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MARC PROPOSAL NO. 2020-06

DATE: May 29, 2020
REVISED:

NAME: Defining a New Field for Manifestation Statements in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format

SOURCE: MARC/RDA Working Group

SUMMARY: This paper proposes defining new field 881 to accommodate Resource Description and Access "Manifestation Statements" in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format.

KEYWORDS: Field 881 (BD); Manifestation Statements (BD); RDA Toolkit Restructure and Redesign Project; RDA

RELATED: 2020-DP06

STATUS/COMMENTS:
05/29/20 – Made available to the MARC community for discussion.


Proposal No. 2020-06: Defining a New Field for Manifestation Statements

1. BACKGROUND

The RDA Toolkit Restructure and Redesign Project (3R) has introduced a new Manifestation level element called "manifestation statement" to the RDA element set. The RDA beta Toolkit defines manifestation statement as:

“A statement appearing in a manifestation and deemed to be significant for users to understand how the manifestation represents itself.”
(cf. https://beta.rdatoolkit.org/Content/Index?externalId=en-US_ala-f6ea41ae-fe52-33bf-a7f1-5d0eb5767677)

General guidelines on manifestation statements in the new Toolkit further elaborate:

“A manifestation may carry information that describes the manifestation itself. This information is recorded to follow the principle of representation. A manifestation statement supports the user tasks identify and find. Although some manifestation statements are presented in a standard layout in some publishing traditions, there are no common approaches at global level and across all kinds of manifestation. A manifestation statement is therefore recorded only as an unstructured description.”
(cf. https://beta.rdatoolkit.org/Guidance/Index?externalId=en-US_ala-6f241594-3b46-3eb3-a053-1ecec038fa34)

In RDA, there is a general "manifestation statement" element, and a list of sub-types:

No content designation is currently available in MARC 21 to record manifestation statements. Existing fields are too granular and serve to break down what should be entered as free text strings. New content designation would allow the encoding of whole or partial title page content, etc. using scanned data (e.g. recorded using a light pen). It would also allow the exact transcription of statements for early printed resources (e.g. complex publication / distribution and manufacture statements).

2. DISCUSSION

The MARC/RDA Working Group analyzed and discussed various approaches. The group came to the conclusion that there does not seem to be a need for changing existing fields, indicator values, or subfields to cover the RDA manifestation statements. Instead, the suggestion was to define only one new field, covering all manifestation statements. The new field will in some respect represent a broad selection of the descriptive parts of a MARC bibliographic record as a whole, but in a less granular way than the existing MARC content designation. A field number in the section 841-88X “Holdings, Location, Alternate Graphics, Etc. Fields” seemed feasible. The MARC/RDA Working Group proposed a new field "881". Both indicator positions were undefined, each one contained a blank.

The new field should contain designated subfields for each of the specific manifestation statements, and a subfield $a for the high-level manifestation statement as a whole. An additional subfield for an "other manifestation statement" was part of the initial approach. Furthermore, subfield $i was discussed as a means to provide information about the source, i.e., about the part of the manifestation from which the statement is taken, e.g., from the title page, from the cover, from the spine, from the title frame, from the container, etc. Subfield $i is already defined with a similar meaning for a "Display text" e.g., in field 246 (Varying Form of Title). By repeating the field and grouping the main subfields with subfield $i, single or selected manifestation statements and their respective sources could be expressed.

Discussions before and during the meeting of the MARC Advisory Committee in January 2020 resulted in the following recommendations:

The MARC/RDA Working Group analyzed and discussed the recommendations.

Some thoughts were given to field 505 and its potential in defining similar indicator positions in the new field “881”. However, it remained unclear whether there would be benefit in doing so. Ultimately, the decision was made to propose the new field in a simple format design, without indicator positions defined.

Similarly, the group decided to not define a subfield $z for an "Other manifestation statement". Instead, a manifestation statement which does not fall into one of the more specific subfields is covered by subfield $a.

The potential subfields "$i" for "Source" information and "$2" for the designation of a "Content standard" were discussed in-depth. Both are types of information that are covered by the concept of "data provenance" from an RDA perspective. Here the group decided to propose neither one, preferring to leave them for later, when a more general approach of reflecting data provenance in the MARC format will be explored.

3. PROPOSED NEW FIELD 881

Taking the above into consideration, the proposed new field 881 is to be defined in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format as follows:

881 – Manifestation Statements (R)

Field definition and Scope:
The field contains manifestation statements, i.e. information that describes the manifestation itself. A manifestation statement is recorded as an unstructured description. Elements for recording a manifestation statement are defined for broad categories of information.

