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007 - Sound Recording (R)


MARC 21 Bibliographic - full
April 2014

Indicators and Subfield Codes

Field has no indicators or subfield codes; the data elements are positionally defined.

Character Positions
00 - Category of material
s - Sound recording
01 - Specific material designation
d - Sound disc
e - Cylinder
g - Sound cartridge
i - Sound-track film
q - Roll
s - Sound cassette
t - Sound-tape reel
u - Unspecified
w - Wire recording
z - Other
| - No attempt to code
02 - Undefined
# - Undefined
03 - Speed
a - 16 rpm (discs)
b - 33 1/3 rpm (discs)
c - 45 rpm (discs)
d - 78 rpm (discs)
e - 8 rpm (discs)
f - 1.4 m. per second (discs)
h - 120 rpm (cylinders)
i - 160 rpm (cylinders)
k - 15/16 ips (tapes)
l - 1 7/8 ips (tapes)
m - 3 3/4 ips (tapes)
o - 7 1/2 ips (tapes)
p - 15 ips (tapes)
r - 30 ips (tape)
u - Unknown
z - Other
| - No attempt to code
04 - Configuration of playback channels
m - Monaural
q - Quadraphonic, multichannel, or surround
s - Stereophonic
u - Unknown
z - Other
| - No attempt to code
05 - Groove width/groove pitch
m - Microgroove/fine
n - Not applicable
s - Coarse/standard
u - Unknown
z - Other
| - No attempt to code
06 - Dimensions
a - 3 in. diameter
b - 5 in. diameter
c - 7 in. diameter
d - 10 in. diameter
e - 12 in. diameter
f - 16 in. diameter
g - 4 3/4 in. or 12 cm. diameter
j - 3 7/8 x 2 1/2 in.
n - Not applicable
o - 5 1/4 x 3 7/8 in.
s - 2 3/4 x 4 in.
u - Unknown
z - Other
| - No attempt to code
07 - Tape width
l - 1/8 in.
m - 1/4 in.
n - Not applicable
o - 1/2 in.
p - 1 in.
u - Unknown
z - Other
| - No attempt to code
08 - Tape Configuration
a - Full (1) track
b - Half (2) track
c - Quarter (4) track
d - Eight track
e - Twelve track
f - Sixteen track
n - Not applicable
u - Unknown
z - Other
| - No attempt to code
09 - Kind of disc, cylinder or tape
a - Master tape
b - Tape duplication master
d - Disc master (negative)
i - Instantaneous (recorded on the spot)
m - Mass-produced
n - Not applicable
r - Mother (positive)
s - Stamper (negative)
t - Test pressing
u - Unknown
z - Other
| - No attempt to code
10 - Kind of material
a - Lacquer coating
b - Cellulose nitrate
c - Acetate tape with ferrous oxide
g - Glass with lacquer
i - Aluminum with lacquer
l - Metal
m - Plastic with metal
p - Plastic
r - Paper with lacquer or ferrous oxide
s - Shellac
w - Wax
u - Unknown
z - Other
| - No attempt to code
11 - Kind of cutting
h - Hill-and-dale cutting
l - Lateral or combined cutting
n - Not applicable
u - Unknown
| - No attempt to code
12 - Special playback characteristics
a - NAB standard
b - CCIR standard
c - Dolby-B encoded
d - dbx encoded
e - Digital recording
f - Dolby-A encoded
g - Dolby-C encoded
h - CX encoded
n - Not applicable
u - Unknown
z - Other
| - No attempt to code
13 - Capture and storage technique
a - Acoustical capture, direct storage
b - Direct storage, not acoustical
d - Digital storage
e - Analog electrical storage
u - Unknown
z - Other
| - No attempt to code

FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE

When field 007/00 contains code s, it contains special coded information about the physical characteristics of a sound recording.


GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS

CHARACTER POSITIONS

00 - Category of material
s - Sound recording

One-character alphabetic code that indicates the category of material to which the item belongs is sound recording, which is defined as a disc, tape, film, cylinder, or wire on which sound vibrations have been registered so that the sound may be reproduced, and paper rolls on which the notes of a musical composition are represented by perforations in the paper and from which sound can be mechanically produced. A fill character (|) is not allowed in this position.


01 - Specific material designation

Special class of sound recording to which the item belongs (e.g., a cylinder).

d - Sound disc

Sound discs are thin circular objects that vary in diameter (e.g., 7 in., 10 in., 12 in.), on which sound waves, recorded as modulations or pulses, are incised or indented. Compact audio discs are typically 4 3/4 in. in diameter.

e - Cylinder

Cylinders are cylindrical objects on which sound waves are incised or indented in a continuous circular groove. Mass-produced cylinders are made of plastic. Early cylinders were made of tinfoil or wax.

g - Sound cartridge

Sound cartridges are containers holding a single sound tape, run as an endless loop.

i - Sound-track film

Sound-track film is a sound recording on film that is not intended to accompany visual images. Note: Code i is also to be used when it is not known if a sound recording on film is intended to accompany visual images.

q - Roll

Roll of paper, for example, for player piano or player organ, on which the notes of a musical composition are represented by perforations in the paper and from which sound can be mechanically produced.

s - Sound cassette

Sound cassette is a container holding a narrow, usually 1/8 inch, sound tape on two reels, one to feed (and rewind) and the other to take up the sound tape.

t - Sound-tape reel

Sound-tape reel is usually designated an Open Reel or Reel-to-Reel. It is an audiotape-transport system with separate supply (feed) and take-up reels.

u - Unspecified

Special material designation for the sound recording is not specified.

w - Wire recording

Wire recording is a round steel wire on which sound waves are magnetically recorded.

z - Other

None of the other codes is appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

02 - Undefined

Contains blank (#) or a fill character (|).


03 - Speed

Playback speed of the sound recording.

Speed is associated with the kind of item with which it is associated; either disc (007/01 is code d), cylinder (007/01 is code e), or tape (007/01 is code g, s, or t.)

Codes a, b, c, d, e indicate that the rotational speed of a sound disc is equal to the value of revolutions per minute (RPM) represented by the specific code. Certain speeds are usually associated with the diameter of the disc (e.g., 10 in. discs are played back at 78 rpm, 7 in. discs are played back at 45 rpm, 12 in. discs are played back at 33 1/3 rpm). Playback speed is not absolutely associated with any one disc size.

a - 16 rpm (discs)
b - 33 1/3 rpm (discs)
c - 45 rpm (discs)
d - 78 rpm (discs)
e - 8 rpm (discs)
f - 1.4 m. per second (discs)

Speed is calculated from the distance the playback mechanism covers on the surface of the disc per second, and not the number of revolutions of the disc. It is associated with compact discs (CDs).

h - 120 rpm (cylinders)
i - 160 rpm (cylinders)
k - 15/16 ips (tapes)

Speed occurs, for example, on half-speed mini-cassettes used in small portable recorders.

l - 1 7/8 ips (tapes)

Speed occurs, for example, on standard cassettes.

m - 3 3/4 ips (tapes)

Speed occurs, for example, on consumer and nonprofessional reel-to-reel tapes, cartridges and very unusual cassette tapes.

o - 7 1/2 ips (tapes)

Speed occurs, for example, in reel-to-reel, nonprofessional, and studio tapes.

p - 15 ips (tapes)

Speed occurs, for example, on reel-to-reel, studio tapes.

r - 30 ips (tape)

Speed occurs, for example, on reel-to-reel, studio tapes, but is rarely used.

u - Unknown
z - Other

None of the other codes is appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

04 - Configuration of playback channels

Configuration of playback channels for a sound recording.

