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MARC DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 2020-DP16

DATE: May 29, 2020
REVISED:

NAME: Recording the Mode of Issuance for Manifestations in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format

SOURCE: MARC/RDA Working Group

SUMMARY: This paper discusses the potential for encoding the RDA element "mode of issuance" in the MARC21 Bibliographic Format.

KEYWORDS: Mode of Issuance (BD); Vocabulary Encoding Schemes (BD); Recording Methods (BD); Linked Data (BD); Extension Plan (AD, BD); Leader (BD); RDA Toolkit Restructure and Redesign Project; RDA

RELATED: 2015-07; 2020-DP07; 2020-07

STATUS/COMMENTS:
05/29/20 – Made available to the MARC community for discussion.


Discussion Paper No. 2020-DP16: Recording the Mode of Issuance for Manifestations

1. BACKGROUND

RDA currently contains the element "mode of issuance". The values for this element can be recorded in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format using a combination of codes in LDR character positions 07 (Bibliographic level) and 19 (Multipart resource record level). However, the RDA Toolkit Restructure and Redesign Project (3R) has brought about a change to the scope of mode of issuance; the values associated with it have likewise changed, meaning that they no longer correspond to the MARC 21 LDR codes described above. These changes relate to 3R’s goal of implementing the IFLA Library Reference Model in RDA. Whereas the previous RDA element "mode of issuance" conflated aspects of carrier data (single / multiple unit) and content data (static / issued over time), 3R rescopes mode of issuance and introduces the new "extension plan" element in order to make those distinctions explicit. Henceforward, the mode of issuance element will only be used to make statements regarding whether a manifestation is issued in one unit or more than one unit, regardless of whether it was issued over time or at a single point in time; this latter aspect of bibliographic description will be handled by the extension plan.

In order to implement the redefined element "mode of issuance" in MARC, it would be desirable to define a new field and subfields for the purpose. This, in combination with a separate field defined for extension plan, would then be capable of reflecting the distinct attributes of diachronic resources as recognised by the RDA Steering Committee and the ISSN International Centre. In addition, the mode of issuance element could be expressed using the controlled vocabulary and IRIs sourced from the RDA Registry. These offer the means to enhance the functionality of information recorded in a MARC 21 environment and also to exploit it for linked data purposes.

1.1. Mode of Issuance Definition and Scope

The new RDA Toolkit defines mode of issuance as:

“A categorization reflecting whether a manifestation is issued in one or more units.”
(cf. https://beta.rdatoolkit.org/en-US_ala-11f6e100-836f-3c70-9ab0-99714519a179)

The scope of this definition is narrower than that previously expressed by RDA:

"A categorization reflecting whether a resource is issued in one or more parts, the way it is updated, and whether its termination is predetermined or not."
(cf. http://access.rdatoolkit.org/rdachp2_rda2-8389.html)

This change in scope reflects RDA’s aim of implementing IFLA’s Library Reference Model. As noted in an RSC discussion paper entitled “Issues on IFLA-LRM alignment for serials and other continuing resources”, one outcome of how the LRM approaches “resources without a pre-determined conclusion is that most data elements should be related to the level of the work”.

The paper continues by observing that:

"This has a direct effect on the “mode of issuance”: in the current RDA, the “mode of issuance” is a manifestation-level element (see 2.13): the mode of issuance covers different aspects such as the “extension termination” (determinate or indeterminate), the “extension mode” (succession or integration) or the number of units or carriers. It is recognized by RSC and ISSN IC that the two first aspects are related to the work, while only the third is related to the manifestation.

It is therefore proposed to distinguish between:

• “Extension expectation”, at work level, which covers “extension termination”, “extension mode”, or “extension requirements”, which are all ROF attributes;
• “Mode of issuance”, related to the number of units or carriers under which the resource is issued.”

(cf. http://www.rda-rsc.org/sites/all/files/RSC-Chair-20.pdf)

In view of this analysis, the new RDA Toolkit defines the element "extension plan" to encompass the concepts "extension mode" and "extension termination". Meanwhile, the narrower scope of  "mode of issuance" is reflected not only in its changed definition, but also by the fewer controlled terms which may be used to express it.

1.2. Types of Mode of Issuance

The values used to express "mode of issuance" in the new RDA Toolkit have been reduced in number and are now binary in nature, as expressed below:

multiple unit
A mode of issuance of a manifestation that is issued as a multipart physical unit or intangible multipart logical unit.

Synonyms
multipart monograph

single unit
A mode of issuance of a manifestation that is issued as a single physical unit or intangible single logical unit.

Scope Note
A single volume, a file available online, etc., are included.

By contrast, RDA previously expressed four different categories of mode of issuance, as expressed below:

integrating resource
A mode of issuance of a manifestation that is added to or changed by means of updates that do not remain discrete but are integrated into the whole.
A loose-leaf manual that is updated by means of replacement pages, a website that is updated continuously, etc., are included.

multipart monograph
A mode of issuance of a manifestation issued in two or more parts, either simultaneously or successively, that is complete or intended to be completed within a finite number of parts.
A dictionary in two volumes, three audiocassettes issued as a set, etc., are included.

serial
A mode of issuance of a manifestation issued in successive parts, usually bearing numbering, that has no predetermined conclusion.
A serial includes a periodical, monographic series, newspaper, etc. Reproductions of serials and resources that exhibit characteristics of serials, such as successive issues, numbering, and frequency, but whose duration is limited, such as newsletters of events, are also included.

single unit
A mode of issuance of a manifestation that is issued either as a single physical unit or, in the case of an intangible manifestation, as a single logical unit.
A single volume, a file available online, etc., are included.

