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MARC PROPOSAL NO. 2018-03

DATE: May 25, 2018
REVISED:

NAME: Defining New Fields to Record Accessibility Content in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format

SOURCE: Canadian Committee on Metadata Exchange (CCM), Online Audiovisual Catalogers (OLAC)

SUMMARY: This proposal presents options for recording the RDA data element Accessibility Content (7.14) in the MARC 21 Bibliographic format.

KEYWORDS: Field 341 (BD); Accessibility content (BD); Field 532 (BD); Accessibility note (BD); Assistive technology (BD); Accessibility (BD); Discovery-enabled (BD); EPUB (BD); Inclusive publishing (BD)

RELATED: 2017-11; 2017-DP03; 2018-02; 2018-DP02

STATUS/COMMENTS:
05/25/18 – Made available to the MARC community for discussion.

06/23/18 – Results of MARC Advisory Committee discussion: Approved, with the following amendments: 1) Remove $0/$1 from field 341; 2) Add $8 to both fields; 3) Modify 1st indicator value 2 for field 532 from "Accessibility hazards" to "Accessibility deficiencies" (with corresponding examples).

08/17/18 - Results of MARC Steering Group review - Agreed with the MAC decision.


Proposal No. 2018-03: Defining New Fields to Record Accessibility Content

1. BACKGROUND

As assistive technologies have evolved, providing alternative access to content in a variety of formats, the ability to accommodate accessibility metadata in MARC 21 has not kept pace. Existing content designation for recording information on accessibility features is currently dispersed throughout the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format in the following fields: 007 Category of material ‘f” Tactile Material (00 - Category of material; 01 - Specific material designation; 02 - Undefined; 03-04 - Class of braille writing; 05 - Level of contraction; 06-08 - Braille music format ; 09 - Special physical characteristics);  008 (Fixed-Length Data Elements), Form of item values ‘d’( Large print) and ‘f’ (Braille); 300 (Physical Description); 500 (General Note); 538 (System Details Note); 546 (Language Note); 650 (Subject Added Entry - Topical Term); and 655 (Index Term-Genre/Form).

Other metadata encoding schemes such as schema.org are developing vocabularies to describe accessible content on the web. W3C has developed standards for providing accessible content and describing that content. The new EPUB3 standard currently under development includes metadata rating conformance to accessibility standards (http://www.idpf.org/epub/a11y/accessibility.html). It is expected that EPUB3 will replace the DAISY format. This paper has modeled its approach on these standards in an effort to align the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format with these other encoding schemes.

This proposal defines two new fields: 341 (Accessibility Content), a machine-actionable field  to indicate accessibility features and/or assistive technology provided for a resource, or parts of a resource, for example, embedded video, audio, text, in an electronic resource; and 532 (Accessibility Note), a free text field for recording a human-readable summary of the accessibility features or deficiencies of a resource.

This proposal was originally submitted for consideration by the MARC Advisory Committee (MAC) in June 2017 and is now being re-submitted following recommendations from MAC to rework the proposal.

2. DISCUSSION

Resource Description and Access (RDA) 7.14.1.3 Recording Accessibility Content instructs us to “[r]ecord information about the accessibility content if the information is evident from the resource or is readily available from another source.” Accessibility content is defined at 7.14.1.1 as “An indication of content that provides alternative sensory modes to perceive the primary content of a resource. Accessibility content includes accessible labels, audio description, captioning, image description, sign language, and subtitles. Accessibility content does not include subtitles in a language different from the spoken content.”

Human interaction with the content of information resources, whether physical or electronic, is limited to four ‘modes’ – textual, visual, auditory, and tactile. In this context, the textual mode refers to written text only; the visual mode refers to non-textual content which is accessed by sight. These modes are utilized by schema.org in their pending accessMode property (https://pending.schema.org/accessMode), and are included in the new EPUB3 specifications (http://www.idpf.org/epub/a11y/techniques/techniques.html#sec-meta-001) which are based on practices developed by W3C for authoring accessible web content. It might be advisable to align some of our vocabulary with schema.org and W3C and these modes do tie-in with Field 336 (Content Type) values, except for those values relating to computers, which should not be an issue as we are focusing on direct human interaction.

