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MARC PROPOSAL NO. 2017-09

DATE: May 16, 2017
REVISED:

NAME: Defining Field 758 (Resource Identifier) in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format

SOURCE: PCC Task Group on URIs in MARC, Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC)

SUMMARY: This paper proposes establishing a new field 758 in the MARC 21 Bibliographic format to identify related resources.

KEYWORDS: Field 758 (BD); Resource Identifier (BD)

RELATED: 2017-DP02

STATUS/COMMENTS:
05/16/17 – Made available to the MARC community for discussion.

06/24/17 – Results of MARC Advisory Committee discussion: Approved, with the amendment that subfield $1 will be added to field 758; the first sentence of subfield $a will be amended to read “An identifier for a resource that is either the resource described in the bibliographic record or a resource to which it is related.” It was noted that, while the inclusion of an explicit relationship in field 758 may be desirable, the MARC formats do not mandate the use of specific subfields in field definitions; the application of field 758 would need to be developed as a matter of best practice by the community.

08/07/17 - Results of MARC Steering Group review - Agreed with the MAC decision.


Proposal No. 2017-09: Defining Field 758 (Resource Identifier)

1. BACKGROUND

This proposal originates from MARC Discussion Paper 2017-DP02 and forms part of a series of discussion papers and proposals from the PCC URI Task Group, the British Library, the German National Library, and a number of other stakeholders seeking to expand MARC support for linked data identifiers. In the view of these stakeholders this support is necessary as part of a migration path for libraries to build linked data into their metadata production processes.

2017-DP02 presented a case for defining a new MARC field in the Bibliographic and Authority formats for works represented primarily by an identifier rather than an authorized access point or other title construction. Examples of such identifiers include OCLC work entity and Wikidata URIs. At its Midwinter 2017 meeting, the MARC Advisory Committee (MAC) agreed that a new field for this purpose was desirable, while raising a number of issues surrounding the label and definition of the field, differences between the Authority and Bibliographic formats, and specific provisions for subfielding. The present document presents a proposal for a new 758 field in the Bibliographic format along the lines described in 2017-DP02, taking into account feedback from the Midwinter 2017 discussion. Specific responses to the points raised are detailed in the Discussion section below. 

2. DISCUSSION

The present proposal covers the Bibliographic format. 2017-DP02 identified the ability to link bibliographic descriptions to work or resource entities as a significant gap in MARC and this proposal addresses it. 2017-DP02 also presented use cases for coding mapping relationships in authority 758. This use of an Authority 758 field is potentially very powerful but raises several issues that go beyond the definition of 758 in the Bibliographic format. The PCC URI Task Group will therefore present a proposal for a resource identifier field in the Authority format at a later date.

There was some discussion at the Midwinter meeting about whether 758 was limited to FRBR works, or whether other entities such as FRBR expressions also fell within the scope of the field. It may be worth stressing that 758 was not intended to be restricted to FRBR implementations - any more than MARC itself is - and therefore the word “work” in the original 2017-DP02 label was not intended to reserve the field for FRBR work entities. In this proposal we have accordingly amended the label to use the more neutral word “resource.”

The present proposal simplifies the provisions outlined in 2017-DP02 in several respects. In 2017-DP02 the label given for 758 was “Related Work Identifier”. In the interests of consistency with labelling for the 70X-75X added entry and 76X-78X linking entry blocks, the word “related” has been dropped from the field label in this proposal. Whether in 70X-75X, in 758, or in 76X-78X, all entities identified in these fields are related to the one described in the bibliographic record, so the additional word is unnecessary.

The subfielding for labels has also been simplified. 2017-DP02 included separate subfields for name and title elements in the label. Feedback from MAC suggested that it is not critical to express this distinction in the context of a field that emphasizes the identifier over the label, and doing so is likely to complicate implementation. This proposal provides for just a single subfield for the label.

Other subfields $i, $3, $4, $5, $6 and $8 are retained for consistency with the 70X-75X added entry and 76X-78X linking entry blocks. We envisage 758 supporting the inclusion of relationship, materials specified, institution, and potentially linkage and sequencing data similar to that given in added entry and linking entry fields. Support for additional data of this kind, along with a label, allows 758 more flexibility and expressiveness than other options that are available for providing related identifiers, such as the 024 field (Other Standard Identifier).

Most of the examples below illustrate 758 showing primary relationships, which are the core use case for which this field has been proposed. As with added entry and linking entry fields, however, a wide variety of relationships can be accommodated in $i and $4. Some of these (along with a possible use of materials specified in $3) are illustrated in section 5 of the examples. These examples raise a structural issue for the MARC Bibliographic format, however.  To put the issue in linked data terms, although the predicate and the object of the assertion can be given unambiguously, the subject currently cannot, and the intended subject may vary depending on the assertion. If the MARC Advisory Committee feels this issue to be problematical, an option may be to restrict the use of 758 to primary relationships at the present time. It may be noted, however, that the indeterminacy of the subject of a MARC record is a pervasive issue in the Bibliographic format and is not confined to 758. It may be noted also that the examples illustrate potential uses and not necessarily what user communities will eventually adopt as best practice.

The present proposal retains the existing definition of $0. If MARC Proposal No. 2017-08 distinguishing authority and real world URIs is approved, with $1 defined for the latter, that change would affect 758 as it would all other fields where $0 is currently defined. The effect of proposal 2017-08 is shown in example set 4.6.

3. PROPOSAL

Define a new field 758 in the Bibliographic format as follows:

Field Definition and Scope
An identifier for a resource related to the resource described in the bibliographic record. Resources thus identified may include, but are not limited to, FRBR works, expressions, manifestations, and items. The field does not prescribe a particular content standard or data model.

In addition to the identifier in $0, other contextualizing information may be given to support indexing, machine processing, or human readability. Such information may include the associated label, materials specified, an explicit statement of the relationship, or the applicable institution.

The subfields are defined to match their counterparts in the 7XX added entry and 76X-78X linking entry field blocks. The proposal also includes a subfield not previously defined elsewhere in MARC:

$a - Label (NR)
A name, title or other human-readable designation for a resource. This subfield serves a purpose similar to properties such as rdfs:label or skos:prefLabel and may be mapped to them. The corresponding standard number or identifier, if available, is given in $0.

4. EXAMPLES

4.1. Field 758 with authority control number or (non-URI) standard number, no label given:

245 10 $a Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix / $c J.K. Rowling.
250 ## $a Large print edition.
758 ## $0 (viaf)270596747 

130 0# $a Beowulf. $l Hebrew.
245 10 $a Beyoṿolf / $c targum u-mevoʼot Aryeh Setaṿ.
758 ## $0 (viaf)316753795

130 0# $a Shichinin no samurai (Motion picture)
245 10 $a Seven samurai / $c Janus Films ; Toho Co., Ltd. ; produced by Sojiro Motoki ; screenplay by Akira Kurosawa, Shinobu Hashimoto, Hideo Oguni ; directed by Akira Kurosawa.
758 ## $0 (imdb)tt0047478
758 ## $0 (allmovie)v43855

100 1# $a Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, $d 1756-1791.
240 10 $a Nozze di Figaro
245 13 $a Le nozze di  Figaro = $b The marriage of Figaro = Die Hochzeit des Figaro : opera, K. 492 / $c libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte ; [music by] Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
758 ## $0 (musicb)8c6d8c96-bb80-4d9d-9fda-96852e10af60
758 ## $0 (allmusic)mc0002367338
758 ## $0 (gnd)300109849

4.2. Field 758 with URI, no label given:

245 10 $a Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix / $c J.K. Rowling.
250 ## $a Large print edition.
758 ## $0 http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/3779222179  

130 0# $a Beowulf. $l Hebrew.
245 10 $a Beyoṿolf / $c targum u-mevoʼot Aryeh Setaṿ.
758 ## $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q48328

130 0# $a Shichinin no samurai (Motion picture)
245 10 $a Seven samurai / $c Janus Films ; Toho Co., Ltd. ; produced by Sojiro Motoki ; screenplay by Akira Kurosawa, Shinobu Hashimoto, Hideo Oguni ; directed by Akira Kurosawa.
758 ## $0 http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/1081573840
758 ## $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q189540
758 ## $0 ja.dbpedia.org/resource/七人の侍

