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  • Page 1 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 1 of Interview with James Moceri

    The Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training Foreign Affairs Oral History Project Information Series JAMES MOCERI Interviewed by: G. Lewis Schmidt Initial interview date: May 22, 1990 Copyright 1998 ADST Q: This is Lew Schmidt, interviewing Jim Moceri at his home in Auburn, Washington, on May 22, 1990. Jim, I'm going to ask you to start out by giving a little background on yourself, ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 2 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 2 of Interview with James Moceri

    During the course of graduate work at Columbia, I worked for the Federal Writers Project as a writer, and produced a series of pamphlets on subjects as varied as "Soil Conservation" for the New Jersey Department of Agriculture, the lives and works of New Jersey painters of the 19th century, Washington in New Jersey during the Revolutionary War. Transferring later to the New Jersey ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 3 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 3 of Interview with James Moceri

    From 1947 to 1949, I was employed as an assistant professor at a newly established college in northern Idaho at Farragud, the former Navy boot camp. There I handled the course offerings in ancient and modern history and in political science as well. Learning that a Fulbright program for Italy would be inaugurated in 1949, I applied for a grant to do full time ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 4 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 4 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: Just to get this in perspective, what was the date that you took up your Fulbright studies in Italy? MOCERI: As I said, I arrived in Italy in November of 1949. My Fulbright grant was renewed for a second year at Croce's request, so I remained in Naples at the Institute until June of 1950. During that period, people at USIS, particularly the ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 5 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 5 of Interview with James Moceri

    Two elements in the experiences of my Neapolitan years are worth recalling because they later counted heavily among the factors that persuaded me to join the USIS sphere of activities in the Foreign Service. My closest Neapolitan friends, whom I had met at the Institute, were under constant, almost daily attack by the local Communist party leaders and intellectuals in the press, in communist ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 6 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 6 of Interview with James Moceri

    Well, I refused. Two weeks later I got a call from someone apparently in the European division of the State Department. I was informed that the division was delighted to be able to offer me a position in Italy. After all, they had worked out this arrangement and were glad to offer me a position as director of the USIS operation in Bari, Italy. ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 7 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 7 of Interview with James Moceri

    Assignment To Bari Changed By Ambassador Dunn To Florence Q: Who was? MOCERI: Ambassador James Dunn. In the course of the meeting, Ambassador Dunn informed Lloyd Free, the director, and Heath Bowman that he wanted me sent to Florence. There was no further talk of opening the post in Bari. They'd have to look for someone else. The reason for sending me to Florence ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 8 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 8 of Interview with James Moceri

    In the meantime, apparently, Rome decided that this would be a great time for Marjorie Ferguson to get some much-needed home leave. Q: You could replace her. MOCERI: [Laughter] So I was there as her substitute and put in charge of the program. I knew nothing about the program at this point, really. So I spent time familiarizing myself with the staff and the ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 9 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 9 of Interview with James Moceri

    I went about my work of learning something of the activities of USIS. I, of course, saw the material sent out by Rome: press releases, material for the press. I became acquainted with a number of Italian newspaper people in Florence, and plunged into the time-consuming routine of developing contacts with editors, publishers, newspapers, magazines, university people, particularly in the areas of politics and ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 10 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 10 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: Well, it's hard to know what may have happened. I assume that at the time Rome decided the matter could be handled very quietly by someone else. It took no great power of divination to sense that the "someone else" proved to be a sometime American journalist living in Florence at the time, whom I knew reasonably well. The point is that Furio ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 11 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 11 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: Yes, a leader of an important faction of the left-wing faction of the Christian Democratic Party. For reasons which I never quite understood, he had very poor relations with Mrs. Luce, who had become our ambassador to Italy. When he was elected president of Italy, the relations worsened. I think it was common knowledge that the kindest word, epithet, Mrs. Luce had for ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 12 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 12 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: Question is, did it ever get to the State Department? MOCERI: That I don't know. I have no idea. All I know is, that when Gronchi did come to the United States, Mrs. Luce had recommended that he be given, simply, the courtesy of a brief, get-acquainted meeting with President Eisenhower. And that he then be dismissed by the White House and left ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 13 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 13 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: I think you're quite correct. That was the conclusion to which I came. It led to my conviction that the only way those of us in USIA—because by that time we were a separate organization—could establish our own credibility and achieve any kind of status, was to be as good as if not better political officers than any other people in the State ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 14 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 14 of Interview with James Moceri