For resource users who to varying degrees cannot access content via these modes, assistive technologies and other accessibility features have been developed using one or more of the modes to provide alternative access. Alternatives to the textual mode can be provided using the tactile mode (Braille), auditory mode (Described Video or audiobooks), visual mode (pictograms) or even the original textual mode (large print, or black and white).

Due to the variety of accessibility issues, accessibility features, and the degree to which features have been implemented in a given resource, we determined that there was no place in the fixed fields to record sufficient data for users to make decisions about the suitability of a resource.

As a resource may contain content accessed using more than one mode as defined above, we deemed it necessary to add a new repeatable field, 341 (Accessibility Content), that would identify the required mode(s) and record the accessibility feature(s) and the alternative mode(s) used by the feature. Subfield $a would provide a place to record the primary mode required to access content. Subfields ($b-$e), specific to the alternative mode(s) used to provide access, would provide a place to record the accessibility feature or assistive technology provided by the resource. Subfield $3 would permit one to specify which part of the described materials to which the field applied, subfield $0 would allow one to record an authority record control number or standard number, and subfield $1 would allow one to record a Real World Object URI. We suggest a thesaurus such as the W3C WebSchemas/Accessibility vocabulary (https://www.w3.org/wiki/WebSchemas/Accessibility) be used to provide a controlled vocabulary for subfields $b-$e. The 34X range was chosen as it contains other formatted fields containing technical details.

The authors of this proposal would like to emphasize that field 341 has been proposed to accommodate description of “content that provides alternative sensory modes to perceive the primary content of a resource” as instructed in RDA 7.14.1.1. The proposed field has not been conceived for the description of resources in which the primary mode of access is inherently accessible or assistive. For example, braille or large print resources are inherently accessible through the primary mode for which they were produced, tactile and textual, respectively. No additional features are required to access a braille resource in tactile mode, or a large print resource in textual mode. Moreover, MARC coding already exists to describe these resources (for example, 007 Category of material ‘f” Tactile Material (00 - Category of material; 01 - Specific material designation; 02 - Undefined; 03-04 - Class of braille writing; 05 - Level of contraction; 06-08 - Braille music format ; 09 - Special physical characteristics);  008 (Fixed-Length Data Elements), Form of item values ‘d’( Large print) and ‘f’ (Braille)). Braille and large print examples illustrating the proposed use of 341 presented in the original proposal have been removed or reworked to demonstrate possible uses of the proposed 532 field.

In addition to a machine-actionable field, we thought it necessary to provide the free text note field 532 (Accessibility Note) for a human-readable summary of the accessibility features or deficiencies of resources as well as to record technical data not available in the prescribed vocabulary for 341 $b-$e. Data recorded in this free text field will also be screen-reader friendly.

Field 532 is designed to be an all-purpose Accessibility Note field. Unlike field 341, the use of this field is not limited to the description of alternative sensory modes or to resources that are not inherently accessible.

Three optional indicators have been provided for Field 532 to distinguish notes describing accessibility features from those describing accessibility deficiencies or hazards and to provide a specific place to record technical requirements related to accessible features.

We are aware that the introduction of this note may impact legacy data if similar accessibility information has been stored in fields 500/538/546. It is envisioned that once 532 is adopted, notes related to accessibility will no longer be recorded in those fields.  This issue will need to be investigated further to determine its scope and possible mapping strategies.

Limitations of the 041 (Language code) field to describe sign language were acknowledged in the original proposal and the issue of describing the language of accessibility features was expanded upon in the MARC Advisory Committee discussion of the original proposal. Subsequently the Canadian Committee on Metadata Exchange (CCM) submitted a MARC Discussion Paper (No. 2018-DP02) proposing the creation of new subfields in the 041 to accommodate language of accessibility features. CCM was invited to resubmit the Discussion Paper as a MARC Proposal, which we did, as Proposal 2018-02. We have incorporated the proposed 041 subfields in the examples provided in the present proposal.

3. PROPOSAL

Define the following two new fields in the Bibliographic format:

3.1. Field 341


341 - Accessibility Content (R)

Field definition and scope
Information about alternative modes of access to the content of a resource, including its primary mode of access, alternative mode(s) of access.

Each occurrence of the field requires one $a to record the mode of access for which an alternative mode is provided and one or more $b-$e subfields identifying the mode in which alternative access is provided and recording the type of alternative access provided. Values for these subfields should be taken from the same controlled vocabulary.

Multiple values from the same source vocabulary may be recorded in the same field in separate occurrences of subfields. Terms from different source vocabularies are recorded in separate occurrences of the field.

First Indicator – Application
# – No information provided
0 – Adaptive features to access primary content of resource
1 – Adaptive features to access secondary content of resource

Second Indicator – Undefined
# – Undefined

Subfield codes
$a Content access mode (NR)
Mode required to access the content of the resource without using assistive features (one of textual, visual, auditory, or tactile).
             341 0# $a auditory

$b Textual assistive features and adaptations (R)
Textual assistive features and adaptations to access the content of the resource.
             341 0# $a auditory $b captions $2 w3c

$c Visual assistive features and adaptations (R)
Visual assistive features and adaptations to access the content of the resource.
              341 0# $a auditory $c signLanguage $2 w3c

$d Auditory assistive features and adaptations (R) 
Auditory assistive features and adaptations to access the content of the resource.
              341 0# $a visual $d audioDescription $2 w3c

$e Tactile assistive features and adaptations (R)
Tactile assistive features and adaptations to access the content of the resource.
              341 1# $a textual $e braille $2 w3c $3 container labels

$0 Authority record control number or standard number (R)
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$1 - Real World Object URI
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$2 - Source (NR)
Identification of the source of terms in subfields $b to $e when they are from a controlled list.

$3 - Materials specified (NR)
Part of the described materials to which the field applies.
                    341 1# $a auditory $b transcript $2 w3c $3 accompanying audio CD

$6 - Linkage (NR)
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

3.2. Field 532


532 - Accessibility Note (R)

Field definition and scope
Textual information describing the accessibility features, hazards, and deficiencies of a resource, including technical details relating to accessibility features. 
This field may be used to expand on or to qualify data in the 341 Accessibility Content field.

First indicator – Display constant controller
Controls the generation of an introductory phrase
0 – Accessibility technical details
Devices, equipment, or software required to implement an accessibility feature.
1 – Accessibility features
Provides a fuller human-readable description of accessibility features in a resource.
2 – Accessibility hazards
Provides a description of content of a resource for which no alternative mode of access has been provided.
8 - No display constant generated

Second indicator – Undefined
# – Undefined

Subfield codes
$a - Summary of accessibility features, hazards, and deficiencies (NR)
Text describing accessibility features, hazards, and deficiencies as well as technical details relating to accessibility features.
              532 0# $a Daisy 3
              532 0# $a Requires Daisy 3 software for access; Internet connection
              532 1# $a Closed captioning in English
              532 1# $a Open captioning in French and English
              532 1# $a Described video
              532 1# $a Picture-in-picture signing
              532 2# $a Menu not navigable
              532 2# $a Requires additional software, mouse

$6 - Linkage (NR)
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

4. EXAMPLES

Example 1: Ebooks

Current:
347 ## $a text file $b EPUB3 $2 rda

Proposed:
347 ## $a text file $b EPUB3 $2 rda
341 0# $a textual $c displayTransformability $d synchronizedAudioText $d structuralNavigation $2 w3c
532 0# $a EPUB3
532 1# $a This EPUB 3 resource has been optimized to conform to DAISY Consortium specifications for text to speech playback.

