Law Library of Congress - Global Legal Monitor: Global Legal Monitor: Constitution http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?home The Global Legal Monitor is an online publication from the Law Library of Congress covering legal news and developments worldwide. It is updated frequently and draws on information from the Global Legal Information Network, official national legal publications, and reliable press sources. You can search previous news by searching the archive. en-us Global Legal Monitor: Uganda: Court Declares Refund of Bride-Price Under Customary Law Unconstitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404560_text Constitution; Customary law; Divorce; Families ; Marriage and family status - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 12 Aug 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404560_text Global Legal Monitor: Maldives: People's Majlis Passes Amendment to Constitution Allowing Foreign Ownership of Land http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404537_text Constitution; Foreign investments; Property; Real estate - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 30 Jul 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404537_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Decree Enhancing President's Powers Challenged Before Constitutional Court http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404540_text Accounting and auditing; Administrative law and regulatory procedures; Budget; Constitution; Judiciary - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 30 Jul 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404540_text Global Legal Monitor: Germany: Federal Constitutional Court Declares Child Care Allowance Act Unconstitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404531_text Child support; Constitution; Families ; Judiciary; Women's rights - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 27 Jul 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404531_text Global Legal Monitor: China: Government Officials to Take Constitutional Oath http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404532_text Constitution; Government ethics and transparency - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 27 Jul 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404532_text Global Legal Monitor: Israel: Restrictions on Fees for Handling Holocaust Survivors' Claims Constitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404526_text Constitution; Judiciary; Lawyers and legal services - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 22 Jul 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404526_text Global Legal Monitor: Gambia: Increased Monetary Deposit Requirements for Election Candidates http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404523_text Constitution; Elections and politics - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 21 Jul 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404523_text Global Legal Monitor: Indonesia: Constitutional Court Ruling on Political Office http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404510_text Constitution; Elections and politics; Judiciary; Treaties and International Agreements/Human Rights - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 13 Jul 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404510_text Global Legal Monitor: Luxembourg: Three Referendum Questions Voted Down http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404500_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 07 Jul 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404500_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Constitutional Court Rules on Car-Hiring Services Legislation http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404481_text Constitution; Licensing and permits; Transportation and public works; Transportation costs - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 30 Jun 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404481_text Global Legal Monitor: Indonesia: Court Rejects Two Challenges to Marriage Act http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404476_text Children's rights; Church and state relations; Constitution; Marriage and family status; Women's rights - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 25 Jun 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404476_text Global Legal Monitor: Sri Lanka: Small Political Parties Object to Proposed Constitutional Amendment http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404474_text Constitution; Elections and politics - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 24 Jun 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404474_text Global Legal Monitor: Germany: Court Dismisses Lawsuit Concerning U.S. Drone Attacks in Yemen http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404447_text Constitution; Terrorism - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 17 Jun 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404447_text Global Legal Monitor: Sri Lanka: President Campaigns for Amendment on Electoral Reform http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404444_text Constitution; Elections and politics - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 12 Jun 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404444_text Global Legal Monitor: Thailand: Constitutional Referendum to Be Held http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404429_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 05 Jun 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404429_text Global Legal Monitor: Brazil: Constitutional Amendment Passed Increasing Justices http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404394_text Constitution; Judges; Judiciary; Supreme court - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 12 May 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404394_text Global Legal Monitor: Burundi: Court Permits Third Bid for Presidency http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404393_text Constitution; Elections and politics; Judiciary; Protest and dissent; Racial and ethnic relations - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 07 May 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404393_text Global Legal Monitor: Thailand: Draft