Monaural, stereophonic, quadraphonic, and other configuration of playback channels should be coded based on a clear indication of intended playback. These codes do not refer to the configuration of channels orginally recorded, unless those channels are all intended to be available on playback.

m - Monaural

Configured to be played back on one channel.

q - Quadraphonic, multichannel, or surround

Configured to be played back on more than two channels. Use this code for Dolby surround sound tracks and other multichannel techniques.

s - Stereophonic

Configured to be played back on two separate channels.

u - Unknown

Configuration of playback channels is not known.

z - Other

None of the other codes is appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

05 - Groove width/groove pitch

Width of the groove of the recording for discs or the pitch of the groove for cylinders.

m - Microgroove/fine

Microgroove disc or a fine cylinder. Discs issued at 16, 33 1/3, and 45 rpm are usually issued as microgroove. Cylinders issued at 160 rpm (which have 200 grooves per inch) are usually issued as fine.

n - Not applicable

Item does not contain grooves. Used for tapes and compact audio discs.

s - Coarse/standard

Coarse or standard groove. Discs issued at 78 rpm are usually coarse. Cylinders issued at 120 rpm (which have 100 grooves per inch) are usually standard.

u - Unknown

Groove width/groove pitch is not known.

z - Other

None of the other codes is appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

06 - Dimensions

Diameter of an open reel or disc, or the dimensions of a cassette, cartridge, or cylinder.

a - 3 in. diameter
b - 5 in. diameter
c - 7 in. diameter
d - 10 in. diameter
e - 12 in. diameter
f - 16 in. diameter
g - 4 3/4 in. or 12 cm. diameter
j - 3 7/8 x 2 1/2 in.

Height and width of the cassette are 3 7/8 x 2 1/2 in. Used for a standard compact cassette.

n - Not applicable

Sound recording is not a reel, disc, cassette, cartridge, or cylinder.

o - 5 1/4 x 3 7/8 in.

Height and width of the cartridge are 5 1/4 x 3 7/8 in. Used for a standard audio cartridge.

s - 2 3/4 x 4 in.

Dimensions of a cylinder are 2 3/4 in. (diameter) x 4 in. (length).

u - Unknown

Dimensions of the sound recording are not known.

z - Other

None of the other codes is appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

07 - Tape width

Width of the tape.

Cassette implies code l, cartridge implies code m, and tape reel implies code m.

l - 1/8 in.

Most cassettes use 1/8 in. tape.

m - 1/4 in.

Nonprofessional, consumer, and some professional reels, and most 8-track cartridges use 1/4 in. tape.

n - Not applicable

Item is not a tape or does not include a tape. For example, code n is used if the item is a disc.

o - 1/2 in.

Recording studios customarily use 1/2 in. tape. Some 8-track cartridges have been issued in 1/2 in. tape.

p - 1 in.

Recording studios often use 1 inch tape. Some 8-track cartridges have been issued in 1 in. tape.

u - Unknown

Tape width is not known.

z - Other

None of the other codes is appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

08 - Tape Configuration

Number of tracks on a tape.

Cassette implies code c; cartridge implies code d. There is no standard number of tracks for tape reels.

a - Full (1) track

Full or single track.

b - Half (2) track

Half track configuration is used to permit two tracks (channels) to be recorded on one tape. It is used with audio cassettes to permit monoaural recordings in two directions and with stereophonic recordings in one direction.

c - Quarter (4) track

Quarter track configuration is used to permit four tracks (channels) to be recorded on one tape. It is used with standard audio cassettes to permit stereophonic recordings in two directions, and with quadraphonic recordings in one direction.

d - Eight track

Eight track configuration is used with monaural, stereophonic, and quadraphonic recordings. Commercial eight track cartridges customarily include four pairs of stereophonic (two track) recordings.

e - Twelve track

Twelve track configuration is used in professional recording studios to permit separate control of various tracks which are later mixed to produce a stereophonic or quadraphonic recording.

f - Sixteen track

Sixteen track configuration is used in professional recording studios to permit separate control of various tracks which are later mixed to produce a stereophonic or quadraphonic recording.

n - Not applicable

Item is not a tape or does not include a tape. For example, code n is used if the item is a disc.

u - Unknown

Tape configuration is not known.

z - Other

None of the other codes is appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

09 - Kind of disc, cylinder or tape
a - Master tape

Final tape production master that is used to make a disc master or a tape duplication master.

