Law Library of Congress - Global Legal Monitor: Global Legal Monitor: Criminal procedure http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?home The Global Legal Monitor is an online publication from the Law Library of Congress covering legal news and developments worldwide. It is updated frequently and draws on information from the Global Legal Information Network, official national legal publications, and reliable press sources. You can search previous news by searching the archive. en-us Global Legal Monitor: Italy: New Legislation Against Public Corruption and Organized Crime http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404472_text Corporate income tax; Corruption; Crimes against property; Criminal code; Criminal procedure; Fraud and financial crimes; Government ethics and transparency - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 25 Jun 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404472_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Cairo Court of Appeal Sentences Former President Morsi to Death http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404461_text Capital punishment; Crime and law enforcement; Criminal procedure - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 18 Jun 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404461_text Global Legal Monitor: Sweden: Supreme Court Affirms Pre-Trial Detention of Julian Assange http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404441_text Civil code; Crime and law enforcement; Criminal procedure; Extradition; Sex offenses - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 15 Jun 2015 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404441_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Council of Ministers Approves New Amendment to Code of Criminal Procedure http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404316_text Criminal procedure; Judiciary; Witnesses - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 25 Feb 2015 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404316_text Global Legal Monitor: Morocco: Bill to Amend Counterterrorism Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404309_text Criminal code; Criminal procedure; Terrorism - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 13 Feb 2015 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404309_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Criminal Court Sentences Political Activist to Life Imprisonment http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404301_text Criminal procedure; Human rights - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 11 Feb 2015 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404301_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Mass Trial Results in Death Sentences for 183 Defendants http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404294_text Capital punishment; Criminal code; Criminal procedure - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 05 Feb 2015 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404294_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Court of Cassation Accepted Petition from Al Jazeera Journalists http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404271_text Criminal procedure; Freedom of the press - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 08 Jan 2015 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404271_text Global Legal Monitor: United States: Appellate Court Rules Federal Law Allows Discovery in Foreign Criminal Investigations http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404255_text Criminal procedure; Judiciary - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 31 Dec 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404255_text Global Legal Monitor: Argentina: Reform of Code of Criminal Procedure http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404230_text Criminal procedure - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 16 Dec 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404230_text Global Legal Monitor: Kenya: Parliament Considering Security Laws Amendment Legislation http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404235_text Asylum; Criminal procedure; National security; Terrorism; Weapons - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).)... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 16 Dec 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404235_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Criminal Court Drops Charges Against Mubarak http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404222_text Crime and law enforcement; Criminal procedure - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 10 Dec 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404222_text Global Legal Monitor: Israel: Provisions on Parole of Convicted Murderers http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404189_text Criminal procedure; Homicide - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 06 Nov 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404189_text Global Legal Monitor: Israel: Release of Prisoners Based on State or Security Reasons http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404172_text Criminal procedure; Terrorism; War crimes - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404172_text Global Legal Monitor: Australia: Charges Laid Following Major Counterterrorism Operation in Sydney http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404128_text Criminal procedure; Terrorism - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 24 Sep 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404128_text Global Legal Monitor: Japan: Supreme Court Strikes Down Sentence by Lay Judges http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404111_text Criminal procedure; Sentencing - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 04 Sep 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404111_text Global Legal Monitor: France: Major Reform of Penal Code http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404112_text Crime and law enforcement; Criminal code; Criminal procedure; Sentencing - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 02 Sep 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404112_text Global Legal Monitor: Italy: Right to Information of Persons Subject to Imprisonment http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404100_text Correctional facilities and imprisonment; Crime and law enforcement; Criminal procedure - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law Italy's Legislative Decree No. 101 of 2014, which enters into effect on August 16, 2014, implements European Union Directive 2012/13/UE concerning the right to information of persons subject to criminal procedures. (Decreto-Legislativo 1 luglio 2014,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 14 Aug 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404100_text Global Legal Monitor: Italy: Compensation for Mistreated Inmates and Other Provisions on Prison Administration http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404094_text Correctional facilities and imprisonment; Crime and law enforcement; Criminal procedure - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law Italy's Legislative Decree No. 101 of 2014, which enters into effect on August 16, 2014, implements European Union Directive 2012/13/UE concerning the right to information of persons subject to criminal procedures. (Decreto-Legislativo 1 luglio 2014, Italy's Decree Law No. 92, of June 26, 2014, amends several legislative instruments with the purposes of guaranteeing the rights of persons currently held in Italian prison facilities and improving the administration of those facilities. (... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 12 Aug 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404094_text Global Legal Monitor: Iceland: Icelandic Bankers Jailed for Fraud http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404082_text Banks and financial institutions; Crime and law enforcement; Criminal code; Criminal procedure; Fraud and financial crimes - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law Italy's Legislative Decree No. 101 of 2014, which enters into effect on August 16, 2014, implements European Union Directive 2012/13/UE concerning the right to information of persons subject to criminal procedures. (Decreto-Legislativo 1 luglio 2014, Italy's Decree Law No. 92, of June 26, 2014, amends several legislative instruments with the purposes of guaranteeing the rights of persons currently held in Italian prison facilities and improving the administration of those facilities. (In a decision issued by the Reykjavik district court on December 12, 2013, two bank directors were among the parties imprisoned for fraud in connection with the banking crisis of 2008. (Domur: H;raandeth;sdoms Reykjavikur 12.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 30 Jul 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404082_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Rape and Sexual Assault Suspects Referred to Criminal Court http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404037_text Crime and law enforcement; Criminal procedure; Sex offenses - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law Italy's Legislative Decree No. 101 of 2014, which enters into effect on August 16, 2014, implements European Union Directive 2012/13/UE concerning the right to information of persons subject to criminal procedures. (Decreto-Legislativo 1 luglio 2014, Italy's Decree Law No. 92, of June 26, 2014, amends several legislative instruments with the purposes of guaranteeing the rights of persons currently held in Italian prison facilities and improving the administration of those facilities. (In a decision issued by the Reykjavik district court on December 12, 2013, two bank directors were among the parties imprisoned for fraud in connection with the banking crisis of 2008. (Domur: H;raandeth;sdoms Reykjavikur 12. On June 12, 2014, Egypt's General Prosecutor ordered the referral of seven individual suspects for trial before the Criminal Court of Cairo, on charges of rape and sexual assault. The authorities had arrested those individuals... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 19 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404037_text Global Legal Monitor: Lebanon: Special Tribunal Indicts Journalists and Media Organizations for Contempt http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403967_text Crime and law enforcement; International organizations; Specialized courts; Criminal procedure - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law Italy's Legislative Decree No. 101 of 2014, which enters into effect on August 16, 2014, implements European Union Directive 2012/13/UE concerning the right to information of persons subject to criminal procedures. (Decreto-Legislativo 1 luglio 2014, Italy's Decree Law No. 92, of June 26, 2014, amends several legislative instruments with the purposes of guaranteeing the rights of persons currently held in Italian prison facilities and improving the administration of those facilities. (In a decision issued by the Reykjavik district court on December 12, 2013, two bank directors were among the parties imprisoned for fraud in connection with the banking crisis of 2008. (Domur: H;raandeth;sdoms Reykjavikur 12. On June 12, 2014, Egypt's General Prosecutor ordered the referral of seven individual suspects for trial before the Criminal Court of Cairo, on charges of rape and sexual assault. The authorities had arrested those individuals On April 24, 2014, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, a hybrid international/domestic court, charged two journalists and their respective media organizations, a TV station and a print newspaper, with two counts of contempt and obstruction of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 06 May 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403967_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Ministry Points Out Right of Appeal for Convicted Muslim Brotherhood Members http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403959_text Capital punishment; Crime and law enforcement; Criminal procedure - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law Italy's Legislative Decree No. 101 of 2014, which enters into effect on August 16, 2014, implements European Union Directive 2012/13/UE concerning the right to information of persons subject to criminal procedures. (Decreto-Legislativo 1 luglio 2014, Italy's Decree Law No. 92, of June 26, 2014, amends several legislative instruments with the purposes of guaranteeing the rights of persons currently held in Italian prison facilities and improving the administration of those facilities. (In a decision issued by the Reykjavik district court on December 12, 2013, two bank directors were among the parties imprisoned for fraud in connection with the banking crisis of 2008. (Domur: H;raandeth;sdoms Reykjavikur 12. On June 12, 2014, Egypt's General Prosecutor ordered the referral of seven individual suspects for trial before the Criminal Court of Cairo, on charges of rape and sexual assault. The authorities had arrested those individuals On April 24, 2014, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, a hybrid international/domestic court, charged two journalists and their respective media organizations, a TV station and a print newspaper, with two counts of contempt and obstruction of The criminal court of Egypt's Al Minya Province recently sentenced the Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood organization (the spiritual head of the organization), along with 680 of its members, to the death penalty. On... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 01 May 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403959_text Global Legal Monitor: Egypt: Defense Lawyers Try to Appeal Death Sentences for Muslim Brotherhood Defendants http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403919_text Capital punishment; Criminal procedure; Lawyers and legal services - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law Italy's Legislative Decree No. 101 of 2014, which enters into effect on August 16, 2014, implements European Union Directive 2012/13/UE concerning the right to information of persons subject to criminal procedures. (Decreto-Legislativo 1 luglio 2014, Italy's Decree Law No. 92, of June 26, 2014, amends several legislative instruments with the purposes of guaranteeing the rights of persons currently held in Italian prison facilities and improving the administration of those facilities. (In a decision issued by the Reykjavik district court on December 12, 2013, two bank directors were among the parties imprisoned for fraud in connection with the banking crisis of 2008. (Domur: H;raandeth;sdoms Reykjavikur 12. On June 12, 2014, Egypt's General Prosecutor ordered the referral of seven individual suspects for trial before the Criminal Court of Cairo, on charges of rape and sexual assault. The authorities had arrested those individuals On April 24, 2014, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, a hybrid international/domestic court, charged two journalists and their respective media organizations, a TV station and a print newspaper, with two counts of contempt and obstruction of The criminal court of Egypt's Al Minya Province recently sentenced the Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood organization (the spiritual head of the organization), along with 680 of its members, to the death penalty. On On March 24, 2014, the defense lawyers for 528 members of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood who were convicted of various offenses and given the death penalty announced, in a press conference, that due process for... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 02 Apr 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403919_text Global Legal Monitor: Mexico: National Code of Penal Procedure Approved http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403859_text Criminal procedure - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law Italy's Legislative Decree No. 101 of 2014, which enters into effect on August 16, 2014, implements European Union Directive 2012/13/UE concerning the right to information of persons subject to criminal procedures. (Decreto-Legislativo 1 luglio 2014, Italy's Decree Law No. 92, of June 26, 2014, amends several legislative instruments with the purposes of guaranteeing the rights of persons currently held in Italian prison facilities and improving the administration of those facilities. (In a decision issued by the Reykjavik district court on December 12, 2013, two bank directors were among the parties imprisoned for fraud in connection with the banking crisis of 2008. (Domur: H;raandeth;sdoms Reykjavikur 12. On June 12, 2014, Egypt's General Prosecutor ordered the referral of seven individual suspects for trial before the Criminal Court of Cairo, on charges of rape and sexual assault. The authorities had arrested those individuals On April 24, 2014, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, a hybrid international/domestic court, charged two journalists and their respective media organizations, a TV station and a print newspaper, with two counts of contempt and obstruction of The criminal court of Egypt's Al Minya Province recently sentenced the Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood organization (the spiritual head of the organization), along with 680 of its members, to the death penalty. On On March 24, 2014, the defense lawyers for 528 members of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood who were convicted of various offenses and given the death penalty announced, in a press conference, that due process for The Chamber of Deputies of the Federal Congress of Mexico approved a new National Code of Penal Procedure on February 5, 2014, after three hours of debate by seven parliamentary groups. There were 407 votes in... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 11 Feb 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403859_text Global Legal Monitor: Netherlands: Draft Legislation on Higher Penalties for Violent Acts Committed Under the Influence http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403777_text Controlled substances; Criminal procedure; Police power - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law Italy's Legislative Decree No. 101 of 2014, which enters into effect on August 16, 2014, implements European Union Directive 2012/13/UE concerning the right to information of persons subject to criminal procedures. (Decreto-Legislativo 1 luglio 2014, Italy's Decree Law No. 92, of June 26, 2014, amends several legislative instruments with the purposes of guaranteeing the rights of persons currently held in Italian prison facilities and improving the administration of those facilities. (In a decision issued by the Reykjavik district court on December 12, 2013, two bank directors were among the parties imprisoned for fraud in connection with the banking crisis of 2008. (Domur: H;raandeth;sdoms Reykjavikur 12. On June 12, 2014, Egypt's General Prosecutor ordered the referral of seven individual suspects for trial before the Criminal Court of Cairo, on charges of rape and sexual assault. The authorities had arrested those individuals On April 24, 2014, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, a hybrid international/domestic court, charged two journalists and their respective media organizations, a TV station and a print newspaper, with two counts of contempt and obstruction of The criminal court of Egypt's Al Minya Province recently sentenced the Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood organization (the spiritual head of the organization), along with 680 of its members, to the death penalty. On On March 24, 2014, the defense lawyers for 528 members of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood who were convicted of various offenses and given the death penalty announced, in a press conference, that due process for The Chamber of Deputies of the Federal Congress of Mexico approved a new National Code of Penal Procedure on February 5, 2014, after three hours of debate by seven parliamentary groups. There were 407 votes in On November 13, 2013, the Ministry of Security and Justice of the Netherlands sent draft legislation to the country's parliament that would impose higher penalties on persons suspected of acts of violent crime, if evidence from... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 06 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403777_text Global Legal Monitor: Belgium: Antwerp Attorney-General Calls for Comprehensive DNA Database http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403775_text Civil rights and liberties; Criminal procedure; Evidence; Right of privacy - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law Italy's Legislative Decree No. 101 of 2014, which enters into effect on August 16, 2014, implements European Union Directive 2012/13/UE concerning the right to information of persons subject to criminal procedures. (Decreto-Legislativo 1 luglio 2014, Italy's Decree Law No. 92, of June 26, 2014, amends several legislative instruments with the purposes of guaranteeing the rights of persons currently held in Italian prison facilities and improving the administration of those facilities. (In a decision issued by the Reykjavik district court on December 12, 2013, two bank directors were among the parties imprisoned for fraud in connection with the banking crisis of 2008. (Domur: H;raandeth;sdoms Reykjavikur 12. On June 12, 2014, Egypt's General Prosecutor ordered the referral of seven individual suspects for trial before the Criminal Court of Cairo, on charges of rape and sexual assault. The authorities had arrested those individuals On April 24, 2014, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, a hybrid international/domestic court, charged two journalists and their respective media organizations, a TV station and a print newspaper, with