Select Committee and to the Constitutional Affairs Minister, Eric Matinenga. Zimbabwean leaders, including President Robert Mugabe, have agreed that On November 8, 2010, the Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, announced that an expert panel will be established to lead a national discussion on recognizing indigenous people in Australia's Constitution. The panel will be tasked with On October 10, 2010, an agreement between the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles on constitutional reform went into effect. It was announced in September that these two parties had signed a final declaration that completed the On October 4, 2010, the coalition of ruling party factions in the Ukrainian Parliament was dissolved, and a unified parliamentary majority was formed. This move reflected Ukraine's Constitutional Court ruling of October 1, 2010, which repealed Uganda's proposed law, the Public Order Management Bill, has been criticized by a number of legislators and by civil society organizations as limiting civil liberties, as well as being counter to a recent Constitutional Court ruling.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 04 Oct 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402293_text Global Legal Monitor: Georgia: Constitutional Amendments Discussed in Parliament http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402264_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine In late October 2010, the Law Society of Zimbabwe (LSZ) submitted its model constitution to the Constitutional Select Committee and to the Constitutional Affairs Minister, Eric Matinenga. Zimbabwean leaders, including President Robert Mugabe, have agreed that On November 8, 2010, the Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, announced that an expert panel will be established to lead a national discussion on recognizing indigenous people in Australia's Constitution. The panel will be tasked with On October 10, 2010, an agreement between the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles on constitutional reform went into effect. It was announced in September that these two parties had signed a final declaration that completed the On October 4, 2010, the coalition of ruling party factions in the Ukrainian Parliament was dissolved, and a unified parliamentary majority was formed. This move reflected Ukraine's Constitutional Court ruling of October 1, 2010, which repealed Uganda's proposed law, the Public Order Management Bill, has been criticized by a number of legislators and by civil society organizations as limiting civil liberties, as well as being counter to a recent Constitutional Court ruling. After the constitutionally required month of public discussions regarding the change of the nation's Constitution following the approval of the draft by the country's Constitutional Commission on July 21, 2010, the Parliament of Georgia added the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 23 Sep 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402264_text Global Legal Monitor: Niger: Preliminary Draft Constitution Prepared http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402225_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine In late October 2010, the Law Society of Zimbabwe (LSZ) submitted its model constitution to the Constitutional Select Committee and to the Constitutional Affairs Minister, Eric Matinenga. Zimbabwean leaders, including President Robert Mugabe, have agreed that On November 8, 2010, the Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, announced that an expert panel will be established to lead a national discussion on recognizing indigenous people in Australia's Constitution. The panel will be tasked with On October 10, 2010, an agreement between the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles on constitutional reform went into effect. It was announced in September that these two parties had signed a final declaration that completed the On October 4, 2010, the coalition of ruling party factions in the Ukrainian Parliament was dissolved, and a unified parliamentary majority was formed. This move reflected Ukraine's Constitutional Court ruling of October 1, 2010, which repealed Uganda's proposed law, the Public Order Management Bill, has been criticized by a number of legislators and by civil society organizations as limiting civil liberties, as well as being counter to a recent Constitutional Court ruling. After the constitutionally required month of public discussions regarding the change of the nation's Constitution following the approval of the draft by the country's Constitutional Commission on July 21, 2010, the Parliament of Georgia added the On September 2, 2010, Niger's ruling Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy released a description of a new, draft constitution for the country. Among the reforms this draft includes, compared with earlier versions, are the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 09 Sep 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402225_text Global Legal Monitor: Niger: Preliminary Draft Constitution Prepared http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402226_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine In late October 2010, the Law Society of Zimbabwe (LSZ) submitted its model constitution to the Constitutional Select Committee and to the Constitutional Affairs Minister, Eric Matinenga. Zimbabwean leaders, including President Robert Mugabe, have agreed that On November 8, 2010, the Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, announced that an expert panel will be established to lead a national discussion on recognizing indigenous people in Australia's Constitution. The panel will be tasked with On October 10, 2010, an agreement between the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles on constitutional reform went into effect. It was announced in September that