This document is intended to assist MARC users in deciding how to code records for electronic resources in Leader/06 (Type of record) and Computer Files 008/26 and 006/09 (Type of computer file).
The Leader/06 (Type of record) character position contains a one-character alphabetic code that differentiates MARC 21 records created for various forms of material. The code is primarily used to identify the type of field 008 (Fixed Length Data Element) contained in the record. Since the revision of the definition of code "m" (Computer file) in Leader/06 to narrow its use to a computer file content orientation, users have expressed the need for further guidance in making the decision about coding these elements. This document provides concrete examples of various types of electronic resources with the appropriate MARC coding, i.e., when code "m" is appropriate and when another code should be used based on specific examples.
This list of examples of electronic resources is a work in progress; as users encounter other types of electronic resources that are not included, they are encouraged to submit them to the Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress so that guidance can be provided (email@example.com).
MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data is a new edition of the USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data, reflecting the harmonization of USMARC and CAN/MARC, and as of this writing, is expected to be available in late June 1999. It includes changes approved by the MARC Advisory Committee through January 1999. In the Computer file 008, position 008/26 (006/09) (Type of Computer File) has been rewritten to provide additional guidance on choosing the appropriate codes, particularly in making the distinction between bibliographic data and online systems and services, codes that users have indicated were unclear. See attachment for the full description of this field.
OCLC has provided its users with guidelines on choosing Type and Blvl for electronic resources when creating records on OCLC in the document Cataloging Electronic Resources: OCLC-MARC Coding Guidelines . This document provides guidance in applying the codes in Leader/06 and 008/26 or 006/09 as well as Leader/07 (Bibliographic level).
Instructions for applying the new Leader/06 definitions for coding cartographic materials that are electronic resources (with specific examples) are available in Guidelines for Distinguishing Cartographic Materials on Computer File Carriers from other Materials on Computer File Carriers (January 1998).
The definition of Leader/06 (Type of record) code "m" (Computer file) was revised in June 1997 as a result of Proposal No. 97-3R (http://www.loc.gov/marc/marbi/1997/97-03R.html) to allow for coding electronic resources for the significant aspect of the content, rather than their physical form. The new definition narrows the choice of code "m" to the following classes of electronic resources:
Code "m" is defined as follows in the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data:
m - Computer file
Code m indicates that the content of the record is for the following classes of electronic resources: computer software (including programs, games, fonts), numeric data, computer-oriented multimedia, online systems or services. For these classes of materials, if there is a significant aspect that causes it to fall into another Leader/06 category, code for that significant aspect (e.g., vector data that is cartographic is not coded as numeric but as cartographic). Other classes of electronic resources are coded for their most significant aspect (e.g. language material, graphic, cartographic material, sound, music, moving image). In case of doubt or if the most significant aspect cannot be determined, consider the item a computer file.
Since the choice of code in Leader/06 determines the type of 008, with code m in Leader/06, the 008 is for computer files and 008/26 contains the Type of computer file code. In cases where the resource is not considered a computer file (not code "m" in Leader/06), field 006 may be added with information on computer file aspects, particularly the Type of computer file (006/09). Note that field 007 is mandatory when the physical form of the resource is a computer file, as specified by Proposal No. 97-3R.
2. Questions to consider
Resources with search software
Is the search system incidental to the data?
If yes, code Ldr/06 for the content, e.g. if it is primarily textual, code "a" in Leader/06 and 006/09 code "d".
Example: The English poetry full-text database (a full text database of poetry that includes search software available commercially through Chadwick-Healy and available to members of the Virtual Library of Virginia.): Ldr/06=a and 006/09=d
Are you cataloging the system itself, for example a library system that provides
an interface to numerous databases, where the description is about the system
itself, not the content of the separate databases?
If yes, use Ldr/06 code "m" and 008/26 code "j".
Example: Internet Grateful Med (a search system available from the National Library of Medicine that can be used with multiple databases): Ldr/06=m and 008/26=j.
Is the resource a collection of citations or catalog records with search software
to use them?
If yes, use Ldr/06 code "a" and 006/09 code "e" because it is primarily textual bibliographic data.
Example: Dissertation abstracts online: Ldr/06=a and 006/09=e
Note: presence of a search engine does not mean it is necessarily software and coded in Leader/06 as "m" and in the 008/26 category "d" (Document). If the content is textual, searching enhancements do not make it Ldr/06 code "m" and 008/26 or 006/09 code "j"; rather, it would be coded as textual (Leader/06 is "a" and 006/09 is "e").
Does the resource consist of numeric data that can be manipulated, i.e. a
database of numeric data?
If yes, use Ldr/06 code "m" and 008/26 code "a" (Numeric data).
Is the resource numeric data in tabular form equivalent to a print document?
If yes, use Ldr/06 code "a" and 006/09 code "d" (Document). Example: County and city data book (U.S. Census Bureau data available electronically, which is also available in a printed version): Ldr/06=a and 006/09=d
Is the resource the equivalent of a print item but in electronic form?
If yes, use the same code as if you were cataloging the print. Do not use code j (online system or service) merely to indicate that the resource is remotely accessed (i.e., online). Example: Electronic journal
3. Examples of types of electronic resources
Possible 008/26 (006/09) values
# represents blank (hex 20)
CD-ROM with manipulable numeric data
245 00$a1996 national and state summary data tables $h[computer file]
256 ##$a Computer data and programs
260 ##$a[Washington, D.C.] :$bNational Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Dept. of Education :$b [Supt. Of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., distributor, $c1996.
300 ##$a 1 computer laser optical disc; $c 4 3/4 in.
538 ##$aSystem requirements: Windows, Macintosh, MS-DOS, or Unix computer system; Adobe Acrobat Reader (available on disc); CD-ROM reader.
520 ##$aPresents mathematics and science results from the 1996 NAEP and the 1996 NAEP state assessments.
650 #0$aMathematics$xStudy and teaching$zUnited States$vStatistics.
650 #0$aScience$xStudy and teaching$zUnited States$vStatistics.
650 #0$aEducational surveys$zUnited States
245 00$aCommon core of data (CCD)$h[computer file]$bschool years 1991-92 through 1995-96.
256 ##$aComputer data
260 ##$a[Washington, D.C.?] :$bNational Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Dept. of Education,$c
300 ##$a1 computer laser optical disc ; $c4 3/4 in. + $einstallation guide (21 p. ; 12 cm.)
538 ##$aSystem requirements: IBM PC 386, 486, or equivalent PC (100% IBM compatible); minimum 5.0 MB free for installation, an additional 3.0 MB free to run the CD; Windows version 3.1 or higher; MS-DOS CD-ROM Extensions (MSCDEX version 2.01 or higher, version 2.1 if using DOS 4.0 or higher); color or monochrome monitor (color monitor with EGA or FGA display adaptor recommended); CD-ROM reader with appropriate controller and interface cable.
520 ##$aThe CCD is a comprehensive annual, national statistical database of all elementary and secondary public schools and school districts which contains data that are comparable across all states. This CD-ROM contains five years of CCD data, including approximately 340,000 school records, 83,000 agency records, and 330 state records.
650 #0$aEducation, Elementary $zUnited States$vStatistics
650 #0$aEducation, Secondary$zUnited States$vStatistics
650 #0$aPublic schools$zUnited States$vStatistics$vDatabases
Electronic serial with search software
245 00$aMLA international bibliography $h [computer file].
260 ##$aBronx, N.Y : $b H.W. Wilson,
300 ##$acomputer laser optical discs $c4 3/4 in.
516 ##$aText (periodical article citations)
538 ##$aMode of access: World Wide Web and Innovative Interfaces search software.
520 ##$aDatabase of citations to critical documents on folklore, language, linguistics and literature, including articles from journals, monographs, collections and reference works. Updated by the online version available through Wilson.
580 ##$aCD-ROM edition of: MLA international bibliography of books and articles on the modern languages and literatures (Library ed.)
650 #0$aLanguages, Modern $vBibliography$vPeriodicals
650 #0$a Literature $x History and criticism $vBibliography$vPeriodicals
Census in textual form in CD-ROM or online
245 00$aCounty business patterns, United States.
260 ##$aWashington, D.C. :$bU.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census :$bFor sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.,
300 ##$av. :$bill. ;$c28 cm.
530 ##$aAvailable on microfiche.
530 ##$aSome issues also available via Internet (PDF file only)
580 ##$aData also included in CD-ROM publication: County business patterns.
650 #0$aIndustries$zUnited States$vStatistics$vPeriodicals.
856 41$uhttp://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS547$zScroll down to "United States" and click on desired issue
856 41$uhttp://www.census.gov/prod/www/abs/cbptotal.html$zScroll down to "United States" and click on desired issue
Online system with multiple databases
245 00$aInternet Grateful Med $h [computer file].
250 ##$aVersion 2.3.
256 ##$Computer data.