100 1# $a Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, $d 1756-1791.
240 10 $a Nozze di Figaro
245 13 $a Le nozze di  Figaro = $b The marriage of Figaro = Die Hochzeit des Figaro : opera, K. 492 / $c libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte ; [music by] Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
758 ## $0 http://d-nb.info/gnd/300109849
758 ## $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q201873

4.3. Field 758 with URI, label given:

245 10 $a Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix / $c J.K. Rowling.
250 ## $a Large print edition.
758 ## $a Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix $0 https://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q80817

130 0# $a Beowulf. $l Hebrew.
245 10 $a Beyoṿolf / $c targum u-mevoʼot Aryeh Setaṿ.
758 ## $a Beowulf $0 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Beowulf

130 0# $a Shichinin no samurai (Motion picture)
245 10 $a Seven samurai / $c Janus Films ; Toho Co., Ltd. ; produced by Sojiro Motoki ; screenplay by Akira Kurosawa, Shinobu Hashimoto, Hideo Oguni ; directed by Akira Kurosawa.
758 ## $a Seven samurai $0 http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/1081573840
758 ## $a Seven Samurai $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q189540
758 ## $a 七人の侍 $0 ja.dbpedia.org/resource/七人の侍

245 10 $a Linked data for libraries, archives and museums :$b how to clean, link and publish your metadata /$c Seth van Hooland and Ruben Verborgh.
758 ## $a Linked data for libraries, archives and museums $0 http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/1840249565

100 1# $a Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, $d 1756-1791.
240 10 $a Nozze di Figaro
245 13 $a Le nozze di  Figaro = $b The marriage of Figaro = Die Hochzeit des Figaro : opera, K. 492 / $c libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte ; [music by] Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
758 ## $a Le nozze di Figaro $0 http://d-nb.info/gnd/300109849
758 ## #a The Marriage of Figaro $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q201873

4.4. Field 758 with URIs and labels, primary relationships explicitly given:

245 10 $a Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix / $c J.K. Rowling.
250 ## $a Large print edition.
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix $0 https://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q80817

130 0# $a Beowulf. $l Hebrew.
245 10 $a Beyoṿolf / $c targum u-mevoʼot Aryeh Setaṿ.
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Beowulf $0 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Beowulf

130 0# $a Shichinin no samurai (Motion picture)
245 10 $a Seven samurai / $c Janus Films ; Toho Co., Ltd. ; produced by Sojiro Motoki ; screenplay by Akira Kurosawa, Shinobu Hashimoto, Hideo Oguni ; directed by Akira Kurosawa.
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Seven samurai $0 http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/1081573840
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Seven Samurai $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q189540
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a 七人の侍 $0 ja.dbpedia.org/resource/七人の侍

100 1# $a Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, $d 1756-1791.
240 10 $a Nozze di Figaro
245 13 $a Le nozze di  Figaro = $b The marriage of Figaro = Die Hochzeit des Figaro : opera, K. 492 / $c libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte ; [music by] Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Le nozze di Figaro $0 http://d-nb.info/gnd/300109849
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a The Marriage of Figaro $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q201873

245 10 $a Linked data for libraries, archives and museums :$b how to clean, link and publish your metadata /$c Seth van Hooland and Ruben Verborgh.
758 ## $4 http://bibframe.org/vocab/instanceOf  $i Instance of: $a Linked data for libraries, archives and museums $0 http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/1840249565

4.5. Field 758 with URIs and labels, materials specified and primary and other relationships explicitly given:

100 1# $a Beard, Henry.
245 10 $a Bored of the rings : $b a parody of J.R.R. Tolkien's The lord of the rings / $c by Henry N. Beard and Douglas C. Kenney of The Harvard lampoon.
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Bored of the Rings $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q1613936
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/w/P10197 $i Parody of (work): $a Lord of the rings (Tolkien, J. R. R.) $0 http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1356106

100 1# $a Dyck, Andrew R. $q (Andrew Roy), $d 1947-
245 12 $a A commentary on Cicero, De legibus / $c Andrew R. Dyck.
600 10 $a Cicero, Marcus Tullius. $t De legibus.
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/w/P10187 $i Commentary on (work): $a De Legibus $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q1180701