of New Constitution Completed http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404388_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 05 May 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404388_text Global Legal Monitor: Tanzania: Parliament Passes Non-Citizens Employment Act http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404383_text Citizenship and nationality; Constitution; Labor - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 28 Apr 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404383_text Global Legal Monitor: Pakistan: Constitutional Amendment to Extend Jurisdiction of Superior Courts to Tribal Areas http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404323_text Civil rights and liberties; Constitution; Judiciary; Jurisdiction; State and local government; Territories and protectorates - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 03 Mar 2015 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404323_text Global Legal Monitor: Burma: Constitutional Referendum Plan Approved http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404327_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 03 Mar 2015 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404327_text Global Legal Monitor: Indonesia: Water Law Overturned by Court http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404328_text Constitution; Judiciary; Water resources - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 03 Mar 2015 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404328_text Global Legal Monitor: Italy: Historic Constitutional Amendment in Progress http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404329_text Constitution; Elections and politics; Legislative bodies; Organization of legislatures - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 03 Mar 2015 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404329_text Global Legal Monitor: Angola: Constitution Will Become Available in Several Languages http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404306_text Constitution; Language - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 12 Feb 2015 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404306_text Global Legal Monitor: Burma: Temporary Citizens Will Be Allowed to Vote in Constitutional Referendum http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404296_text Citizenship and nationality; Constitution; Elections and politics; Minority rights - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 06 Feb 2015 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404296_text Global Legal Monitor: Sri Lanka: Constitutional Amendment to Be Implemented http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404278_text Constitution; Racial and ethnic relations; State and local government - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 23 Jan 2015 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404278_text Global Legal Monitor: Bangladesh: Sixteenth Amendment to Constitution Empowers Parliament to Impeach Justices http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404192_text Constitution; Judiciary; Legislative powers - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 10 Nov 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404192_text Global Legal Monitor: Ukraine: New Law on State Attorneys http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404187_text Constitution; Crime and law enforcement; Government; Judiciary; Lawyers and legal services - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 04 Nov 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404187_text Global Legal Monitor: Burma: Pledge to Consider Amending Constitutional Provision Giving Military the Power to Veto Amendments http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404186_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 03 Nov 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404186_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Law Students Protest Ban on Being Hired as Prosecutors http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404183_text Administrative law and regulatory procedures; Education; Judiciary; Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 31 Oct 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404183_text Global Legal Monitor: Japan: Cabinet Adoption of Constitutional Interpretation Allowing Japan to Engage in Collective Self Defense http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404087_text Constitution; Military law; National security - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 04 Aug 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404087_text Global Legal Monitor: Mexico: Constitutional Right to Personal Identity http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404072_text Birth certificates and registration; Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 11 Jul 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404072_text Global Legal Monitor: Slovak Republic: Marriage Defined as Between One Man and One Woman http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404021_text Constitution; Families ; Human rights and civil liberties; Marriage and family status; Same-sex marriage - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 10 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404021_text Global Legal Monitor: Italy: Constitutional Decision Upholding Decriminalization of Soft Drugs http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404016_text Constitution; Controlled substances; Crime and law enforcement - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative:... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 09 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404016_text Global Legal Monitor: Brazil: Constitutional Amendment Approved http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404018_text Constitution; Drug trafficking; Labor - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 09 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404018_text Global Legal Monitor: Armenia: Concept for Constitutional Amendments Announced http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403973_text Constitution; Government - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 09 May 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403973_text Global Legal Monitor: Sweden: Groundbreaking Supreme Court Award for Unlawful Loss of Citizenship http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403955_text Citizenship and nationality; Constitution; Supreme court - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 30 Apr 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403955_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Debate over Right of Interim President to Regulate Parliamentary Elections http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403946_text Constitution; Elections and politics - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 25 Apr 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403946_text Global Legal Monitor: Mexico: President Promulgates Electoral Political Reform http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403918_text Constitution; Elections and politics - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 31 Mar 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403918_text Global Legal Monitor: Italy: Legislation on Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances Found Partially Unconstitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403903_text Controlled substances; Crime and law enforcement; Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 27 Mar 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403903_text Global Legal Monitor: Swaziland: Call for More Women in Parliament http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403899_text Constitution; Legislative bodies; Women's rights - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 21 Mar 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403899_text Global Legal Monitor: Lebanon: Formation of New Government Creates Constitutional Conundrum http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403887_text Constitution; Legislative bodies - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 06 Mar 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403887_text Global Legal Monitor: Mexico: Constitutional Amendment on Energy http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403863_text Constitution; Energy; Oil and gas; Power generation and transmission - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 12 Feb 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403863_text Global Legal Monitor: Nauru: Government Actions Against Judiciary Raise Concerns http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403848_text Constitution; Judiciary - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 03 Feb 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403848_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Constitution Approved in Popular Referendum http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403846_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 30 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403846_text Global Legal Monitor: Tunisia: New Constitution Adopted by National Assembly http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403839_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 28 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403839_text Global Legal Monitor: Romania: Court Finds Immunity Law Unconstitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403832_text Constitution; Corruption; Crime and law enforcement; Officials and employees - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 23 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403832_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: New Law Allows Individuals to Vote at Any Polling Place http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403829_text Constitution; Elections and politics; Voting rights - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 15 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403829_text Global Legal Monitor: Croatia: Constitutional Amendment Banning Gay Marriage Passed by Referendum http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403827_text Constitution; Marriage and family status; Same-sex marriage - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 13 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403827_text Global Legal Monitor: Nepal: Supreme Court Rules Government Ordinance on Truth and Reconciliation Commission to Be Unconstitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403820_text Constitution; Human rights and civil liberties; War crimes - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 08 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403820_text Global Legal Monitor: Austria: Administrative Courts Reformed http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403818_text Administrative law and regulatory procedures; Constitution; Judiciary - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 06 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403818_text Global Legal Monitor: United States: Pennsylvania Moves Toward Rare Constitutional Change http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403812_text Constitution; Legislative bodies - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 31 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403812_text Global Legal Monitor: Moldova: Romanian Recognized as the Official Language http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403800_text Constitution; Language - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 23 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403800_text Global Legal Monitor: South Korea: Unprecedented Claim Filed with Constitutional Court to Dissolve a Political Party http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403801_text Constitution; Elections and politics - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 23 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403801_text Global Legal Monitor: Switzerland: Referendum Rejects Limits on Executive Pay http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403786_text Constitution; Corporations - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 12 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403786_text Global Legal Monitor: Sierra Leone: Constitutional Amendment Passed by Legislature http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403772_text Constitution; Legislative