260 ##$Bethesda, Md. : $b National Library of Medicine, $c 1997-
500 ##$a"The program offers assisted searching in MEDLINE and other MEDLARS databases."
500 ##$aDatabases searchable: AIDSDRUGS, AIDSLINE, AIDSTRIALS, DIRLINE, HealthSTAR, HISTLINE, HSRPROJ, MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, PREMEDLINE, SDILINE.
538 ##$aMode of access: Internet.
530 ##$aIndividual databases available in other formats, i.e., MEDLINE is available in paper as Index medicus, cumulated annually as Cumulated index medicus; in CD-ROM format and online through several services.
650 #0$aAIDS (Disease)$vDatabases.
650 #0$aPublic health$vDatabases.
650 #0$aMEDLARS$x Information services.
245 00$aAmerican imago $h[computer file]
260 ##$aBaltimore, MD :$bJohns Hopkins University Press,$cc1995-
516 ##$aText (electronic journal)
530 ##$aAvailable also in a print ed.
538 ##$aMode of access: Internet via World Wide Web.
550 ##$aDigitized and made available by: Project Muse.
650 #0$aPsychoanalysis and culture$xPeriodicals
856 40$uhttp://www.ref.oclc.org:2000 $zAddress for accessing the journal using authorization number and password through OCLC FirstSearch Electronic Collections Online
008/26 - Type of computer file (006/09)
A one-character alphabetic code indicates the type of electronic resource being described. The specific type of electronic resource is also described in textual form in field 516 (Type of Computer File or Data Note). A fill character (|) is used when no attempt has been made to code this 008 position.
a - Numeric data
Code a indicates an electronic resource that contains mostly numbers or representation by numbers, such as records containing all information on student test scores, all information on football team statistics, etc. The information may be original surveys and/or information that has been summarized or statistically manipulated.
516 $aNumeric data
b - Computer program
Code b indicates an electronic resource containing an ordered set of instructions directing the computer to perform basic operations and identifying the information and mechanisms required. This category includes videogames and microcomputer software and computer models. Some types of computer programs (e.g., game, font) are identified by separate codes in this character position.
516 $aComputer programs
c - Representational
Code c indicates an electronic resource that contains pictorial graphic data that can be manipulated in conjunction with other types of files to produce graphic patterns that can be used to interpret and give meaning to the information. It does not include a document in image format.
516 $aGraphic data (Architectural drawings)
d - Document
Code d indicates an electronic resource that is textual, containing mostly of alphabetic information (words or sentences) converted into a coded format that can be processed, sorted, and manipulated by machine, and then retrieved in many optional formats. It includes language material intended to constitute a textual document, whether represented as ASCII or image data. It includes both single bibliographic entities or a collection of bibliographic entities. Documents whose primary purpose is textual, even if search software is present, are coded here.
516 $aText (Law reports and digests)
e - Bibliographic data
Code e indicates that an electronic resource consists of data with bibliographic citations. This includes data from library catalogs or citation databases. The data may be in a structured or unstructured form. Search software may be present, but the purpose of the record is description of the content of the bibliographic data or database, rather than description of the online system or service.
516 $aLibrary catalog
f - Font
Code f indicates that an electronic resource contains information for a computer to produce fonts.
516 $aFonts (Bitmapped and PostScript)
g - Game
Code g indicates that an electronic resource is a game, intended for recreational or educational use. Generally games consist of text and software. A videogame is included here.
516 $aComputer game
h - Sounds
Code h indicates that the file consists of data encoding sounds producible by the computer.
516 $aAudio data (Digital audio file)
i - Interactive multimedia
Code i indicates that the electronic resource described by the record supports navigation through and manipulation of many kinds of media (i.e., audio, video, etc.). Interactive multimedia usually gives the user a high level of control, often allowing almost conversational interaction with the computer and data.
j - Online system or service
Code j indicates that the record is for an online system or service and may contain nonbibliographic information. An online system or service supports system-based user interaction. If the focus of the record is to describe the system itself, with the content of the databases incidental contained therein, it is coded here. If the resource is an online file where the system is incidental to the description, it falls into another category. Examples of online systems or services are: online library systems (consisting of a variety of databases), FTP sites, electronic bulletin boards, network information centers.
516 $aCampus-wide information system
m - Combination
Code m is used when the item is a combination of two or more of the above types of files.
516 $aComputer programs and text files
u - Unknown
Code u indicates that the type of file is unknown.
z - Other
Code z indicates a type of file for which none of the other defined codes are appropriate.
516 $aMailing list