these two parties had signed a final declaration that completed the On October 4, 2010, the coalition of ruling party factions in the Ukrainian Parliament was dissolved, and a unified parliamentary majority was formed. This move reflected Ukraine's Constitutional Court ruling of October 1, 2010, which repealed Uganda's proposed law, the Public Order Management Bill, has been criticized by a number of legislators and by civil society organizations as limiting civil liberties, as well as being counter to a recent Constitutional Court ruling. After the constitutionally required month of public discussions regarding the change of the nation's Constitution following the approval of the draft by the country's Constitutional Commission on July 21, 2010, the Parliament of Georgia added the On September 2, 2010, Niger's ruling Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy released a description of a new, draft constitution for the country. Among the reforms this draft includes, compared with earlier versions, are the On September 2, 2010, Niger's ruling Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy released a description of a new, draft constitution for the country. Among the reforms this draft includes, compared with earlier versions, are the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 09 Sep 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402226_text Global Legal Monitor: Bangladesh: Special Parliamentary Committee on Constitution Formed to Review All Past Amendments http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402154_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine In late October 2010, the Law Society of Zimbabwe (LSZ) submitted its model constitution to the Constitutional Select Committee and to the Constitutional Affairs Minister, Eric Matinenga. Zimbabwean leaders, including President Robert Mugabe, have agreed that On November 8, 2010, the Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, announced that an expert panel will be established to lead a national discussion on recognizing indigenous people in Australia's Constitution. The panel will be tasked with On October 10, 2010, an agreement between the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles on constitutional reform went into effect. It was announced in September that these two parties had signed a final declaration that completed the On October 4, 2010, the coalition of ruling party factions in the Ukrainian Parliament was dissolved, and a unified parliamentary majority was formed. This move reflected Ukraine's Constitutional Court ruling of October 1, 2010, which repealed Uganda's proposed law, the Public Order Management Bill, has been criticized by a number of legislators and by civil society organizations as limiting civil liberties, as well as being counter to a recent Constitutional Court ruling. After the constitutionally required month of public discussions regarding the change of the nation's Constitution following the approval of the draft by the country's Constitutional Commission on July 21, 2010, the Parliament of Georgia added the On September 2, 2010, Niger's ruling Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy released a description of a new, draft constitution for the country. Among the reforms this draft includes, compared with earlier versions, are the On September 2, 2010, Niger's ruling Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy released a description of a new, draft constitution for the country. Among the reforms this draft includes, compared with earlier versions, are the A special committee of the Parliament of Bangladesh has been formed to examine past amendments to the Constitution of Bangladesh. The Constitution of Bangladesh has been amended 14 times since it was first adopted on... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 13 Aug 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402154_text Global Legal Monitor: Moldova: Referendum on Constitutional Amendments http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402105_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine In late October 2010, the Law Society of Zimbabwe (LSZ) submitted its model constitution to the Constitutional Select Committee and to the Constitutional Affairs Minister, Eric Matinenga. Zimbabwean leaders, including President Robert Mugabe, have agreed that On November 8, 2010, the Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, announced that an expert panel will be established to lead a national discussion on recognizing indigenous people in Australia's Constitution. The panel will be tasked with On October 10, 2010, an agreement between the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles on constitutional reform went into effect. It was announced in September that these two parties had signed a final declaration that completed the On October 4, 2010, the coalition of ruling party factions in the Ukrainian Parliament was dissolved, and a unified parliamentary majority was formed. This move reflected Ukraine's Constitutional Court ruling of October 1, 2010, which repealed Uganda's proposed law, the Public Order Management Bill, has been criticized by a number of legislators and by civil society organizations as limiting civil liberties, as well as being counter to a recent Constitutional Court ruling. After the constitutionally required month of public discussions regarding the change of the nation's Constitution following the approval of the draft by the country's Constitutional Commission on July 21, 2010, the Parliament of Georgia added the On September 2, 2010, Niger's ruling Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy released a description of a new, draft constitution for the country. Among the reforms this draft includes, compared with earlier versions, are the On September 2, 2010, Niger's ruling Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy released a description of a new, draft constitution for the country. Among the reforms this draft includes, compared with earlier versions, are the A special committee of the Parliament of Bangladesh has been formed to examine past amendments to the Constitution of Bangladesh. The Constitution of Bangladesh has been amended 14 times since it was first adopted on On July 6, 2010, the Constitutional Court of Moldova approved the constitutionality of the parliamentary decision to conduct a nation-wide referendum in order to pass amendments to the country's Constitution. The parliamentary action was aimed at... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 13 Jul 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402105_text Global Legal Monitor: Sri Lanka: Protest Staged Against Proposed Constitutional Amendments http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402098_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine In late October 2010, the Law Society of Zimbabwe (LSZ) submitted its model constitution to the Constitutional Select Committee and to the Constitutional Affairs Minister, Eric Matinenga. Zimbabwean leaders, including President Robert Mugabe, have agreed that On November 8, 2010, the Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, announced that an expert panel will be established to lead a national discussion on recognizing indigenous people in Australia's Constitution. The panel will be tasked with On October 10, 2010, an agreement between the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles on constitutional reform went into effect. It was announced in September that these two parties had signed a final declaration that completed the On October 4, 2010, the coalition of ruling party factions in the Ukrainian Parliament was dissolved, and a unified parliamentary majority was formed. This move reflected Ukraine's Constitutional Court ruling of October 1, 2010, which repealed Uganda's proposed law, the Public Order Management Bill, has been criticized by a number of legislators and by civil society organizations as limiting civil liberties, as well as being counter to a recent Constitutional Court ruling. After the constitutionally required month of public discussions regarding the change of the nation's Constitution following the approval of the draft by the country's Constitutional Commission on July 21, 2010, the Parliament of Georgia added the On September 2, 2010, Niger's ruling Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy released a description of a new, draft constitution for the country. Among the reforms this draft includes, compared with earlier versions, are the On September 2, 2010, Niger's ruling Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy released a description of a new, draft constitution for the country. Among the reforms this draft includes, compared with earlier versions, are the A special committee of the Parliament of Bangladesh has been formed to examine past amendments to the Constitution of Bangladesh. The Constitution of Bangladesh has been amended 14 times since it was first adopted on On July 6, 2010, the Constitutional Court of Moldova approved the constitutionality of the parliamentary decision to conduct a nation-wide referendum in order to pass amendments to the country's Constitution. The parliamentary action was aimed at On July 6, 2010, members of the largest opposition party in Sri Lanka's legislature, the United National Party (UNP), held a demonstration against the constitutional amendments proposed by the current administration. The protest was staged on... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 08 Jul 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402098_text Global Legal Monitor: American Samoa: Constitutional Convention to Consider Unicameral Legislature http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402083_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the On January 19, 2012, the Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Expert Panel) presented its final report to the Australian government. (Press Release, Prime Minister andamp; Minister for Indigenous Affairs, On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On November 13, 2011, Equatorial Guinea held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes. Official reports state that 91% of the electorate participated and that the proposals garnered 97.7% support. (Jennie Ryan, Equatorial Guinea Holds Referendum On August 26, 2011, the two major political parties in Spain, the ruling Socialists (PSOE) and the opposition Popular Party (PP), agreed on a constitutional amendment that, if approved, would limit the public debt and impose Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the On June 10, 2011, Mexico issued a decree amending article 33 of the country's Constitution, an old provision from 1917 that granted the President "the exclusive power to expel any foreigner whose presence is judged undesirable st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } Reuters reported on July 26, 2011, that Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's President, who is currently serving his second and final term, is gearing up to propose a On July 14, 2011, Mexican President Felipe de Jesanduacute;s Calderon Hinojosa issued a decree to amend articles 19, 20, and 73 of the Federal Constitution. Under the amended second paragraph of article 19, the crime of On June 17, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the red flag cannot have the same official status as a state symbol as the national flag. The Constitutional Court recognized that the red flag On June 17, 2011, the King of Morocco outlined the changes offered in a new constitution that will be voted on in a referendum scheduled for July 1, 2011. The King identified ten areas of change On June 23, 2011, the High Court of Australia declared that a New South Wales law aimed at combating organized crime is invalid. (Wainohu v The