Library of Congress >> MARC >> Authority >> Names and Terms >> X51

X51 - Geographic Names-General Information


MARC 21 Authority
October 2009

"Full" documentation refers to the MARC 21 Format for Authority Data that contains detailed descriptions of every data element, along with examples, input conventions and history sections.
"Concise" documentation refers to the MARC 21 Concise Format for Authority Data that contains abridged descriptions of every data element, along with examples.
151 - Heading - Geographic Name (NR) Full | Concise
451 - See From Tracing - Geographic Name (R) Full | Concise
551 - See Also From Tracing - Geographic Name (R) Full | Concise
751 - Established Heading Linking Entry - Geographic Name (R) Full | Concise
First Indicator
Undefined
# - Undefined

Second Indicator
151/451/551 - Undefined
# - Undefined

751 - Thesaurus
0 - Library of Congress Subject Headings
1 - LC subject headings for children's literature
2 - Medical Subject Headings
3 - National Agricultural Library subject authority file
4 - Source not specified
5 - Canadian Subject Headings
6 - Répertoire de vedettes-matière
7 - Source specified in subfield $2

Subfield Codes
Name portion
$a - Geographic name (NR)

Tracing and linking subfields
$i - Relationship information (R) [451/551]
$w - Control subfield (NR) [451/551/751]
$0 - Record control number (R) [551/751]
$2 - Source of heading or term (NR) [751]
$4 - Relationship code (R) [451/551]
$5 - Institution to which field applies (R) [451/551/751]
$6 - Linkage (NR)
$8 - Field link and sequence number (R)
Subject subdivision portion
$v - Form subdivision (R)
$x - General subdivision (R)
$y - Chronological subdivision (R)
$z - Geographic subdivision (R)

GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS

Content designators identify the subelements occurring in geographic name headings constructed according to generally accepted cataloging and thesaurus-building conventions (e.g., Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2), Library of Congress Subject Headings). Jurisdiction names (including those that are ecclesiastical entities) alone or followed by subject subdivisions are X51 geographic names. A corporate name, a form subheading, a title of a work, and/or a city section name entered under the name of a jurisdiction are contained in the X10 fields. Geographic names used in phrase subject headings (e.g., Iran in the Koran) are contained in the X50 fields. A geographic name that is authorized for use only as a subject subdivision part of an extended subject heading is contained in a 181 (Geographic Subdivision) field.

Only generally-applicable content designators are described in full in this section. A small number of content designators with field-specific instructions are described in the Tracings and References-General Information section (for field 451 and 551) and the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section (for field 751).

INDICATORS

First Indicator - Undefined
Undefined and contains a blank (#).
Second Indicator
In fields 151, 451, and 551, the second indicator position is undefined and contains a blank (#). For field 751, the second indicator position contains one of the values described in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section.