bodies - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 26 Nov 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403772_text Global Legal Monitor: Guyana: Ruling Limits Old Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403704_text Constitution; Discrimination; Human rights and civil liberties - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 18 Sep 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403704_text Global Legal Monitor: Hungary: Constitutional Amendments Planned http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403696_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 10 Sep 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403696_text Global Legal Monitor: Fiji: New Constitution Signed into Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403695_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 09 Sep 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403695_text Global Legal Monitor: Burma: Constitution Under Legislative Review http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403675_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 23 Aug 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403675_text Global Legal Monitor: Uganda: Gatherings of Three or More People Without Prior Police Approval Outlawed http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403666_text Constitution; Freedom of speech; Police power - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 14 Aug 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403666_text Global Legal Monitor: Thailand: Move by Parliament to Amend the Constitution http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403594_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 21 May 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403594_text Global Legal Monitor: Sri Lanka: Government Drafting Constitutional Amendment http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403593_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 17 May 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403593_text Global Legal Monitor: Mexico: New Amparo Law is Enacted http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403575_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 30 Apr 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403575_text Global Legal Monitor: Germany: Constitutional Court Rejects Petition for Declaratory Judgment Brought by the National Democratic Party http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403571_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 25 Apr 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403571_text Global Legal Monitor: Germany: Minor Constitutional Flaws in Anti-Terrorist Database http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403573_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 25 Apr 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403573_text Global Legal Monitor: Indonesia: Court Rules on Role of Regional Representative Council http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403537_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 04 Apr 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403537_text Global Legal Monitor: Zimbabwe: Draft New Constitution Approved in Referendum http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403527_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 26 Mar 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403527_text Global Legal Monitor: Hungary: Constitutional Amendments Adopted http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403520_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 19 Mar 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403520_text Global Legal Monitor: Zimbabwe: New Constitution Approved by Parliamentary Committee http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403481_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 07 Feb 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403481_text Global Legal Monitor: Albania: Constitutional Amendment on Parliamentary Immunity Passed http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403443_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 31 Dec 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403443_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Constitutional Court Objects to Its Status in New Draft Constitution http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403385_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 01 Nov 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403385_text Global Legal Monitor: Turkey: Individual Access to Constitutional Court http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403364_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 12 Oct 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403364_text Global Legal Monitor: Tunisia: Vote on Final Draft of Constitution Scheduled for April 2013 http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403287_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 16 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403287_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: President Issues New Constitutional Declaration http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403282_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 15 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403282_text Global Legal Monitor: Somalia: New Constitution Approved http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403274_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 09 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403274_text Global Legal Monitor: Turkey: Constitutional Reform Underway http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403275_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 09 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403275_text Global Legal Monitor: Thailand: Court Rules on Draft Constitutional Amendment http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403270_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 07 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403270_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Presidential Decree Reinstates the Dissolved Parliament, Court Invalidates Decree http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403237_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 