two counts of contempt and obstruction of The criminal court of Egypt's Al Minya Province recently sentenced the Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood organization (the spiritual head of the organization), along with 680 of its members, to the death penalty. On On March 24, 2014, the defense lawyers for 528 members of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood who were convicted of various offenses and given the death penalty announced, in a press conference, that due process for The Chamber of Deputies of the Federal Congress of Mexico approved a new National Code of Penal Procedure on February 5, 2014, after three hours of debate by seven parliamentary groups. There were 407 votes in On November 13, 2013, the Ministry of Security and Justice of the Netherlands sent draft legislation to the country's parliament that would impose higher penalties on persons suspected of acts of violent crime, if evidence from Yves Li;geois, the Attorney-General (Procureur-g;n;ral) of Antwerp, has recently suggested that DNA samples be taken from all babies born in Belgium, as well as from all new immigrants, and entered into a database that could be... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 05 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403775_text Global Legal Monitor: Ukraine: Tax Service Will Use "Lie Detectors" http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403757_text Criminal procedure; Executive agencies; Officials and employees - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law Italy's Legislative Decree No. 101 of 2014, which enters into effect on August 16, 2014, implements European Union Directive 2012/13/UE concerning the right to information of persons subject to criminal procedures. (Decreto-Legislativo 1 luglio 2014, Italy's Decree Law No. 92, of June 26, 2014, amends several legislative instruments with the purposes of guaranteeing the rights of persons currently held in Italian prison facilities and improving the administration of those facilities. (In a decision issued by the Reykjavik district court on December 12, 2013, two bank directors were among the parties imprisoned for fraud in connection with the banking crisis of 2008. (Domur: H;raandeth;sdoms Reykjavikur 12. On June 12, 2014, Egypt's General Prosecutor ordered the referral of seven individual suspects for trial before the Criminal Court of Cairo, on charges of rape and sexual assault. The authorities had arrested those individuals On April 24, 2014, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, a hybrid international/domestic court, charged two journalists and their respective media organizations, a TV station and a print newspaper, with two counts of contempt and obstruction of The criminal court of Egypt's Al Minya Province recently sentenced the Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood organization (the spiritual head of the organization), along with 680 of its members, to the death penalty. On On March 24, 2014, the defense lawyers for 528 members of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood who were convicted of various offenses and given the death penalty announced, in a press conference, that due process for The Chamber of Deputies of the Federal Congress of Mexico approved a new National Code of Penal Procedure on February 5, 2014, after three hours of debate by seven parliamentary groups. There were 407 votes in On November 13, 2013, the Ministry of Security and Justice of the Netherlands sent draft legislation to the country's parliament that would impose higher penalties on persons suspected of acts of violent crime, if evidence from Yves Li;geois, the Attorney-General (Procureur-g;n;ral) of Antwerp, has recently suggested that DNA samples be taken from all babies born in Belgium, as well as from all new immigrants, and entered into a database that could be The Ukrainian Ministry of Revenue and Duties recently passed guidelines that provide the Ministry with the legitimate grounds to use computer polygraphs in its work. (Ministry of Revenue and Duties, Decree No. 329... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 13 Nov 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403757_text Global Legal Monitor: Mexico: Government Promulgates Federal Penal Reform on Pardons http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403748_text Criminal procedure; Executive powers - On June 14, 2015, new legislation fighting criminal conduct against the state, organized crime activities, and false accounting reporting entered into effect in Italy. (Law No. 69 of May 6, 2015, Provisions on Crimes Against On June 16, 2015, the Criminal Chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal found former President Mohamed Morsi guilty of a prison break for escaping from Wadi al-Natron prison on January 28, 2011. (Mahmoud Mourad On May 11, 2015, the Swedish Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court decision to continue to detain Julian Assange in absentia. (Press Release, The Supreme Court Affirms the Decision of the Court of Appeals On February 18, 2015, the Council of Ministers of Egypt approved a draft law issued by the country's President to amend articles 277 and 289 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The newly amended articles On January 26, 2015, the House of Deputies in Morocco approved a draft law that amends the country's anti-terrorism law, with 102 votes for, none against, and 47 abstentions. The legislation amends certain provisions of The Criminal Court