SUBFIELD CODES

$a - Geographic name
Parenthetical qualifying information is not separately subfield coded.
151 ##$aAmazon River
151 ##$aCommunist countries
151 ##$aHalley's comet
151 ##$aInterstate 70
151 ##$aMason and Dixon's Line
151 ##$aHimalaya Mountains
151 ##$aIrrawaddy Division (Burma)
151 ##$aLeesville (S.C.)
151 ##$aPalenque Site (Mexico)
151 ##$aPompeii (Extinct city)
151 ##$aAltamira Cave (Spain)
151 ##$aAntietam National Battlefield (Md.)
151 ##$aGreenwich Village (New York, N.Y.)
151 ##$aKing Ranch (Tex.)
151 ##$aWarm Springs Indian Reservation (Or.)
151 ##$aDelaware Memorial Bridge (Del. and N.J.)
$i - Relationship information [451/551]
Designation of a relationship of the entity in a 451 or 551 field to the 1XX entity in the record or a textual reference instruction phrase than those that may be system-generated from the field tag or from the codes defined for subfield $w (Control subfield). Subfield $i is appropriate only in fields 451 and 551. Guidelines for using subfield $i are provided in the Tracings and References-General Information section.
$v - Form subdivision
Designates a specific kind or genre of material as defined by the thesaurus being used. Subfield $v is appropriate in the X51 fields only when a form subject subdivision is added to a geographic name to form an extended subject heading.
151 ##$aParis (France)$vGuidebooks
151 ##$aRussia$xTerritorial expansion$vMaps, Pictorial
$w - Control subfield [451/551/751]
Codes in one or more character positions defined to control the display of information and specify relationships, restrictions, and status. Subfield $w is appropriate only in field 451, 551, and 751. Character position definitions and guidelines for applying the codes defined for subfield $w in field 451 and 551 are provided in the Tracings and References-General Information section. Character position definitions and guidelines for field 751 are provided in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section.
$x - General subdivision
Subject subdivision that is not more appropriately contained in subfield $v (Form subdivision), subfield $y (Chronological subdivision) or subfield $z (Geographic subdivision). Subfield $x is appropriate in the X51 fields only when a topical or form subject subdivision is added to a geographic name to form an extended subject heading.
151 ##$aTexas$xOfficials and employees$xPayroll deductions
151 ##$aAix-en-Provence (France)$xSocial life and customs
151 ##$aUnited States$xCommerce
$y - Chronological subdivision
Subject subdivision that represents a period of time. Subfield $y is appropriate in the X51 fields only when a chronological subject subdivision is added to a geographic name to form an extended subject heading.
151 ##$aGreece$xHistory$yGeometric period, ca. 900-700 B.C.
151 ##$aUruguay$xHistory$yGreat War, 1843-1852
151 ##$aUnited States$xHistory$yCivil War, 1861-1865$xConscientious objectors
$z - Geographic subdivision
Appropriate in the X51 fields only when a geographic subject subdivision is added to a geographic name to form an extended subject heading.
151 ##$aUnited States$xBoundaries$zCanada
$0 - Record control number [551/751]
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$2 - Source of heading or term [751]
Code that identifies the source of a heading or term when the second indicator position contains value 7. Subfield $2 is appropriate only in field 751. Guidelines for applying subfield $2 are provided in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information sections.
$4 - Relationship code [451/551]
Contains in coded form the designation of a relationship of the entity in a 451 or 551 field to the 1XX entity in the record. Guidelines for using subfield $4 are provided in the Tracings and References-General Information section.
$5 - Institution to which field applies[451/551/751]
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$6 - Linkage
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$8 - Field link and sequence number
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

INPUT CONVENTIONS

Ambiguous Headings - See Appendix D: Ambiguous Headings.
Punctuation - Punctuation of the subelements of a heading is generally dictated by descriptive cataloging or subject heading system/thesaurus rules. These input conventions clarify MARC punctuation practices. An X51 field does not end with a mark of punctuation unless the field ends with an abbreviation, an initialism, or data that ends with a mark of punctuation.
151 ##$aCambridge (Mass.)$xPopulation
151 ##$aEgypt$xHistory$yTo 332 B.C.
151 ##$aUnited States$xEconomic policy$y1981-1993
451 ##$wnnaa$aChino Valley, Ariz.
151 ##$aChina$xHistory$yHan dynasty, 202 B.C.-220 A.D.$vBibliography
Spacing - No spaces are used in initialisms.
151 ##$aWashington (D.C.)
151 ##$aChina$xHistory$yHan dynasty, 202 B.C.-220 A.D.

One space is used between preceding and succeeding initials if an abbreviation consists of more than a single letter.
151 ##$aVienna (W. Va.)
151 ##$aAdelaide Geosyncline(S. Aust.)
151 ##$aUnited States$xForeign relations$y1993-$vPeriodicals
Display Constant
- [dash associated with the content of subfield $v, $x, $y, and $z]
Dash (-) that precedes a subject subdivision in an extended subject heading is not carried in the MARC record. It may be system generated as a display constant associated with the content of subfield $v, $x, $y, and $z.
Content designated field:
151 ##$aUnited States$xBoundaries$zCanada
Display example: 
United States-Boundaries-Canada

CONTENT DESIGNATOR HISTORY

Indicator 2 - Nonfiling characters [151/451/551] [OBSOLETE, 1993]
Values were: 0-9 (Number of nonfiling characters present).

$b - Name following place as entry element [151/451/751] [OBSOLETE, 1987]
City section name entered under the name of a jurisdiction is contained in an X10 field. Records created before this change may contain an X51 field with a subfield $b for this type of name.
$i - Reference instruction phrase [451/551] [REDEFINED, 2009]
$v - Record control number [751] [REDEFINED, 1995] [USMARC only]
$0 - Record control number [551/751] [NEW, 1997]
$3 - Authority record control number [OBSOLETE, 1997] [CAN/MARC only]
$4 - Relationship code [451/551] [NEW, 2009]

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