12 Jul 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403237_text Global Legal Monitor: Norway: Proposed Constitutional Amendment to Tighten Parliamentary Control over Foreign Deployment of Armed Forces http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403214_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 27 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403214_text Global Legal Monitor: Norway: Four Different Constitutional Amendment Proposals in Parliament http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403219_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 27 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403219_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Supreme Council of Armed Forces Issues a New Supplementary Constitutional Declaration http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403209_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 25 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403209_text Global Legal Monitor: Denmark: Court Determines Lisbon Treaty Signing Constitutional http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403204_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 20 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403204_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Supreme Constitutional Court Decision Dissolves One-Third of the Parliament http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403195_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 18 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403195_text Global Legal Monitor: Nepal: Court Orders Government to Finish Constitution; Failed Efforts Result in Disbanding of Legislature http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403169_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 29 May 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403169_text Global Legal Monitor: Bahrain: Constitutional Amendments Issued http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403168_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 24 May 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403168_text Global Legal Monitor: Uganda: Proposal to Re-Introduce Presidential Term Limits http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403114_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 25 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403114_text Global Legal Monitor: South Africa: Constitutional Court Declares Five Provincial Acts Unconstitutional, Suspends Ruling Temporarily http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403093_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 16 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403093_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Administrative Judicial Court Suspends the Constitutional Panel http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403099_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 16 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403099_text Global Legal Monitor: Mali: Constitution to Be Reinstated http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403077_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 09 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403077_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Government Rejects Draft Law on the Impeachment of the President http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403055_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 27 Mar 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403055_text Global Legal Monitor: Brazil: Provisional Measures Must Follow Procedure Established in the Constitution http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403028_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. The court ruled that paragraph 1 of article 6 of Law 108-2011, on the structure of the membership of the People's On May 24, 2012, Nepal's Supreme Court ordered the country's government to finish a draft of a new constitution by May 27, denying a request from the government for a three-month extension. (Maureen Cosgrove, Nepal On May 22, 2012, the Asharq al-Awsat newspaper reported that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had hailed constitutional amendments issued by the monarch of Bahrain. The amendments had first been enacted by the Parliament, an elected It was reported on April 17, 2012, that a group of Members of the Parliament of Uganda, led by MP Gerald Karuhanga, are preparing to move a motion aimed at amending the Constitution and re-instating presidential On March 22, 2012, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously declared unconstitutional five laws issued by the legislatures of five of the country's nine provinces. The laws were designed to regulate the financial management of On April 10, 2012, the Egyptian Administrative Judicial Court issued a decision suspending the constitutional panel. The suspended panel included 100 members, half of whom were parliamentarians representing Islamic interest groups including the al Jama'a al On April 1, 2012, Amadou Haya Sanogo, the de facto head of Mali since the military took control in a coup on March 22, announced that the country's 1992 Constitution will be reinstated. (La Constitution On March 21, 2012, the Assistant Minister of Justice in the current cabinet rejected the draft law submitted by Members of Parliament on the impeachment of the President. The draft law would grant to the legislative On March 8, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ruled that from now on, analysis and approval of provisional measures by the National Congress must follow the procedures provided in article 62, section 9, of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 14 Mar 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403028_text Global Legal Monitor: Australia: Panel Recommends Changes to Constitution to Recognize Indigenous Peoples http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402952_text Constitution - Eight years after it began, a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of a customary practice of refunding the bride-price at the dissolution of customary marriages ended with Uganda's Supreme Court, the highest court of the land, On July 22, 2015, the People's Majlis, the