Example 2: Ebooks with color content

Current:
300 ## $a 1 online resource (314 pages) : $b color illustrations
347 ## $a text file $b EPUB3 $2 rda

Proposed:
300 ## $a 1 online resource (314 pages) : $b color illustrations
341 0# $a textual $c displayTransformability $2 w3c
347 ## $a text file $b EPUB3 $2 rda
532 0# $a EPUB3
532 2# $a Lacking alternative b&w images for color illustrations.
532 1# $a This EPUB 3 resource has been optimized to conform to DAISY Consortium specifications for text to speech playback.

Example 3: DVD recordings

Current:
546 ## $a SDH.
655 #7 $a Video recordings for the hearing impaired $2 lcgft

Proposed:
041 ##$a eng $p eng
341 0# $a auditory $b captions $2 w3c
532 0# $a SDH
532 1# $a Open captions. Subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing
655 #7 $a Video recordings for the hearing impaired $2 lcgft

Example 4: DVD recordings - repeatable 341

Current:
500 ## $a Includes picture-in-picture signing.
546 ## $a Described video.
655 #7 $a Video recordings for the hearing impaired $2 lcgft
655 #7 $a Video recordings for people with visual disabilities $2 lcgft

Proposed:
041 ## $a sgn $a eng $q eng
041 07 $r ase $2 iso639-3
341 0# $a auditory $c signLanguage $2 w3c
341 0# $a auditory $b captions $2 w3c
341 0# $a visual $d audioDescription $2 w3c
341 1# $a textual $e braille $2 w3c $3 container labels
532 0# $a Closed captions
532 1# $a Described video.
532 1# $a Picture-in-picture signing
532 1# $a Container contains text in Braille.
655 #7 $a Video recordings for the hearing impaired $2 lcgft
655 #7 $a Video recordings for people with visual disabilities $2 lcgft

Example 5: Print braille

Current:
300 ## $a 1 volume of print/braille : $b illustrations ; $c 28 cm
500 ## $a Alternate leaves of print and braille.
546 ## $b Unified English Braille code (contracted braille)

Proposed:
300 ## $a1 volume of print/braille : $b illustrations ; $c 28 cm
532 1# $a Alternate leaves of print and braille.
546 ## $b Unified English Braille code (contracted braille)

Example 6: Daisy Books

Current:
347 ## $a audio file $b Daisy $2 rda
538 ## $a Full audio with structure.

Proposed:
347 ## $a audio file $b Daisy $2 rda
341 0# $a visual $d structuralNavigation
532 0# $a Daisy 3; Requires Daisy 3 software for access.
532 1# $a Full audio with structure.

Example 7: Print book in Dyslexie font

Current:
500 ## $a Printed in Dyslexie font.

Proposed:
532 1# $a Printed in Dyslexie font.

Example 8: Streaming Video with Makaton

Current:
500 ## $a Includes Welsh language Makaton signs and symbols.

Proposed:
041 ## $a wel $a sgn
041 ## $a bfi $2 iso639-3
341 0# $a auditory $c signLanguage $2 w3c
532 1# $a Includes Welsh language Makaton signs and symbols.
https://vimeo.com/75187116
https://www.makaton.org/aboutMakaton/DwylorEnfys/

5. BIBFRAME DISCUSSION

Content accessibility is a very important area and could contain information on a number of different accessibility needs – visual, audio, etc.  The controlled vocabularies are not well developed in some areas and continue to be refined.  BIBFRAME was therefore adjusted in the spring of 2017 to make the property “contentAccessibility” an object rather than a data property and the class “ContentAccessibility” was introduced.  This way the vocabulary can contain literal notes about accessibility, controlled terms or phrases, or a uri that takes one to a “balloon” (classes and properties from another specialized namespace) with more extensive and specialized information.
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe.html#p_contentAccessibility

6. SUMMARY OF PROPOSED CHANGES

In the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format:

6.1. Add new field 341 (Accessibility Content), as described in Section 3.1.

6.2. Add new field 532 (Accessibility Note), as described in Section 3.2.


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