First Indicator
Undefined
# - Undefined
Second Indicator
Undefined
# - Undefined

Subfield codes

$a - Manifestation statement, high-level/general (R)
A statement appearing in a manifestation and deemed to be significant for users to understand how the manifestation represents itself.
Subfield $a contains general manifestation statements as well as manifestation statements which do not fall into the more specific subfields $b to $n.

$b – Manifestation identifier statement (R)
A manifestation statement about a code, number, or other string, usually independent of natural language and social naming conventions, used to identify a work, expression, or manifestation.
A statement could include any or all of fingerprint, plate and publisher number for notated music, ISSN of series or subseries, or other identifier for manifestation.

$c – Manifestation title and responsibility statement (R)
A manifestation statement about the titles of a manifestation and the names of agents who are responsible for the content of an expression that is embodied by a manifestation.
A manifestation title and responsibility statement could include any kinds of title, including a title proper, a variant form of title, and other title information, or any kinds of statements of responsibility relating to the content of the manifestation, but might not include titles of related series or names of agents who are responsible for such series.

$d – Manifestation edition statement (R)
A manifestation statement about an edition to which a manifestation belongs.
A statement could include any or all of designation of edition or named revision of edition, or a statement of responsibility relating to an edition or revision.

$e – Manifestation production statement (R)
A manifestation statement about data relating to the inscription, fabrication, construction, etc., of an unpublished manifestation.
A statement could include any or all of place or date of production or name of producer.

$f - Manifestation publication statement (R)
A manifestation statement about the publication, release, or issuing of a manifestation.
A statement could include any or all of place or date of publication or name of publisher.

$g – Manifestation distribution statement (R)
A manifestation statement about data relating to the distribution of a published manifestation.
A statement could include any or all of place or date of distribution or name of distributor.

$h - Manifestation manufacture statement (R)
A manifestation statement about data relating to the printing, duplicating, casting, etc., of a published manifestation.
A statement could include any or all of place or date of manufacture or name of manufacturer.

$i - Manifestation copyright statement (R)
A manifestation statement about a date associated with a claim of protection under copyright or a similar regime.
Copyright dates could include phonogram dates associated with claims of protection for audio recordings.

$j - Manifestation frequency statement (R)
A manifestation statement about an interval at which the manifestations of parts, issues, or iterations of a diachronic work are issued.

$k - Manifestation designation of sequence statement (R)
A manifestation statement about the numbering of a sequence of manifestations of the individual parts or iteration of a manifestation or parts or issues of a work.
A statement could include an alphanumeric or chronological designation.

$l – Manifestation series statement (R)
A manifestation statement about a series that is associated with the manifestation and a numbering of a manifestation within the series.
A manifestation series statement could include any or all of title proper of series, other title information of series; statement of responsibility relating to series; ISSN, or numbering within sequence.

$m – Manifestation dissertation statement (R)
A manifestation statement about data relating to thesis and other dissertation information.
A statement could include any or all of a degree title, year of award, or granting institution.

$n - Manifestation regional encoding statement (R)
A manifestation statement about a designation for one or more regions of the world for which a videodisc or video game carrier has been encoded, indicating that playback is restricted to a device configured to decode it.

$3 – Materials specified (NR)
Part of the described materials to which the field applies.

$6 - Linkage (NR)
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$8 - Field link and sequence number (R)
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

Notes:

The subfields are arranged in MARC element equivalence order.

Most of the subfields are defined as repeatable, regardless of the fact that some of the main fields in MARC Bibliographic with reference to a specific subfield in field 881 are non-repeatable (e.g., field 245 – field 881 subfield $c for a "Manifestation title and responsibility statement").

4. EXAMPLES

Example 1: “The opening of heauen gates”


Example 1.1
: Following the Guidelines on basic transcription (https://beta.rdatoolkit.org/en-US_ala-fd2213e6-ae72-3e6f-8f0a-be3fc0e8d728):

LDR xxxxxnam a22yyyyy   4500
001 123456789
245 04 $aTHE Opening of Heauen gates
881 ## $cTHE Opening of Heauen gates, Or The ready way to euer-lasting life. Deliuered in a most Familier Dia-logue, betweene Reason and Religion, touching Prædestination, Gods word, and Mans Free-will, to the vnderstan-ding of the vveakest Capacitie, and the confirming of the more strong.\\$dThe second edition.\\$cBy ARTHVR DENT, Preacher of the word of GOD, at South-shoobery in Essex.\\$eImprinted at London\\$ffor Iohn Wright,\\$gand are to bee sold at his shop at Christ-Church gate.\\$f1611.