Represents the final mix including special processing such as equalization, compression, phasing, and sound synthesis.

b - Tape duplication master

Sound tape produced from the master tape.

Tape duplication master is played on a tape reproducer to produce the sound tape for cassette, cartridge, or reel.

d - Disc master (negative)

Negative disc master that is used for the preparation of the mother from which more serviceable and longer lasting metal stampers can be made.

In the early years of recording, discs were pressed from the metal-plated disc master or matrix. As commercial recording developed, the disc master was used, and continues to be used, for the preparation of the mother.

i - Instantaneous (recorded on the spot)

Original recording of a sound event or performance intended for direct reproduction without further processing. In the early years of recording, a single sound event was sometimes recorded simultaneously on several cylinders or discs. All of these recordings would be instantaneous.

m - Mass-produced

Includes discs or tapes issued as limited pressing or limited issue for private distribution.

Most commercial discs are mass-produced. Mass-produced discs are mechanically pressed for distribution, either commercially or privately; also, tapes reproduced from a tape duplication master for distribution either commercially or privately.

Mass-produced discs, cylinders, and tapes usually include the name of the issuing company, the issue number, and bibliographic information on a printed label or on the container in which the disc, tape, or cylinder is packaged.

n - Not applicable

Item is not a disc, cylinder, or tape.

r - Mother (positive)

Exact copy of the original disc recording pressed from the disc master. From the metal mother a negative metal stamper is made to press discs for distribution.

Many stampers may be made from a single mother.

s - Stamper (negative)

Negative metal part, produced from the mother in an electroplating procedure, from which 500 to 750 discs may be pressed.

t - Test pressing

Either one finished disc or one of a very limited pressing is made, designed to be examined aurally before a decision is made to proceed with a pressing.

u - Unknown

Type of disc, cylinder, or tape is not known.

Also used when it cannot be determined whether the item is instantaneous or mass-produced.

z - Other

None of the other codes is appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

10 - Kind of material

Kind of material used in the manufacture of sound recordings (both instantaneous and mass-produced).

a - Lacquer coating

Lacquer coated, but the base material on which the lacquer is applied is not identified. To also identify the base, use codes g (Glass with lacquer), i (Aluminum with lacquer) or r (Paper with lacquer or ferrous oxide).

b - Cellulose nitrate

Cellulose nitrate base. This code may be used for items such as memovox discs.

c - Acetate tape with ferrous oxide

Acetate base with a ferrous oxide coating. May include acetate tape and belts, such as magnabelts.

g - Glass with lacquer

Glass disc base with a lacquer coating.

i - Aluminum with lacquer

Aluminum disc base with a lacquer coating.

l - Metal

Made entirely of metal. Includes the earliest cylinders, which were made of tinfoil, and aluminum transcription discs with no coating, as well as wire and metal tape.

m - Plastic with metal

Made of plastic base with a metal coating. The metal part of such an item is often a thin layer applied to the plastic base. Includes compact audio discs (CDs).

p - Plastic

Made entirely of plastic. Also includes mylar, polyester and vinyl materials. Since the 1950s, commercial or mass-produced sound recordings on 16, 33 1/3, and 45 rpm discs, cassettes, and cartridges are made of plastic.

r - Paper with lacquer or ferrous oxide

Paper or cardboard disc, tape, or cylinder base with a lacquer or ferrous oxide coating.

s - Shellac

Made entirely of shellac. Most commercial or mass-produced 78 rpm discs are made of shellac.

w - Wax

Made entirely of wax. Most instantaneous cylinders were made of wax.

u - Unknown

Kind of material used in the manufacture of the item is not known.

z - Other

None of the other codes is appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

11 - Kind of cutting

Kind of cutting of the grooves used on a disc.