    Success Of Moceri's Fulbright Exchange Nominees During all these years there were of course all the other, more conventional USIS activities in which I was heavily involved. A few examples, by way of illustration. In a city with a great tradition of private libraries and semi-private libraries belonging to generally restricted scholarly societies (sometimes centuries-old), I wanted the open-shelved USIS library to be as ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 15 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 15 of Interview with James Moceri

    Then, a year later, because of budget cuts in Washington, they decided to consolidate offices. And there was a decision to abolish the Bologna office as a separate branch post, retaining however the office, staff and library as part of the USIS Florence operation. Frederick Jochum, who was the PAO in Bologna, was transferred to Florence as the new director. Being junior to Fritz ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 16 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 16 of Interview with James Moceri

    Unlike France, in Italy influence and prestige and power are all related to given circles. And the circles are always overlapping. Therefore, if you have entree in one circle, that entree enables you to move into any number of other circles. Each circle always radiates outward for almost always each member of the circle has ties with other circles. In France each circle is ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 17 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 17 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: Yes. And Fritz had been partly responsible, I think, for the upgrading of my status. He'd come in suspecting that I would probably be disloyal to him. He made several trips to Rome to find out what I might have been reporting through other channels. I suppose you might say "back channels," [Laughter] although I didn't even know that term at the time. ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 18 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 18 of Interview with James Moceri

    The reporting to Washington had been that they would win a majority, though it must be said that as the date of the elections approached the prediction of the margin of victory kept changing so that the margin kept shrinking. At the meeting, every branch PAO reported, for his area, that yes, things were going well and the center coalition would, indeed, win and ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 19 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 19 of Interview with James Moceri

    I was talking earlier about people I sent to the States. I sent another journalist, a young man named Lepri, to the United States on a Leader grant. Ten years later he was made the head of ANSA, the Italian news agency. Well, this happened, you know, with many of the people I recommended for either Fulbright grants or Leader grants; people who in ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 20 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 20 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: Oh yes, I did. Of course, I did. The staff went through all those formalities, but when it came time to do their own work they never bothered to inform anybody else. So that occupied a lot of time. I was the lowest-ranking branch PAO in Italy, and outranked by all department heads in Rome headquarters. This meant that I could establish my ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 21 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 21 of Interview with James Moceri

    How could anyone have ignored all the implications of such a record? It had to mean that an awful lot of people in Italy had turned to the USIS sources. It meant a continuing and, in many cases, sustained relationship. Yet USIS Rome never heard a word from Washington about the catalogue or any use made of it. I was left to wonder whether ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 22 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 22 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: I sometimes think Henry was not always aware that he gave different people overlapping assignments. MOCERI: But my point was here, with all the Agency talk about effectiveness was one of the most important evidences of effectiveness. One could have gone to Congress with the material and made an excellent case, because this was a list not only of topics that showed the ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 23 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 23 of Interview with James Moceri

    Another incident involving my relationship with Mrs. Luce may serve as a minor historical or biographical footnote, because I don't think anybody else knows about it. In the same summer of 1955, Mrs. Luce had expressed to me a desire to have a reputable Italian writer do a thoughtful history of her ambassadorship in Italy. I said I thought I could arrange this. Later, ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 24 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 24 of Interview with James Moceri

    He came one day to my office (and subsequently we met in his office) to discuss the possibility of American participation, because he felt that, without American participation, that is, the participation of the leader in atomic energy and possessors of nuclear bombing capability, his conference plan would have no world resonance. I thought, "Well, this is an excellent opportunity for the Eisenhower Administration ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 25 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 25 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: Well, it did not make any difference, but it would have been interesting to find out. If he had reported your disagreement with the consensus of the rest of the people about it, it might have had some effect. I'm just wondering if he ever had the courage to bring it up. MOCERI: I don't know. All I can say, Lew, is that ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 26 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 26 of Interview with James Moceri