of Cairo, a chamber of the Cairo Court of Appeal, recently found political activist Ahmed Douma guilty of attacking police officers, vandalism, arson, and damaging public buildings. Douma was convicted of the The Felony Court of Giza, Egypt, headed by Judge Mohammed Naji Shehata, on February 2, 2015, in the case dubbed the "massacre of Kerdasa," issued a death sentence against 183 defendants and a not-guilty verdict for On January 1, 2015, the Court of Cassation, the highest judicial body in the Egyptian court system, accepted the petition for a retrial submitted by the defense lawyer for a group of Al Jazeera journalists who The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has ruled that federal law permits a U.S. district court to compel document discovery for use in a criminal investigation by a foreign magistrate. (In Re On December, 4, 2014, a proposal to reform the Code of Criminal Procedure, submitted to the legislature by the Executive branch of Argentina, was passed by the Congress. It passed mainly on the basis of the Kenya's Parliament is considering passage of the Security Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2014, which would amend over 20 different laws. (Mohammed Yusuf, Kenya's Proposed Security Law Stirs Debate, VOICE OF AMERICA (Dec. 11, 2014).) On November 29, 2014, the Cairo Court of Appeal dismissed all charges against former President Hosni Mubarak and his Minister of the Interior (homeland security), Habib al Adly. The court found Mubarak and Adly not On November 4, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) Plenum approved the second and third reading of the Parole Bill (Amendment No. 14), 5775-2014. (Press Release, Knesset, Final Approval: People Who Commit Exceptionally Severe Acts of On July 29, 2014, the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Government Law (Amendment No. 9), 5774-2014 (Amendment Law, Knesset website [scroll down to appropriate link on the right]), amending the Government Law, 5761-2001, SEFER HAHUKIM Sydney RaidsOn September 18, 2014, more than 800 police officers from the Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the New South Wales Police Force carried out 25 search warrants involving premises and vehicles located in 13 western On July 24, 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan rendered a controversial decision on sentencing in a case in which a lay-judge system was used. (Heisei25(a)689 (S. Ct., 1st petit bench, July 24, 2014) [in An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 aoanducirc;t 2014 relative andagrave; l'individualisation des peines et renforandccedil;ant l'efficacit; des sanctions p;nales [Law Italy's Legislative Decree No. 101 of 2014, which enters into effect on August 16, 2014, implements European Union Directive 2012/13/UE concerning the right to information of persons subject to criminal procedures. (Decreto-Legislativo 1 luglio 2014, Italy's Decree Law No. 92, of June 26, 2014, amends several legislative instruments with the purposes of guaranteeing the rights of persons currently held in Italian prison facilities and improving the administration of those facilities. (In a decision issued by the Reykjavik district court on December 12, 2013, two bank directors were among the parties imprisoned for fraud in connection with the banking crisis of 2008. (Domur: H;raandeth;sdoms Reykjavikur 12. On June 12, 2014, Egypt's General Prosecutor ordered the referral of seven individual suspects for trial before the Criminal Court of Cairo, on charges of rape and sexual assault. The authorities had arrested those individuals On April 24, 2014, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, a hybrid international/domestic court, charged two journalists and their respective media organizations, a TV station and a print newspaper, with two counts of contempt and obstruction of The criminal court of Egypt's Al Minya Province recently sentenced the Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood organization (the spiritual head of the organization), along with 680 of its members, to the death penalty. On On March 24, 2014, the defense lawyers for 528 members of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood who were convicted of various offenses and given the death penalty announced, in a press conference, that due process for The Chamber of Deputies of the Federal Congress of Mexico approved a new National Code of Penal Procedure on February 5, 2014, after three hours of debate by seven parliamentary groups. There were 407 votes in On November 13, 2013, the Ministry of Security and Justice of the Netherlands sent draft legislation to the country's parliament that would impose higher penalties on persons suspected of acts of violent crime, if evidence from Yves Li;geois, the Attorney-General (Procureur-g;n;ral) of Antwerp, has recently suggested that DNA samples be taken from all babies born in Belgium, as well as from all new immigrants, and entered into a database that could be The Ukrainian Ministry of Revenue and Duties recently passed guidelines that provide the Ministry with the legitimate grounds to use computer polygraphs in its work. (Ministry of Revenue and Duties, Decree No. 329 The Mexican government recently promulgated a decree adding a new article to the Federal Penal Code. Article 97 Bis provides that the Mexican President may, exceptionally, by his own initiative or at the request of one... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 08 Nov 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403748_text