Primary use is to identify discs which contain only hill-and-dale information.

h - Hill-and-dale cutting

Vertical cutting, with no lateral information intended for reproduction.

All cylinders and some early discs have this cutting.

l - Lateral or combined cutting

Cutting containing lateral information intended for reproduction. Such discs may also have vertical components intended for reproduction. Most contemporary discs (i.e., all quadraphonic discs and nearly all stereophonic discs) contain both vertical and laterial information and are coded l. Monographic discs are normally lateral only.

n - Not applicable

Item is not a disc or a cylinder.

Compact audio discs are coded n as they are pitted rather than cut.

u - Unknown

Kind of cutting is not known.

| - No attempt to code

12 - Special playback characteristics

Playback characteristics for sound recordings, including special equipment or equalization necessary for proper playback. This code is not used to indicate special processes used during recording unless those processes must be applied during playback.

Codes should be used only if the item in hand includes a clear indication that special playback characteristics are required.

a - NAB standard

National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) standard was used for the transcription of the recording and NAB playback equalization is required.

b - CCIR standard

Comité consultatif de la radiodiffusion (CCIR) standard was used for the transcription of the recording and CCIR playback equalization is required.

c - Dolby-B encoded

Requires Dolby-B decoding playback equipment. Indicated on commercial recordings by the double D insignia (without indication of Dolby-C encoding). If Dolby is used on a tape recording without other indication, Dolby-B may be assumed. Despite the presence of the double-D or "Dolby" on a disc recording, this code is never used for commercial discs.

d - dbx encoded

Used for disc or tape recordings which indicate on the label or package that dbx decoding is required. If descriptive material indicates that dbx was used during recording but that standard playback equipment may be used, this code should not be assigned.

e - Digital recording

Requires digital playback equipment, such as Phillips/Sony Compact Discs or Sony PCM tape recordings. Code e is not used when there is indication that digital equipment was used during recording, but that analog playback equipment may be used. No commercial recordings prior to 1982, and no analog disc or tape recordings require code e.

f - Dolby-A encoded

Requires Dolby-A playback equipment. It is used only for master tapes and other tape recordings where clear indication is given that the professional Dolby-A encoding was applied, and that Dolby-A decoding is required. Dolby-A encoding is never used for commercial tape or discs. (Instantaneous tape recordings labelled "Dolby" without other indication are normally Dolby-B, particularly cassette recordings.)

g - Dolby-C encoded

Requires Dolby-C playback equipment. It is used for tape recordings where the label or packaging clearly indicates that Dolby-C is required. "Dolby" or the double-D symbol without specific explanation normally indicates Dolby-B.

h - CX encoded

Requires CX encoded playback equipment. It is used for recordings where the symbol or mark CX appears. Such recordings may be labelled as compatible with standard playback equipment. No CX recordings will appear with pressing dates prior to 1981.

n - Not applicable

Item does not have special playback characteristics.

u - Unknown

Playback characteristics of the item are not known.

z - Other

None of the other codes is applicable.

| - No attempt to code

13 - Capture and storage technique

How the sound was originally captured and stored. Re-releases of recordings should be coded for the original capture and storage technique, even though such re-releases may have been enhanced using another technique.

a - Acoustical capture, direct storage

Usually a disc or cylinder recording, captured using an acoustical horn and diaphragm and stored directly on a master surface. Most acoustical recordings date from before 1927/29 when electrical recording equipment became available.

b - Direct storage, not acoustical

Disc recordings captured using electrical equipment and stored directly on a master surface. All recordings made with microphones and other electrical equipment prior to the availability of magnetic recording techniques in the late 1940s used direct storage.

Commercial recordings marked "direct to disc" or some equivalent phrase also use this technique.

d - Digital storage

Sound recordings which were captured electrically and stored using digital techniques.