    I said to my self, "The people in the American Embassy in Rome have got to be out of their minds. Are they so fearful of the communists that they don't want to be seen in the same arena with them, for goodness sake?" Because, you know, the communist propaganda line was that the communists really created and led the Italian resistance movement. This ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 27 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 27 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: Not only did we deny ourselves, but we also denied ourselves a positive effect on groups that had some kind of kinship with us in their democratic beliefs. Q: That's right. MOCERI: And we could have reinforced them. Q: And, perhaps, had some influence on the communists, through that. MOCERI: Of course, of course. I mentioned earlier that Furio Diaz, the mayor of ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 28 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 28 of Interview with James Moceri

    In 1954 USIS Rome called me to enlist my help in persuading the Ministry of Education to establish a university chair in American history. Rome had tried for two years without any success whatsoever. I reminded Rome that its goal was utterly alien to the Italian academic tradition and would encounter, as they must already have realized, intransigent academic and political resistance. In the ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 29 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 29 of Interview with James Moceri

    In the early fifties Italians were among the most avid devotees of motion pictures in the western world, partly as a momentary refuge from the taxing struggles of daily existence, also as an inexpensive form of entertainment, and finally as an interesting art form. It was a time when private film clubs, sometimes numbering hundreds of members, began to flourish in many of the ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 30 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 30 of Interview with James Moceri

    1) Charles Reed, my first consul general, was an "old China hand" who probably resented having been put out to pasture, however much the pleasures of life in the upper reaches of Florentine society. His normal attitude was one of disdain—and often amused contempt—for anything associated with USIS. When the New York City Ballet made its first trip to Europe in 1953 and appeared ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 31 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 31 of Interview with James Moceri

    Well, so much for my Italian reminiscences. In 1956 I knew that if I remained in the Italian program I could expect nothing more than a third tour of duty as a branch PAO, regardless of Nordness's high regard for my capabilities. I also sensed that there were people in the service who thought of me as a narrow Italian specialist. More importantly, I ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 32 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 32 of Interview with James Moceri

    Finally, the Director of Personnel, L.K. Little, called me in to inform me that I was being offered an overseas assignment that took care of most of my previous objection. The position was that of deputy PAO in Taipei. L.K. Little informed me that the PAO, Ralph Powell, had such extraordinary access to the highest levels of the Chinese Nationalist government that his intelligence ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 33 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 33 of Interview with James Moceri

    Within days of my arrival I had my first intimation of the difficulties I would have to anticipate in carrying out the USIS program in the name of Ralph Powell. He came into my office one day holding in his hand a copy of a routine cable from Washington on a rather minor program matter. He informed me that this was a personal message ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 34 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 34 of Interview with James Moceri

    Perhaps my most important and enduring accomplishment—certainly the most time-consuming—was the design and refurbishing of new USIS facilities, both expanding and increasing the efficiency of our program capabilities. In the wake of the destruction of our USIS offices allegedly by a "rioting mob" just two months after my arrival in Taipei, the Taipei regime eventually ceded to USIS the use of the long-abandoned great ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 35 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 35 of Interview with James Moceri

    Within a very short time the court-martial, open to the public, was convened. A verdict of "not guilty" was brought in. The Americans, the great majority of the public present, rose to their feet and cheered. According to all reports, the few Chinese present maintained a stunned silence. The next day, Black Friday, the Chinese authorities took their revenge or, as I put it ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 36 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 36 of Interview with James Moceri

    I had established, I thought, a good working relationship with him. I had developed respect for the man because he was judicious and calm and, I think most importantly, he knew what the limits of embassy influence really were. He had no illusions on that score. On my final meeting with him, a courtesy call just prior to his departure—I'm jumping ahead, now, chronologically—he ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 37 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 37 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: Oh yes, they did. And that is why the Taiwanese nationalists, who called for the overthrow of the government and so on, all from the safe haven of the Japanese islands, were, I think, off base. Democratic practice cannot be imposed even by an exile movement, because the democratic practice has to have grass roots. It has to be born in the soil ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 38 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 38 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: Well, Ralph Powell's tour came to an abrupt end in 1958, during the Far Eastern Ambassador's Conference, which that year was held in Taipei. George Hellyer came out. Drumright was then the ambassador. The director of the Agency came out. Q: By that time, Larson had probably been replaced? MOCERI: Yes, he'd been replaced. Q: It was George Allen that came out? MOCERI: ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 39 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 39 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: I was made acting PAO. So I functioned with that transitory title for the remainder of my tour because, I think, Drumright may have made it known he wanted eventually to bring in USIS people he knew. And after the Quemoy crisis broke out, he brought in Dick McCarthy on a special detail and John Bottaeff as his deputy. I was phasing out, ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 40 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 40 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: ...foreign government. I'd never heard anything like this in my life. I couldn't believe what I was hearing. And I thought to myself, "Well, this is a consequence of the Dulles-Robertson line. We have to kowtow, in the traditional terms, to representatives of the Chinese Government. Q: What did Ralph Powell say to that, by the way? MOCERI: Nothing. Nothing. Q: Nothing? MOCERI: ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 41 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 41 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: No, he was with the State Department. He was the State Department inspector with the responsibility of inspecting USIS activities in Italy. There was no team. Q: I see. MOCERI: Then later, before leaving Washington for Taipei, a woman in the Office of Personnel suggested I look in my personnel file. That's how I learned about this. I also learned that after I ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 42 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 42 of Interview with James Moceri