State of New South Wales [2011] HCA 24; see On June 15, 2011, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of public demonstrations that defend the legalization of drug use, like the Marijuana March (Marcha da Maconha). The Court expressed the opinion that the On April 25, 2011, the President of Hungary, Pandaacute;l Schmitt, signed into law the country's new Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary is the last jurisdiction in Eastern Europe to effect the change to a On March 16, 2011, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal issued a ruling declaring the imposition of martial law in 1981 under the military government headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski to have been unconstitutional, based on a consideration of On March 19, 2011, the Egyptian people participated in a public referendum and approved, by a majority of 77% of the votes cast, amendments to the 1971 Constitution relating to the election of the President of A former Burmese political party formally dissolved last year, the National League for Democracy (NLD), recently published a statement arguing that the President-elect of the country should not have appointed government ministers to his Cabinet before It was reported on February 16, 2011, that the current Parliament of Finland voted to approve constitutional amendments that include mentioning European Union membership in the Constitution. Finland joined the EU in 1995. Another amendment stipulates On January 31, 2011, the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan recognized as unconstitutional the amendment to the country's Constitution under which the term of office of the current president could be extended until 2020 It was reported on January 13, 2011, that the High Court in Mombasa is looking into the constitutionality of a government-issued confidential internal memo which calls for Kenyan Muslims and Kenyans of Arab or Asian descent On January 11, 2011, Denmark's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, permitted a group of plaintiffs to sue the country's Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen, over the Danish government's ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. (That treaty On December 29, 2010, the Mazhilis (lower house of the legislature) of Kazakhstan voted to support the initiative of various public groups, which were recently registered by the Kazakhstan Central Election Commission, to conduct a national It was reported on December 10, 2010, that the unicameral Mongolian Parliament has agreed to further debate draft procedures on amending the country's Constitution, after its Standing Committee on the State Structure has discussed them. Nine In late October 2010, the Law Society of Zimbabwe (LSZ) submitted its model constitution to the Constitutional Select Committee and to the Constitutional Affairs Minister, Eric Matinenga. Zimbabwean leaders, including President Robert Mugabe, have agreed that On November 8, 2010, the Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, announced that an expert panel will be established to lead a national discussion on recognizing indigenous people in Australia's Constitution. The panel will be tasked with On October 10, 2010, an agreement between the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles on constitutional reform went into effect. It was announced in September that these two parties had signed a final declaration that completed the On October 4, 2010, the coalition of ruling party factions in the Ukrainian Parliament was dissolved, and a unified parliamentary majority was formed. This move reflected Ukraine's Constitutional Court ruling of October 1, 2010, which repealed Uganda's proposed law, the Public Order Management Bill, has been criticized by a number of legislators and by civil society organizations as limiting civil liberties, as well as being counter to a recent Constitutional Court ruling. After the constitutionally required month of public discussions regarding the change of the nation's Constitution following the approval of the draft by the country's Constitutional Commission on July 21, 2010, the Parliament of Georgia added the On September 2, 2010, Niger's ruling Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy released a description of a new, draft constitution for the country. Among the reforms this draft includes, compared with earlier versions, are the On September 2, 2010, Niger's ruling Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy released a description of a new, draft constitution for the country. Among the reforms this draft includes, compared with earlier versions, are the A special committee of the Parliament of Bangladesh has been formed to examine past amendments to the Constitution of Bangladesh. The Constitution of Bangladesh has been amended 14 times since it was first adopted on On July 6, 2010, the Constitutional Court of Moldova approved the constitutionality of the parliamentary decision to conduct a nation-wide referendum in order to pass amendments to the country's Constitution. The parliamentary action was aimed at On July 6, 2010, members of the largest opposition party in Sri Lanka's legislature, the United National Party (UNP), held a demonstration against the constitutional amendments proposed by the current administration. The protest was staged on American Samoa is an unorganized territory of the United States that has a population of approximately 66,000 people and falls under the Administration of the Office of Insular Affairs in the Department of the Interior. (Central... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 30 Jun 2010 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402083_text Global Legal Monitor: Pakistan: Amendment to Constitution Reduces Presidential Power http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402048_text Constitution - Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafte