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MARC DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 2018-DP02

DATE: January 17, 2018
REVISED:

NAME: Subfield Coding in Field 041 for Accessibility in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format

SOURCE: Canadian Committee on Metadata Exchange (CCM)

SUMMARY: This paper suggests adding new subfields in field 041 (Language Code) for accessibility modes in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format to allow for machine sorting.

KEYWORDS: Field 041 (BD); Language Code (BD); Accessibility (BD)

RELATED: 2017-11; 2017-DP03

STATUS/COMMENTS:
01/17/18 – Made available to the MARC community for discussion.

02/10/18 – Results of MARC Advisory Committee discussion: There was general agreement among MAC that subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH), closed captioning (CC), described video, and additional signed language tracks for accessibility should be coded in specific 041 subfields; they should be treated distinctly from sign languages as the primary mode of expression in a visual resource.  The paper will return as a proposal.


Discussion Paper No. 2018-DP02: Subfield Coding in Field 041 for Accessibility

1. BACKGROUND

Field 041 is currently defined in the Bibliographic format as follows:

MARC Proposal 2017-11 noted that field 041 is lacking precision in specifying the types of accessibility language content. This is most apparent in the description of video recordings. Accessibility features in video recordings provide alternative access to both visual and audio content. Accessibility to visual content is most often provided with supplementary visual description, such as described video. Access to audio content can be provided with either captioning or signing. While language of accessible content can be provided in the 546 Language Note field, this is a free text field, and not machine actionable.

Captioning
Subfield $j (Language code of subtitles or captions) mixes both subtitles and captioning (open and closed). Captioning is intended for the deaf and hard of hearing and it provides additional information, for example, describing incidental music, background noise, or providing lyrics for songs.  Conversely, subtitles are usually just a translation of dialogue or narration.

Signing
Instructions for $a (Language code of text/sound track or separate title) include the following for moving image resources: “subfield $a contains the code(s) of spoken or sung languages associated with the item, as well as sign language and any language code(s) of the languages of accompanying sound.” When the primary mode of access to the content of a resource is through a signed language, subfield $a is appropriate. However, there is no provision to distinguish resources where signing is not the primary mode of access, but is included to provide alternative access to the primary mode of access. Additionally, it is recognized that the current MARC Code List for Languages code for sign language sgn is inadequate as it does not specify which signed language is contained in the resource, whether primary or assistive. ISO 639-3 provides language codes for many signed languages. This paper recommends that catalogers select language codes from ISO 639-3 for use in field 041 when describing resources with signed language content.

Described video
There is no specific provision for described video in the 041 field, but it can be interpreted as falling under the instructions for moving image resources under subfield $a: “subfield $a contains… any language code(s) of the languages of accompanying sound.

2. DISCUSSION

We propose adding three new repeatable subfields to accommodate language codes for accessibility modes, which would allow for increased efficiency of machine processing of records for users seeking accessibility content in specific modes in specific languages.

$p - Language code of accessible text (R)
Language codes for written languages providing access to moving image audio content using captions (open (Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (SDH)) or closed (CC)) intended for the deaf and hard of hearing.

041 0# $a eng $p eng
[An English language video containing English language closed captioning.]

$q - Language code of accessible audio (R)
Language codes for spoken languages providing access to moving image visual content using video description (Described Video) which is intended for the blind and visually impaired.

041 1# $a eng $h fre $q eng
[A French language film dubbed in English with English-language described video.]

$r - Language code of accessible visual language (R)
Language codes for signed languages that are used to provide access for the deaf and hard of hearing to moving image audio content. Not used for resources where signed language is the primary mode of access.

041 0# $a eng
041 07 $r ase $2 iso639-3
[An English-language resource where audio is the primary mode of access, but alternate access is provided with picture-in-picture American Sign Language.]

3. EXAMPLES

Example 1: Described video and subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH)

LEADER    02102cgm a22004695a 4500
007      vd#csaizq
041 1# $a eng $a spa $a fre $j spa $j eng $h eng [$p eng $q eng]
130 0# $a La La Land (Motion picture : 2016)
245 10 $a La la land / $c Summit Entertainment presents a Marc Platt production an Imposter Pictures/Gilbert Films production ; produced by Fred Berger, Jordan Horowitz, Gary Gilbert, Mark Platt ; written and directed by Damien Chazelle.
300 ## $a 2 videodiscs (approximately 128 min.) : $b sound, color ; $c 4 3/4 in.
344 ## $a digital $b optical $g surround $g stereo , $h Dolby Atmos $h Dolby Digital 5.1 $h Dolby Digital 2.0 $2 rda
538 ## $a Blu-ray, region A, wide screen (16x9, 2.55:1) presentation; Dolby Atmos (English), Dolby digital 5.1 (Spanish, French), English 2.0 Dolby digital audio for late-night listening; English descriptive audio; 2160p ultra high definition; requires 4K ultra HD blu-ray player, 4K television required for full 4k UHD effect; can also be viewed using a 1080 television without full 4K UHD effects.
546 ## $a English, Spanish or French dialogue; Spanish or English subtitles; [subtitled for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH); described video.]