    Not very long after that the question of Drumright's appointment as ambassador to Taipei came up. The Chinese Government had given its agr�ment to his appointment, but he made some unfortunate remarks in Hong Kong, before coming to Taipei. Reportedly he had indicated that the Nationalists would not find him the soft touch that Rankin had been. They'd find him very hard to deal ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 43 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 43 of Interview with James Moceri

    You can imagine the acrimony on both sides. And I thought, you know, here was another bitter lesson to me on the problems of getting distasteful information back to Washington. It's a question of reporting—what do you report? Do you report only what the people in Washington want to hear? Or what needs to be known? And I felt my information needed to be ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 44 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 44 of Interview with James Moceri

    So I don't think that the condition holds to the same extent today that it did then. But I, also, encountered situations where you, simply, could not make a recommendation to an ambassador. He would not have it. That was all there was to it. And one of our best PAOs, Willard Hanna, who was in Japan at the time, resigned over that very ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 45 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 45 of Interview with James Moceri

    You know, I considered myself, I believed what I was told when I came into the Agency, "You're available on a worldwide basis." I felt it wasn't up to me to stay in one particular area. I certainly welcomed the prospects of experience in different parts of the world. The problem with that is that you don't build up the ties with a group ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 46 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 46 of Interview with James Moceri

    Well, it got so bad that the blue team just decided, "We're going to finish this." They launched their attack, a nuclear attack, to which my red team responded, the Soviets responded, of course. In the exchange, the Soviet Union practically disappeared, for all practical purposes, from the face of the earth. I happened to be one of the survivors. Also, 100 American cities ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 47 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 47 of Interview with James Moceri

    And I remembered what I told my Italian friends, in 1954, after the fall of Dien Bien Phu. I said, "One day we're going to go in and we're going to have 1,000 times the power of the French. And we're going to commit errors because we're going to show the French how to do it. We're going to commit errors on a scale ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 48 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 48 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: Yes. It was for me a revealing experience, because I came to the conclusion that, for most PAOs, country plans were no more than an exercise in boilerplate language to pacify Washington. For instance, you'd get something from Pakistan that went on interminably about such things as the commonality of cultural interests, heritage and the kind of world we both wanted. Come on, ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 49 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 49 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: Until October 1962. With the Kennedy Administration Tom Sorensen came in as head of IOP. Tom Sorensen, obviously looked on Jim Halsema and me as relics of the Eisenhower Administration. And, I guess, Jim got out—I forget now where he went. Q: Did he go to Cairo then? MOCERI: Yes, he went to Cairo, which I thought was a very good assignment for ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 50 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 50 of Interview with James Moceri

    Over a matter of a couple of weeks I prepared a very lengthy memorandum incorporating some sixteen or eighteen proposals that the new deputy director for IOP ought to consider. Three of the proposals I still recall because I then thought and even now think of them as essential to the proper execution of our Agency's mission: a new Agency magazine, possibly a quarterly, ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 51 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 51 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: Yes. Much later I occasionally wondered whether my proposal for a Problems of Democracy magazine might have been the source of the thinking that led to the establishment of our DIALOGUE magazine under the editorship of Nathan Glick. I deeply regretted the failure to pick up on my proposal concerning foreign students in the United States. Increasingly in my overseas experience I worried ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 52 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 52 of Interview with James Moceri