100 1# $a Bose, Sudip.
245 10 $a The sound of silence : $b Jean Sibelius and the symphony that never was / $c Sudip Bose.
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60298 $i Commentary on: $a Symphony No. 8 $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q2872542

100 1# $a Wilson, August.
240 10 $a Plays. $k Selections
245 10 $a Three plays / $c August Wilson.
505 0# $a Ma Rainey’s black bottom -- Fences -- Joe Turner’s come and gone.
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Wilson, August. | Plays. Selections $0 http://viaf.org/viaf/185157512
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Three plays $0 http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/198068922
758 ## $3 Ma Rainey’s black bottom $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q6720803
758 ## $3 Ma Rainey’s black bottom $0 http://viaf.org/viaf/208721107
758 ## $3 Fences $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q5442998
758 ## $3 Fences $0 http://viaf.org/viaf/198566585
758 ## $3 Joe Turner’s come and gone $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q6212738
758 ## $3 Joe Turner’s come and gone $0 http://viaf.org/viaf/310236788

100 1# $a Wilson, August.
240 10 $a Plays. $k Selections
245 10 $a Three plays / $c August Wilson.
505 0# $a Ma Rainey’s black bottom -- Fences -- Joe Turner’s come and gone.
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Wilson, August. | Plays. Selections $0 http://viaf.org/viaf/185157512
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Three plays $0 http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/198068922
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/w/P10147 $i Is container of (work): $a Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q6720803
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/w/P10147 $i Is container of (work): $a Wilson, August. | Ma Rainey’s black bottom $0 http://viaf.org/viaf/208721107
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/w/P10147 $i Is container of (work): $a Fences $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q5442998
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/w/P10147 $i Is container of (work): $a Wilson, August. | Fences $0 http://viaf.org/viaf/198566585
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/w/P10147 $i Is container of (work): $a Joe Turner’s Come and Gone $0 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q6212738

4.6. Field 758 with URIs and labels, materials specified and primary and other relationships explicitly given; application of distinction between $1 and $0 from MARC Proposal No. 2017-08 shown.

In the examples in this section $1 is used for the wikidata and ja.dbpedia URIs because these sources model their entities as RWOs. The id.loc.gov/authorities/names URIs are modeled as skos:Concept and mads:Authority.  Examples with $1 can be parsed as assertions about the RWO, while examples with only a $0 would require an additional URI for the RWO to be minted or found in an external data source when converting to RDF.

100 1# $a Beard, Henry.
245 10 $a Bored of the rings : $b a parody of J.R.R. Tolkien's The lord of the rings / $c by Henry N. Beard and Douglas C. Kenney of The Harvard lampoon.
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Bored of the Rings $1 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q1613936
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/w/P10197 $i Parody of (work): $a Lord of the rings (Tolkien, J. R. R.) $0 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/no97079452

100 1# $a Dyck, Andrew R. $q (Andrew Roy), $d 1947-
245 12 $a A commentary on Cicero, De legibus / $c Andrew R. Dyck.
600 10 $a Cicero, Marcus Tullius. $t De legibus.
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/w/P10187 $i Commentary on (work): $a De Legibus $1 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q1180701

130 0# $a Shichinin no samurai (Motion picture)
245 10 $a Seven samurai / $c Janus Films ; Toho Co., Ltd. ; produced by Sojiro Motoki ; screenplay by Akira Kurosawa, Shinobu Hashimoto, Hideo Oguni ; directed by Akira Kurosawa.
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Seven Samurai $1 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q189540
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a 七人の侍 $1 ja.dbpedia.org/resource/七人の侍
758 ## $4 http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/m/P30135 $i Has work manifested: $a Shichinin no samurai (Motion picture) $0 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/nr94001287

5. BIBFRAME DISCUSSION

Relating bibliographic descriptions to the appropriate work or other resource entities is a major challenge in transforming MARC bibliographic data to linked data. Recording the URI for a related resource in a MARC record makes the URI available for inclusion in an RDF statement as the object when the MARC record is transformed into a linked data representation. Where a URI is not available, a non-URI identifier can still be valuable for correct reconciliation of the data.

6. SUMMARY OF PROPOSED CHANGES

In the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format, define the following field described in Section 3 above:

758 - Resource Identifier (R)


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