unicameral parliament of the Maldives, passed a bill amending the 2008 Constitution to allow foreign ownership of land. President Yamin Abdul Gayoom ratified the bill the On July 27, 2015, lawyers representing the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization, a government body legally assigned to audit the budget, public funds, and expenses of other government agencies, including the office of the presidency, filed a On July 21, 2015, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) ruled that the Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament) lacked the legislative power to enact provisions on the care allowance (Betreuungsgeld), which provides money to stay-at-home parents. On July 1, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) adopted a decision requiring government officials to pledge allegiance to the PRC Constitution upon taking office. On July 9, 2015, Israel's Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in On July 7, 2015, The Gambia's legislature passed a bill amending the country's Elections Act. (Gambia Passes Bill That Increases Deposit for Candidates, ABC NEWS (July 8, 2015); Elections Act (Decree No. 78, 1996, On July 9, 2015, Indonesia's Constitutional Court issued a decision revoking a provision of a recent law on regional elections. (Decision No. 42/PUU-XIII/2015, Constitutional Court website (July 9, 2015) (in Indonesian).) It found On June 7, 2015, voters in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were called to vote by referendum on three questions related to the drafting of a new Constitution: (1) the optional right to vote for Luxembourgers There have been some important recent developments on the legal status of chauffeured vehicles for hire in France. Probably the most significant came in the form of a constitutional challenge to Law No. 2014-1104 of On June 18, 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) released its decisions on two petitions for judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Law). (Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun A number of small political parties in Sri Lanka have stated that they are opposed to a constitutional amendment on the electoral system proposed by the Prime Minister. They are concerned that the amendment would On May 27, 2015, the Administrative Trial Court of Cologne (Verwaltungsgericht Kln, VG Kln) dismissed a lawsuit by three Yemeni citizens who alleged that the German government violated their right to life, as established by the On June 8, 2015, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka spoke at a rally in support of a proposed amendment of the country's Constitution that would change the electoral system. It would be the 20th amendment The government of Thailand, a country that has been under military rule since a May 2014 coup, announced on May 19, 2015, that it will hold a referendum on a new draft constitution completed in April On May 6, 2015, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved a constitutional amendment that increases the age of compulsory retirement of the members of the Federal Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, STF), the Audit Tribunal of On May 5, 2015, the Constitutional Court of Burundi decided that the country's president, Pierre Nkurunziza, could run for a third term; six of the seven judges signed the decision. (Burundi Court Upholds President's On April 17, 2015, Thailand's Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) completed the first draft of a new Constitution. Relevant stakeholders, including the Cabinet, the military, and the National Reform Council, will have the opportunity until May Tanzania's 357-member unicameral Parliament recently passed the Non-Citizens (Employment Regulation) Act, which, as its name indicates, is aimed at regulating the employment of non-citizens in the country. (Foreign Workers Face Tougher Times in Dar, On February 20, 2015, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice approved a constitutional amendment that would extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and a High Court to Pakistan's specially administered tribal regions. Members of Parliament of Burma (also known as Myanmar) announced on February 11, 2015, that the President of Burma had approved a law permitting a referendum to be held on amending the country's Constitution. (Jared Indonesia's Constitutional Court, on February 18, 2015, revoked the 2004 Law on Water Resources. The Court also reinstated the previous, 1974 Water Law as the controlling legislation until a new measure is adopted. (Fedina On January 27, 2015, the Italian Chamber of Deputies reviewed for a second time a constitutional amendment proposal approved by the Italian Senate. The proposed constitutional amendment contains a number of provisions that would substantially On February 5, 2015, Angolan National Assembly Deputy Emilio Homem anounced that a technical commission coordinated by the Angolan Ministry of Territory Administration will prepare the translation of the Angolan Constitution into several languages. (It was reported on February 3, 2015, that Burma's Parliament (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) had passed a law the day before granting temporary citizens in Burma the right to vote in a constitutional referendum expected to be held Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, Ranil Wickramasinghe, stated on January 21, 2015, that the country will implement the 13th amendment of its Constitution. The amendment has been long pending, and the Tamil National Alliance, a political Bangladesh Act No XIII of 2014 amended the Constitution of Bangladesh, empowering Parliament to impeach Supreme Court judges. (Sadiat Mannan, Parliament and Judiciary: Striking a Balance, DAILY STAR, (Oct. 20, 2014).) Part On October 14, 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's legislature, adopted the Law on the Procuracy. (Rada Starts the Reform of Law Enforcement by Passing the Law on Procuracy [in Russian], NEWSRU.UA (Oct. 14, 2014).) The It was reported on November 2, 2014, that Myanmar's parliament, the Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) will consider amending the country's Constitution before key October 2015 elections. The step towards constitutional reform was taken in On