    It was clear that Tom really didn't want to have me there as his deputy or even as a member of the IOP staff. He brought in Burnett Anderson and I was shunted aside, out of the chain of command, without any assigned responsibility until the end of my two-year tour of duty in Washington when I could readily be shipped out to the ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 53 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 53 of Interview with James Moceri

    It was an interesting experience for me because I came back with certain feelings about this whole process of negotiation with the Soviet Union. I thought we were throwing up a lot of unnecessary roadblocks, for a whole variety of reasons, many of which were not, I thought, sound. It was also clear to me that the Soviets, certainly, would not negotiate anything serious ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 54 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 54 of Interview with James Moceri

    A Public Opinion Poll By Lloyd Free In 1960 Showing Wide Support For Castro Both Rural And Urban Was Ignored By Top US Government Echelons Just Before Bay Of Pigs Fiasco Once again let me backtrack chronologically, because this reference to the exaggeration of the danger posed by Castro takes me back to the antecedents of the Bay of Pigs episode. In October of ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 55 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 55 of Interview with James Moceri

    Shortly after my return from the disarmament conference in Geneva (May 1962) I was instructed to report to the Peace Corps to serve as the public affairs advisor for an international conference that Sargent Shriver wanted organized to focus worldwide attention to the problems of middle-level manpower needs throughout the underdeveloped countries of the world. A foreign service officer from State and I did ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 56 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 56 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: The other tape ended when you said the journalists in Puerto Rico had reported to you the problems they'd had with Lyndon Johnson. MOCERI: Yes, on a previous visit to the island. So I went to the vice president and told him about this in the plainest terms. I suggested it might be very useful if he would meet with the press, allow ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 57 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 57 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: He was in 1962 the desk officer for the Sudan. And he said, "We're perfectly happy with that regime." [It was a military regime.] "We're perfectly happy. We have no problems. You'll have a nice, quiet time there. You won't have to do a thing. You just put in a couple of years. It'll be nice." It wasn't my idea of what I ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 58 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 58 of Interview with James Moceri

    So I went about the business of trying to establish contacts with people, find out what was making this country tick, and so on. Thanks to some of the local staff, I met a number of people and most importantly some who had been senior civil servants trained under the British. Well, one fact I learned that was especially interesting and indicative for me, ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 59 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 59 of Interview with James Moceri

    He read it and he says, "You're right. You should give it to the ambassador." And I figured, well, the ambassador will send it in. The ambassador was William Rountree. And I didn't know, before I went there, that Rountree had been ambassador to Pakistan and had been removed at the insistence of Lyndon Johnson, when Vice President Johnson on his swing through the ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 60 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 60 of Interview with James Moceri

    There had been, I think, a total of a couple stories in the New York Times. Hedrick Smith came up from Cairo to cover the unfolding crisis in the South. I gave him a complete briefing on the southern problem, the problem of Arab-black relations in the Sudan of the missionaries and so forth. [Laughter] He said, "Don't give me so much detail. I ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 61 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 61 of Interview with James Moceri

    But I thought and pointed out to my colleagues, "You know, it's all very methodical. All you have to do is get here at 7:00 and the mobs arrive at 8:00. Then they go off at 3:00. And then you go home. So there's no real danger." But with the curfew, nobody traveled. Yet I went out, for more than a week, every night. ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 62 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 62 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: Well, they did have black heritage... MOCERI: ...in their ancestry, because of the concubines, and so on, and the abuse. In this respect, I had played a really useful role. I had a lot of people out to the house for all kinds of briefings on these particular problems. My time came, and, as I say, I left. To go back to the ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 63 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 63 of Interview with James Moceri

    I should add that, at the end of my first year, before the end of the fiscal year—that was fiscal 1963—I turned back $56,000 to the Agency as unexpended funds. I said, "You withdraw these funds because I can't spend them to good program ends before the close of the fiscal year," which was, I guess, a shock in Washington. Certainly, a shock to ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 64 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 64 of Interview with James Moceri