Example 2: Subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH) provided in multiple languages

LEADER    02102cgm a22004695a 4500
007      vd#csaizq
041 1# $a eng $a fre $j eng $j fre $j spa $h fre [$p eng $p fre]
245 00 $a Bon cop bad cop 2 / $c director, Alain Desrochers.
264 #1 $a [United States] : $b Seville, $c [2017]
300 ## $a 1 videodisc (126 min.) : $b sound, color ; $c 4 3/4 in.
336 ## $a two-dimensional moving image $b tdi $2 rdacontent
337 ## $a video $b v $2 rdamedia
338 ## $a videodisc $b vd $2 rdacarrier
546 ## $a English or French dialogue; Spanish, English or French subtitles; [English and French subtitled for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH).]

Example 3: Blu-ray with closed captions in French and subtitles in English

LEADER    02102cgm a22004695a 4500
007      vd#bsaizu
041 1# $a fre $j eng $h fre [$p fre]
245 00 $a Goupi Mains Rouges $h [videorecording] / $c un film de Jacques Becker.
260 ## $a [Paris] : $b Pathé distribution [éd.] : $b Fox Pathé Europa [distrib.], $c c2015.
300 ## $a 1 DVD (100 min.) : $b b&w, sd. ; $c 4 3/4 in. + $e 1 Blu-Ray disc (105 mins.)
546 ## $a In French; optional subtitles in English; [optional closed captions in French.]

Example 4: DVD with subtitles, SDH, and described video in German

LEADER    02102cgm a22004695a 4500
007      vd#cvaizs
041 1# $a ger $a fre $j ger [$p ger $q ger]
130 0# $a Ma vie de courgette $0 (DE-588)1138382191
245 10 $a Mein Leben als Zucchini / $c ein Film von Claude Barras ; written by Celine Sciamma
264 #1 $a [München] : $b Polyband, $c [2017]
300 ## $a 1 DVD (ca. 63 min) ; $c 12 cm
336 ## $a zweidimensionales bewegtes Bild $b tdi $2 rdacontent/ger
337 ## $a video $b v $2 rdamedia/ger
338 ## $a Videodisk $b vd $2 rdacarrier/ger
546 ## $a Sprachen: Deutsch, Französisch ; Untertitel: Deutsch, [Deutsch für Hörgeschädigte ; Audiodeskription für Blinde und Sehgeschädigte]

Example 5: DVD with signed language accessibility feature

LEADER    02102cgm a22004695a 4500
007    vd#cvaizu
041 0# $a spa $h spa
041 07 [$r mfs] $2 iso639-3
245 00 $a ¿Sabés una cosa pueblo? : $b José Mujica / $c TV LIBRE presenta.
260 ## $a Montevideo : $b La República, $c [2010?]
300 ## $a 1 videodisc (101 min., 40 sec.) : $b sound, color ; $c 4 3/4 in.
336 ## $a two-dimensional moving image $b tdi $2 rdacontent
337 ## $a video $b v $2 rdamedia
338 ## $a videodisc $b vd $2 rdacarrier   
546 ## $a In Spanish [and sign language.]

Example 6: Signed language as primary mode of access

LEADER    02102cgm a22004695a 4500
007      vf#cb##o
041 07 $a ase $2 iso639-3
245 04 $a The little red ant and the great big crumb : $b [a Mexican fable] / $c produced by Kansas School for the Deaf ; visual storyreading in American Sign Language by Sally Luton.
260 ## $a Olathe, Kan. : $b Kansas School for the Deaf, $c [1999?]
300 ## $a 1 videocassette (approximately 25 min.) : $b si., color ; $c 1/2 in. + $e 1 pamphlet guide.
336 ## $a two-dimensional moving image $b tdi $2 rdacontent
337 ## $a video $b v $2 rdamedia
338 ## $a videocassette $b vf $2 rdacarrier
[546 ## $a Signed in ASL, level C, with no captions or voice over.]

Example 7: Signed language as alternate language not accessible mode

LEADER    02102cgm a22004695a 4500
007      vd#cvaizu
008      130716s2009    xxu039 j          mleng
041 1# $a eng $a fre $a spa $a sgn $j eng $h eng [$p eng]
041 07 $a ase $2 iso639-3
245 00 $a Baby Wordsworth, first words, around the house / $c the Baby Einstein Company presents.
246 30 $a First words, around the house
300 ## $3 viewing copy $a 1 videodisc (ca. 39 min.) : $b sd., col. ; $c 4 3/4 in.
546 ## $a Soundtrack In English, French, or Spanish with signing in combination of American Sign Language and Conceptually Accurate Signed English; [subtitled for the deaf and hard of hearing.]

4. BIBFRAME DISCUSSION

Content accessibility is a very important area and could contain information on a number of different accessibility needs – visual, audio, etc.  The controlled vocabularies are not well developed in some areas and continue to be refined.  BIBFRAME was therefore adjusted in the spring of 2017 to make the property “contentAccessibility” an object rather than a data property and the class “ContentAccessibility” was introduced.  This way the vocabulary can contain literal notes about accessibility, controlled terms or phrases, or a uri that takes one to a “balloon” (classes and properties from another specialized name space) with more extensive and specialized information.

http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe.html#p_contentAccessibility

5. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

5.1. Do you agree that SDH and CC meet a distinct use case from subtitles and thus the languages of SDH and CC should be coded in a specific subfield?

5.2. Do you agree that described video is distinct from the spoken audio content of a film or video and should be coded in a specific subfield?

5.3. Do you agree that additional signed language tracks for accessibility should be coded in a specific subfield, and that this should be distinct from sign languages as the primary mode of expression in a visual resource?

5.4. Are there any other distinct use cases of language information presented in different forms for accessibility that are not covered?

5.5. Are there any other possible techniques to encode this type of information in a MARC bibliographic record?


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