October 20, 2014, a group of law students who had been denied positions in Egypt's public prosecution service filed a petition before the country's administrative court to repeal the decision that had been issued by Japan's Cabinet adopted a resolution on July 1, 2014, that allows Japanese Self Defense Forces (SDF) to take action in support of an ally that has come under enemy attack (collective self-defense). The resolution changed the On June 17, 2014, Mexico published an amendment to article 4 of the Constitution in the country's official gazette. It stated:Every person has the right to identity On June 4, 2014, the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NCSR, the country's parliament) adopted an amendment to the Slovak Constitution to define marriage as "the unique bond between one man and one woman." (Julie On May 29, 2014, the Criminal Chamber of Italy's Supreme Court (Corte Suprema di Cassazione), upheld a Constitutional Court decision on the reduction of penalties for convictions for the sale of soft drugs. (Novitandagrave; legislative: On May 27, 2014, the Brazilian Federal Senate approved a proposal for a constitutional amendment that was first put forward in 1999. The amendment modifies article 243 of the Constitution. (Proposta de Emenda Constitucional No. On April 10, 2014, the Commission on Constitutional Reforms, established under the President of Armenia, announced the proposed Concept for Constitutional Amendments, which will be drafted at a later date. The final Concept will be based On April 23, 2014, the Swedish Supreme Court rendered a groundbreaking verdict against the state, requiring it to pay SEK100,000 (about US$15,224) in damages to an individual who had been stripped of his Swedish citizenship in There is a current debate in Egypt between two groups of legal scholars on whether the interim President, Adely Mansour, has the authority to issue a law regulating the upcoming parliamentary elections. (A Debate On February 10, 2014, a decree published in Mexico's federal gazette amended, added, and repealed many provisions of 31 articles of the Mexican Constitution that affect political-electoral matters. (Decreto por el que se Reforma, On February 12, 2014, the ConstitutionaI Court of the ItaIian RepubIic (Corte CostituzionaIe deIIa ReppubIica ItaIiana, UItimo Deposito deIIe Pronunce (Mar. 14, 2014), ConstitutionaI Court website), decided a question on the constitutionaI Iegitimacy of IegisIation A prominent human rights activist has called on the parliament of Swaziland to live up to the constitutional requirement for participation of women in the legislature. Doo Aphane, a Swazi lawyer and Director of Women for On February 15, 2014, a new government was formed in Lebanon after more than ten months of political struggle and maneuvering between the Coalition of March 8, in which Hizbullah (also transliterated as Hezbollah) is the In December 2013, the Mexican government approved an amendment to a number of provisions on energy in the country's Constitution. (Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitucion Politica de Potential Constitutional CrisisOn January 31, 2014, it was reported that the Government of Nauru has started the process of drafting a law that would result in the country being placed under emergency On January 19, 2014, a final draft of the Egyptian Constitution was approved by 98% of voters in a popular referendum. Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb Awadallah, the Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, announced in On January 27, 2014, the National Assembly of Tunisia approved the final draft of the country's Constitution. Two hundred members of the legislature, exceeding the two-thirds majority required for passage, voted in favor of the new On January 15, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Romania issued a ruling finding unconstitutional draft legislation that would grant public officials immunity from prosecution. The amendments to the Criminal Law, adopted by the Romanian legislature on On January 6, 2014, the Egyptian President issued Law 8-2014, governing the constitutional referendum process for 2014. According to the newly enacted legislation, Egyptians will not be restricted by residential address when they cast their votes On December 1, 2013, a national referendum was held in Croatia on the inclusion in the country's Constitution of the definition of marriage as a union between a woman and a man. About 65% of the On January 2, 2014, Nepal's Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an ordinance adopted by the Maoist-led government that provides for amnesties of persons deemed responsible for serious human rights abuses during the country's civil war of 1996-2006. On January 1, 2014, a major reform of the Austrian system of administrative justice went into effect. It is based on the Administrative Justice Reform Act of 2012 (Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit-Novelle 2012, BUNDESGESETZBLATT I 2012/51), and on On December 17, 2013, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives approved two bills that would amend article II, section 16 of the Constitution of Pennsylvania to reduce the membership of both houses of the state legislature, the On December 5, 2013, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova ruled that the Romanian language is the official language of this country. (Press Release, Constitutional Court of Moldova, The Text of the Declaration On November 5, 2013, the Korean government filed a claim with the country's Constitutional Court to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party (UPP). At the same time, the government applied for a court injunction to suspend activities On November 24, 2012, the Swiss people voted on a popular initiative that would have amended the Swiss Constitution by adding a new article 110a to limit executive pay to 12 times the pay of the On November 19, 2013, the House of Representatives, the unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone, passed a controversial amendment to the country's Constitution. The change affects the criteria for serving as Speaker of the House. (On September 6, 2013, the Acting Chief Justice of the High Court of Guyana, Ian Chang, ruled that cross-dressing can be deemed a criminal offense only