    I soon discovered that nobody in Washington seemed to think that a thorough briefing on Guinea in the context of US policy interests or of the commitment of USIA resources was important. Trying to find out anything about Conakry, from anyone in Washington, was really a hopeless task. Reflecting later on my Khartoum and Conakry experiences, I have found myself wondering with some amazement ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 65 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 65 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: Who wanted to start an Air Force. [Laughter] MOCERI: Not quite. The Guinean government really wanted a civil aviation capability. So it purchased these two DC-3s with the blessing and backing of the USG. The planes had been fixed up and cleared by the FAA. The ambassador was just delighted. These planes had just arrived only a few days before I did. The ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 66 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 66 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: The ambassador left, about two months after my own arrival. And there was no replacement for more than a year. The DCM, Pierre Graham, became the charg� d'affaires. Some weeks later he turned to me and said, "You know, you have a real feel for these people. You get along. And you understand the situation." This on the basis of many conversations we ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 67 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 67 of Interview with James Moceri

    When Governor Williams lectured him at some length about the extraordinary achievements in economic progress that the Nigerians had brought about through private initiatives, Sekou Tour� warned him that Nigeria was on the verge of a terrible explosion and might well be torn apart by tribal rivalries and hatreds. I had to surmise that Governor Williams was not impressed by Tour�'s forecast. Quite evidently, ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 68 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 68 of Interview with James Moceri

    In terms of USIS activities, there was really not very much that could be done. I had a three-man staff: a cultural affairs officer, information officer, and a public affairs trainee. We had a little library. I tried to promote the Horizons book program. And we got some placement, but I had no illusions because I knew that it was difficult to control. We ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 69 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 69 of Interview with James Moceri

    Within a few days of Graham's departure the Guinean situation had visibly deteriorated to a very disturbing degree. The air seemed electric with nervous tension. Tour� decided to hold an enormous rally and delivered his famous—many Westerners said, his infamous—speech summed up in the phrase "egorger les imperialistes". If he or members of the Bureau Politique were attacked and assassinated at any time, now ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 70 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 70 of Interview with James Moceri

    Not long after this episode one Assistant Director for the African area, Mark Lewis, came out and told me that Frank Shakespeare was furious because I hadn't submitted my monthly activity reports. I became very indignant about this, furious to be honest, because I had been working interminable days and generally late into the night, analyzing, rewriting, reporting and doing all the essential functions ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 71 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 71 of Interview with James Moceri

    Unfortunately, shortly thereafter, the Guinean foreign minister had to go to an all-Africa conference in Addis Ababa, and decided to fly the most convenient way—a Pan Am flight stopping over in Conakry, and going on to Addis. Apparently the Guineans hadn't checked as to what stops the plane made in between. The plane put down in the Ivory Coast at Abidjan. And he [the ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 72 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 72 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: I know they didn't get along, but any particular... MOCERI: No, no particular reason. Apparently Houphouet-Boigny decided he'd get hold of one of these guys and put pressure on Sekou Tour� and so on. Well, then there were waves of anti-imperialism—anti-Western imperialism protests whipped up and so on. So, it was a very, very disagreeable period. This was the time when I first ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 73 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 73 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: The Guinean Ambassador to Washington had returned? MOCERI: The Guinean ambassador. So I said, "This is the only sensible way. For me to go. We've got to be represented." So I took the very junior political officer with me, a fellow named Robert Houdek, who today is charg� at our embassy in Ethiopia. I like to feel that he did learn a few ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 74 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 74 of Interview with James Moceri

    The moment I started down the steps to the stair well, Sekou Tour�, I was told later by the Italian Ambassador, leaned over and talked to his aide. His aide scurried out. I was told he went down to alert the president's personal bodyguards to make sure that I got out and got out safely. By then the whole place was lined with these ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 75 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 75 of Interview with James Moceri

    "The Peace Corps director is gone. But we must also remove all the high-ranking people and heads of agencies around the ambassador. Abolish my position and send me out. Then the next person to go should be the AID director, then the head of the political section, and on down until we leave the ambassador with a staff of five people, simply to represent ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 76 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 76 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: I don't think so, no. I don't think so. And well, things that happened after that. So, in the meantime, here I was, you know, going around interviewing candidates. Then I got a call from Henry Loomis' office. Q: This was what year? MOCERI: Well, 1967, possibly June of that year. And I was asked—Henry said, "We need someone up in the Murrow ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 77 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 77 of Interview with James Moceri

    And Tom told him, "You're getting one of the best officers in the Agency. [Laughter] Whether Tom meant it or not, I don't know. But at any rate, it was very nice of him. So I got off on the right footing. That was enough for Gullion. So I spent two years there, which, in itself, was an interesting assignment. In addition to teaching ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 78 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 78 of Interview with James Moceri