Such recordings are normally identified as "digitally recorded" or some similar phrase on the label or package. "Digital remaster" or "digital mixing" does not imply original digital storage. Note: Digital storage and digital playback should not be confused. The need for digital playback should be recorded in 007/12 (Special playback characteristics).

e - Analog electrical storage

Sound recordings which were captured using electrical techniques and stored as modulations and pulses on a magnetic surface. Most recordings made from the late 1940s until early 1980s are analog electrical recordings.

u - Unknown

Capture and storage technique are not known.

z - Other

None of the other codes is appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

EXAMPLES

007 st#osncmcmnnne
[Item is a sound recording (007/00); released as a sound tape on reel (01); has a speed of 7 1/2 ips (03); with stereophonic sound (04); on a 7 in. reel (06); on 1/4 in. tape (07); is a quarter (4) track tape (08); was mass-produced (09); and analog electrical storage (13).]
007 sd#bsmennmplud
[Item is a sound recording (007/00); released as a sound disc (01); with speed of 33 1/3 rpm (03); is stereo (04); with microgrooves (05); on a 12 in. disc (06); is mass-produced (09); on plastic (10); with lateral cutting (11); any special playback characteristics are unknown (12); and digital capture and storage (13).]
007 ss#lsnjlcnnnuu
[Item is a sound recording (007/00); released as a sound cassette (01); with speed of 1 7/8 ips (03); is stereo (04); has no grooves (05); measures 3 7/8 x 2 1/2 in. (06); tape width is 1/8 in. (07); with quarter (4) track (08); any special playback characteristics are unknown (12); capture and storage technique also unknown (13).]

INPUT CONVENTIONS

Field length - Field 007 for the category of material sound recording currently has 14 character positions defined for it.


CONTENT DESIGNATOR HISTORY

007/01 - Specific material designation

In 1981, the codes were changed to e, i, and q, respectively.

c - Cylinder [OBSOLETE]
f - Sound-track film [OBSOLETE]
r - Roll [OBSOLETE]
007/02 - Original versus reproduction aspect [OBSOLETE, 1997] [USMARC only]

Defined codes were: f (Facsimile), o (Original), r (Reproduction), and u (Unknown).

007/04 - Configuration of playback channels

In 1987, 007/04 was redefined for coding only configuration of playback channels characteristics when 007/13 (Capture and storage technique) was defined for coding how the sound was originally captured and stored. These codes were made obsolete and the qualifier (electric) was removed from codes m, q, and s for 007/04.

a - Acoustic [OBSOLETE]
f - Monaural (digital) [OBSOLETE]
g - Quadraphonic (digital) [OBSOLETE]
j - Stereophonic (digital) [OBSOLETE]
k - Other (digital) [OBSOLETE]
o - Other (electric) [OBSOLETE]
q - Quadraphonic [RENAMED, 2014]
q - Quadraphonic, multichannel, or surround [REDESCRIBED, 2014]
007/07 - Tape width

In 1981, the codes were changed to m, o, and p, respectively.

a - 1/4 in. [OBSOLETE]
b - 1/2 in. [OBSOLETE]
c - 1 in. [OBSOLETE]
007/10 - Kind of material
m - Molded cylinder-mass produced [OBSOLETE, 1981]

Code was made obsolete in 1981 when this characteristic was included in the definition of code p (Plastic).

m - Plastic with metal [NEW, 1986]
n - Not applicable [OBSOLETE, 2002]
a - Lacquered [RENAMED, 2002]
b - Cellulose nitrate [NEW, 2002]
c - Acetate tape with ferrous oxide [NEW, 2002]
g - Glass with lacquer [NEW, 2002]
i - Aluminum with lacquer [NEW, 2002]
r - Paper with lacquer or ferrous oxide [NEW, 2002]
m - Plastic with metal [RENAMED, 2002]
z - Other [NEW, 2002]
007/13 - Capture and storage technique [NEW, 1987]

Prior to the definition of this character position, capture and storage information was contained in 007/04 (Kind of sound) along with configuration. When 007/13 was defined, 007/04 was redefined as Configuration of playback channels. See also 007/04 above.


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(04/28/2014)
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