if engaged in for improper purposes such as prostitution, not On August 28, 2013, Hungary's State Secretary of Justice, Robert Repassy, announced that the government would adjust the recent, highly controversial amendments to the country's Constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted by the Parliament in March 2013. The On September 6, 2013, the President of Fiji formally assented to a new constitution in a ceremony at Government House in the capital, Suva. The constitution comes into effect immediately. (President Signs In July 2013, a 109-member multi-party committee was formed in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the two-house Parliament of Burma (also called Myanmar), to review that country's 2008 Constitution. (Win Ko Ko Latt, Constitutional Change On August 6, 2013, Uganda's 388-member unicameral Parliament passed the Public Order Management Bill, 2011 (POMB), which, among other measures, mandates police approval of "public meetings" involving at least three people. (Uganda Public On April 7, 2013, the Thai Parliament voted to approve three bills in furtherance of the government's plan to amend the Constitution. The bills were submitted separately, because there are three very different subjects addressed by It was reported in early May 2013 that the Government of Sri Lanka is now drafting a constitutional amendment to reduce the terms of office of the President and the Chief Justice to five years each, On April 2, 2013, the Mexican Executive Branch officially published a Decree in the Diario Oficial of the Federation (the official gazette) promulgating the Amparo Law, which regulates articles 103 and 107 of the On February 20,2013, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a petition of the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) for a declaratory judgment on the NPD's conformity with the Federal Constitution (docket no. On April 24, 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a judgment in which it largely upheld the constitutionality of a German anti-terrorist database, while requiring the legislature to change a few provisions of the enabling legislation Indonesia's Constitutional Court ruled on March 28, 2013, that the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, or DPD) would have additional lawmaking authority. According to the Chief Justice of the Court, Moh Mahfud, the DPD now On March 16, 2013, in a nationwide referendum held in Zimbabwe, almost 95% of those who cast votes approved the country's draft new constitution. (Samuel Franklin, On March 11, 2013, Hungary's Parliament approved a number of controversial amendments to the country's constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarorszandaacute;g Alaptrv;nye). The changes were adopted in a vote along party lines, with the ruling It was reported on February 1, 2013, that Zimbabwe's parliamentary Constitution Select Committee (COPAC) has formally adopted a draft new constitution for the country, following a settlement of political differences among the major parties. This action On September 18, 2012, the Assembly of Albania (the parliament) approved constitutional amendments that provide for automatic lifting of parliamentary immunity from criminal prosecution for legislators, judges, and other high-level government officials in corruption cases. (Press The assembly in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt released a preliminary draft, available in Arabic, on its website (last visited Oct. 25, 2012). On October 16, 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court On September 24, 2012, the day that new provisions allowing access by individuals to Turkey's Constitutional Court came into effect, seven persons filed petitions with the Court. The aim of the newly applicable measures, which comprise On August 14, 2012, the El Nahda Islamic Party of Tunisia announced that the final draft of the country's new Constitution will be submitted for a vote at the end of April 2013 to the National On August 12, 2012, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi issued a new constitutional declaration, repealing the June 2012 Declaration issued by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) that had effectively stripped the legislature and the executive On August 1, 2012, Somalia's special, 825-member National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution for the country by a large majority over 96% of the 645 votes cast. (Dan Taglioli, Somalia Special Assembly Approves Turkey's Constitutional Reconciliation Commission reconvened on August 1, 2012, to resume its preparation of a new constitution for the country. The parliamentary body will reportedly start to discuss some articles that have given rise to heated Thailand's ruling Phuea Thai party has for the moment withdrawn plans to amend the nation's Constitution, in part due to a court decision. In late July 2012, Thailand's Constitutional Court ruled on five complaints that had On July 8, 2012, Egypt's recently elected President Muhammed Morsi issued Decree No. 11-2012 to restore the Parliament, which had been dissolved by a previous decision of the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Decree also states that It was reported on June 18, 2012, that Norway's Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, or SV) has proposed and presented to Norway's Parliament (Storting), a constitutional amendment requiring a parliamentary decision before Norwegian forces can participate At present there are four proposed amendments to the Norwegian Constitution in the initial stage of consideration by the Storting, Norway's parliament. The proposals have to do with: strengthening the role of parliament On June 16, 2012, Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) issued a supplementary constitutional declaration amending provisions of the constitutional declaration of 2011. The supplementary declaration amends articles 30, 53, 53/1, 53/2, 56 B, On June 15, 2012, Denmark's Eastern High Court ruled that the country's government need not have held a referendum before signing the Treaty of Lisbon. The decision came in response to a class action lawsuit that On June 13, 2012, the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court declared two recently drafted laws unconstitutional. Th