    Gullion submitted my paper as a proposal to the National Endowment for the Humanities. And I forget at this moment who the head of that body was at the time. He was a medieval history man —very good—who found the whole idea very stimulating, from an academic point of view. And I said I felt that, for Fletcher, it would be an important training ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 79 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 79 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: Too much? A Foreign Service officer? What the hell is he talking about? MOCERI: Yes, that's right. I was never invited even to give a lecture in that program once it was set up. It's still going. But it is not at all the sort of thing I had in mind. Well, backtracking a bit, at the end of the first year—see, now ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 80 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 80 of Interview with James Moceri

    Maybe we provided some useful service, but I had my doubts about its importance. After all, the scene of action was Canaveral and NASA headquarters. What people did come in? The journalists that did come were those, I guess, that couldn't get permission or backing to go to the United States. [Laughter] Moceri's Idea Of Getting French Industry Involved In Jointly Funding NASA Space ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 81 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 81 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: She died about 19—oh, it was in the late 70s. I had written her a letter. I hadn't heard from her for some time. And then I got a letter back from Pierre, her husband. All it was, was one line, enclosed by black border, announcing Collette's death. MOCERI: Well, through my assistant, Collette Gaudin, a luncheon was arranged, at one of the ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 82 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 82 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: I know. I got all involved in that. I thought it was the lousiest idea that we ever had. [Laughter] MOCERI: And obviously, there was a breakdown in communications on both sides. I tried to serve as an effective liaison, which meant getting to the Arthur D. Little people to understand what some of the Agency problems were. But, as you know, nothing ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 83 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 83 of Interview with James Moceri

    I still feel that, that kind of independent unit, if you get the right people for it, should be set apart from inspection; apart from the general administrative setup, the lines of command, and so on, and be simply responsive to the front office, with no stake in any kind of a solution. I'll cite only one example: Henry Loomis apparently had read the ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 84 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 84 of Interview with James Moceri

    MOCERI: Yes, but in the sense that he was serving then as Loomis's eyes and ears. And he was intrigued by the approach I adopted and the way we went about tackling the problem. And I think that was the beginning of a genuinely serious analysis of VOA broadcasting requirements and facilities. There had been previous studies, such as Chet Opal's study of VOA, ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 85 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 85 of Interview with James Moceri

    I had also done another VOA study, but that was in 1975, on the use of satellite circuits, in place of our domestic stations, for relaying signals to our overseas bases. Q: Now, what was the date on which you officially retired? MOCERI: April of 1976. Q: Then you were called back in when? MOCERI: In October of '76, and I was given six ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 86 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 86 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: You would have always had an argument with Ed Martin on satellite transmission. MOCERI: The worst problem came from the director of VOA, who... Q: Oh, Ken Giddens? MOCERI: Ken Giddens. When, after my retirement I was called back for a few days of consultation in connection with my study, I learned that there had been even personal attacks in memoranda to the ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 87 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 87 of Interview with James Moceri

    Q: No, that's right. Walter went first to the Center for Strategic International Studies, with headquarters over there in the same building with the International Club, 1800 K Street. MOCERI: So I was appointed—on Walter's recommendation—to the director's position and ran research. I thought it needed a major reorganization, in terms of the focus of research. I wanted it focused on our media activities ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 88 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 88 of Interview with James Moceri

    There I borrowed an idea from Henry Loomis, the politically curious segment of a population. That was the audience that should have interested VOA. Well, and then things like our research on the magazine that the Agency was distributing in Tehran. It was clear, from our research data—in a country where research is difficult to conduct—that over 65% of the mailing list maintained by ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22
  • Page 89 of Interview with James Moceri

    Page 89 of Interview with James Moceri

    Well, it was that kind of research that I felt was really important and really would have an operational utility for our Foreign Service officers in the field. Now, obviously, I had a lot of resistance. [Laughter] I encountered a lot of resistance among our colleagues, PAOs and so on, who began to feel rather uncomfortable with some of these studies. MOCERI: One of ...

    • Contributor: Schmidt, G. Lewis - Moceri, James
    • Original Format: Manuscripts/Mixed Material
    • Date: 1990-05-22