Example 1.2: Following the Guidelines on normalized transcription (https://beta.rdatoolkit.org/en-US_ala-914685cb-0fa2-394d-a0a2-16e537eb586a), no further options specified:

LDR xxxxxnam a22yyyyy   4500
001 987654321
245 04 $aThe opening of heauen gates
881 ## $cThe opening of heauen gates, or The ready way to euerlasting life, deliuered in a most familier dialogue, betweene reason and religion, touching praedestination, Gods word, and mans free-will, to the vnderstanding of the weakest capacitie, and the confirming of the more strong.$dThe second edition.$cBy Arthvr Dent, preacher of the word of God, at Southshoobery in Essex.$eImprinted at London$ffor Iohn Wright,$gand are to bee sold at his shop at Christ-Church gate.$f1611.

Example 2: “A DECLARATION [...]”

adapted from Robert L. Maxwell’s presentation “RDA New Concepts Series: Representative Expressions and Manifestation Statements”, July 24, 2019, slide 56,
https://www.slideshare.net/ALAeLearningSolutions/new-concepts-representative-expressions-and-manifestation-statements

LDR xxxxxnam a22yyyyy   4500
001 135798642
245 02 $aA DECLARATION OF THE LORD GENERALL AND HIS COUNCELL OF OFFICERS
881 ## $cA DECLARATION OF THE LORD GENERALL AND HIS COUNCELL OF OFFICERS; Shewing the Grounds and Reasons for the Dissolution of the late PARLIAMENT.$fLONDON,$ePrinted by Hen: Hills and Tho: Brewster, Printers to the Army$gand are to bee sold at the signe of Sir John Old-castles in Pye-corner, and at the three Bibles at the West-end of Pauls.$f1653.

Example 3: “Finally Statehood”

adapted from Robert L. Maxwell’s presentation “RDA New Concepts Series: Representative Expressions and Manifestation Statements”, July 24, 2019, slide 53,
https://www.slideshare.net/ALAeLearningSolutions/new-concepts-representative-expressions-and-manifestation-statements

LDR xxxxxnam a22yyyyy   4500
001 192837465
245 00 $aFinally Statehood
881 ## $cFinally Statehood! Utah’s Struggles, 1849–1896 Edward Leo Lyman$fSignature Books | Salt Lake City | 2019

Example 4: “Crossing the Chasm”


Example 4.1: with only one subfield $a

LDR xxxxxnam a22yyyyy   4500
001 918273645
003 DE-101
008 150429suuuu    || ||||| |||| 00|||||||
245 00 $aCrossing the chasm
881 ## $aCROSSING THE CHASM Marketing and Selling Disruptive Products to Mainstream Customers THIRD EDITION Geoffrey A. Moore HARPER BUSINESS An Imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers Copyright © 1991, 1999, 2002, 2014 by Geoffrey A. Moore Printed in the United States of America Originally published in hardcover in 1991 by HarperBusiness, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers. 2014 ISBN: 978-0-06-229298-8 USA $19.99 A BUSINESSWEEK BESTSELLER

Example 4.2: with more specific subfields

LDR xxxxxnam a22yyyyy   4500
001 546372819
003 DE-101
008 150429suuuu    || ||||| |||| 00|||||||
245 00 $aCrossing the chasm
881 ## $cCROSSING THE CHASM Marketing and Selling Disruptive Products to Mainstream Customers Geoffrey A. Moore$dTHIRD EDITION$fHARPER BUSINESS An Imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers 2014$iCopyright © 1991, 1999, 2002, 2014 by Geoffrey A. Moore$ePrinted in the United States of America$aOriginally published in hardcover in 1991 by HarperBusiness, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers.$bISBN: 978-0-06-229298-8$aUSA $19.99$lA BUSINESSWEEK BESTSELLER

5. BIBFRAME DISCUSSION

BIBFRAME accommodates the various statements that RDA discusses. In some cases the statement is an existing property, such as the "series statement", which is a literal and expected to be transcribed from the item. The other statements are accommodated in fields with expected value of literal and any field that does not use rdfs:label for the literal value.

6. SUMMARY OF PROPOSED CHANGES

In the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format, define field 881 as follows:


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