Library of Congress >> MARC >> Authority >> Names and Terms  >> X81

X81 - Geographic Subdivisions-General Information


MARC 21 Authority
October 2014

"Full" documentation refers to the MARC 21 Format for Authority Data that contains detailed descriptions of every data element, along with examples, input conventions and history sections.

"Concise" documentation refers to the MARC 21 Format for Authority Data that contains abridged descriptions of every data element, along with examples.


First Indicator Second Indicator
Undefined
# - Undefined

181/481/581 - Undefined
# - Undefined

781 - Thesaurus
0 - Library of Congress Subject Headings
1 - LC subject headings for children's literature
2 - Medical Subject Headings
3 - National Agricultural Library subject authority file
4 - Source not specified
5 - Canadian Subject Headings
6 - Répertoire de vedettes-matière
7 - Source specified in subfield $2



Subfield Codes

Subject subdivision portion

  • $v - Form subdivision (R)
  • $x - General subdivision (R)
  • $y - Chronological subdivision (R)
  • $z - Geographic subdivision (R)

Tracing and linking subfields

  • $i - Relationship information (R)   [481/581/781]
  • $w - Control subfield (NR)   [481/581/781]
  • $0 - Authority record control number or standard number (R)   [581/781]
  • $2 - Source of heading or term (NR)   [781]
  • $4 - Relationship code (R)   [481/581/781]
  • $5 - Institution to which field applies (R)   [481/581/781]
  • $6 - Linkage (NR)
  • $8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS

Content designators identify the subelements occurring in geographic subdivision headings constructed according to generally accepted thesaurus-building conventions (e.g., Library of Congress Subject Headings, Medical Subject Headings). A geographic subdivision is used as a subdivision portion of an extended subject or index term access field in bibliographic records. A geographic name that is used as the lead element of an established heading record is contained in a 151 (Heading-Geographic Name) field.

Only generally-applicable content designators are described in full in this section. A small number of content designators with field-specific instructions are described in the Tracings and References-General Information section (for field 481 and 581) and the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section (for field 781).

INDICATORS

First Indicator - Undefined

Undefined and contains a blank (#).

Second Indicator

In fields 181, 481, and 581, the second indicator position is undefined and contains a blank (#). For field 781, the second indicator position contains one of the values described in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section.

SUBFIELD CODES

$i - Relationship information   [481/581/781]

Designation of a relationship of the entity in a 481, 581, or 781 field to the 1XX entity in the record or a textual reference instruction phrase. For fields 481 and 581 the phrase may be system-generated from the field tag or from the codes defined for subfield $w (Control subfield). Subfield $i is appropriate only in fields 481, 581, and 781. Guidelines for using subfield $i in fields 481 and 581 are provided in the Tracings and References-General Information section. Guidelines for using subfield $i in field 781 are provided in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section.

$v - Form subdivision

Designates a specific kind or genre of material as defined by the thesaurus being used. Subfield $v is appropriate in an X81 field only when a form subject subdivision is added to a geographic subdivision to form an extended subdivision heading.

181 ##$zParis (France)$vPhotographs

$w - Control subfield   [481/581/781]

Codes in one or more character positions defined to control the display of information and specify relationships, restrictions, and status. Subfield $w is appropriate only in field 481, 581, and 781. Character position definitions and guidelines for applying the codes defined for subfield $w in field 481 and 581 are provided in the Tracings and References-General Information section. Character position definitions and guidelines for field 781 are in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section.

$x - General subdivision

Topical or language subdivision term. Subfield $x is appropriate in an X81 field only when a general subdivision is added to a geographic subdivision to form an extended subdivision heading.

181 ##$zMississippi$zTippah County$xHistory

$y - Chronological subdivision

Subdivision term that represents a period of time. Subfield $y is appropriate in an X81 field only when a chronological subdivision is added to a geographic subdivision to form an extended subdivision heading.

181 ##$zWashington (D.C.)$y1890-1910
181 ##$zFrance$y18th century

$z - Geographic subdivision

181 ##$zHudson River Valley (N.Y. and N.J.)
181 ##$zUnited States
181 ##$zNew York (State)$zBuffalo
181 ##$zItaly, Southern

$0 - Authority record control number or standard number   [581/781]

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$2 - Source of heading or term   [781]

Code that identifies the source of a heading or term when the second indicator position contains value 7. Subfield $2 is appropriate only in field 781. Guidelines for applying subfield $2 are provided in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section.

$4 - Relationship code   [481/581/781]

Contains in coded form the designation of a relationship of the entity in a 481, 581, or 781 field to the 1XX entity in the record. Guidelines for using subfield $4 in fields 481 and 581 are provided in the Tracings and References-General Information section. Guidelines for using subfield $4 in field 781 are provided in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section.

$5 - Institution to which field applies   [481/581/781]

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$6 - Linkage

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$8 - Field link and sequence number

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.


INPUT CONVENTIONS

Punctuation - Punctuation of the subelements of a heading is generally dictated by subject heading system/thesaurus rules. These input conventions clarify MARC punctuation practices. An X81 field does not end with a mark of punctuation unless the field ends with an abbreviation or data that ends with a mark of punctuation.

181 ##$zMexico$xSocieties, etc.

Spacing - No spaces are used in initialisms.

181 ##$zWashington (D.C.)
181 ##$zHudson River Valley (N.Y. and N.J.)

Display Constant

- [dash associated with the content of subfield $v, $x, $y, and $z]

Dash (-) that precedes a subdivision in an extended heading is not carried in the MARC record. It may be system generated as a display constant associated with the content of subfield $v, $x, $y, and $z.

 
Content designated field:
181 ##$zWashington (D.C.)$y1890-1910
Display example:
Washington (D.C.)-1890-1910

CONTENT DESIGNATOR HISTORY

$i - Reference instruction phrase [481/581] [REDEFINED, 2009]
$i - Relationship information [781] [NEW, 2014]
$0 - Record control number [581/781] [REDEFINED, 2010]
$4 - Relationship code [481/581] [NEW, 2009]
$4 - Relationship code [781] [NEW, 2014]

Library of Congress >> MARC >> Authority >> Names and Terms  >> X81
(10/20/2014)
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