The new RDA Toolkit removes values for multipart monograph, integrating resource and serial from the controlled vocabulary used to express "mode of issuance" ; these concepts are covered instead by the controlled vocabulary for "extension plan". As a result of this change, values associated with mode of issuance can only be used to make assertions about the carrier characteristics of a resource (i.e., whether the resource being described consists of one or more units). Meanwhile, the anticipated behavior of the resource is expressed separately as an extension plan.

2. DISCUSSION

Changes made to "mode of issuance" mean that its controlled vocabulary is no longer compatible with the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format codes expressed in LDR character positions 07 (Bibliographic level) and 19 (Multipart resource record level).

The LDR 07 includes the following values:

i - Integrating resource
Bibliographic resource that is added to or changed by means of updates that do not remain discrete and are integrated into the whole. Examples include updating loose-leafs and updating Web sites.
Integrating resources may be finite or continuing.

m - Monograph/Item
Item either complete in one part (e.g., a single monograph, a single map, a single manuscript, etc.) or intended to be completed, in a finite number of separate parts (e.g., a multivolume monograph, a sound recording with multiple tracks, etc.).

s - Serial
Bibliographic item issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. Includes periodicals; newspapers; annuals (reports, yearbooks, etc.); the journals, memoirs, proceedings, transactions, etc., of societies; and numbered monographic series, etc.

It is notable that, whereas the values given above all make assertions regarding the anticipated behaviors of a resource, the revised mode of issuance values "single unit" and "multiple unit" can only be used to describe its manifestation’s carrier characteristics; the intention to extend the content of a work is a concept which is addressed by "extension plan".

The LDR 19 includes the following values:

a - Set
Record is for a set consisting of multiple items.

b - Part with independent title
The record is for a resource which is part of a set and has a title that allows it to be independent of the set record.

c - Part with dependent title
The record is for a resource which is part of a set but has a title that makes it dependent on the set record to understand its context.

Again, whereas the above values all make assertions regarding the completeness of a resource, the revised mode of issuance values "single unit" and "multiple unit" can only be used to describe a resource’s carrier characteristics; the concept of a set, (i.e., whether a resource is intended to be realized in multiple distinct expressions that are embodied during a closed timespan) are addressed by the extension plan value "successive determinate plan".

Decisions regarding whether the value "single unit" or "multiple unit" is recorded when describing a diachronic resource will, to some extent, be driven by local cataloging preferences. For example, if an agency decides to describe one issue of a serial or one part of a monograph in series, then it could do so using the value "single unit" on the basis that the resource described is a manifestation in its own right. If, on the other hand, an agency prefers to describe the aggregate to which multiple issues of a serial or parts of a monograph in series belong, then it could do so using the value "multiple unit".

It is not anticipated that there will be a need for recording a former mode of issuance or multiple modes of issuance as part of the individual record creation process. If, for example, the description of a serial is conducted using the first issue of that serial, then it might be considered that the appropriate value recorded for mode of issuance would be "single unit" rather than "multiple unit". However, it should be noted that mode of issuance is a manifestation and not an item level element; cataloging decisions should not be based simply on the number of physical units in hand. Instead, assumptions can be made about the availability of additional units based on evidence provided by the manifestation or from other reference sources. Hence, the presence of numbering information such as "Volume 1" implies the possibility of there being at least a "Volume 2" either already available (although not in hand) or potentially available in the future. Even if no such evidence is available and it later transpires that a manifestation described as a single unit is actually a part of a larger, multi-unit manifestation, then the larger, multi-unit manifestation can be described in a separate record and related to the single unit originally cataloged.

Addressing the difference between a physical and online resource, it is noteworthy that both the types of unit covered by mode of issuance in the new RDA Toolkit encompass "physical" and "logical" units. These are defined in the new Toolkit glossary as follows:

physical unit
A part of a tangible manifestation.
A physical unit includes a volume, audiocassette, or film reel.

logical unit
A part of an intangible manifestation.
A digital file is included.

This is significant, for example, in a context where a resource undergoes a change of carrier.  Hence, if a serial publication transitions from multiple physical units to multiple online units (and that serial is being described as an aggregate), then the carrier will change and a new description may be required, but the value recorded for mode of issuance will remain the same: i.e. "multiple unit".

It is not suggested that existing MARC 21 LDR values should be amended in order to accommodate the revised mode of issuance element and its associated values; such an approach may lead to problems of backwards compatibility with MARC 21 legacy data. Instead, like the element "extension plan", it would be more productive to record mode of issuance in a new field specifically defined for the purpose. Unlike extension plan, it would only be necessary to define such a field in the Bibliographic format and not the Authority format. This is because mode of issuance is an element which belongs to the manifestation entity in RDA, whereas extension plan is a work level element.

The new RDA Toolkit allows mode of issuance to be recorded using any of the four different recording methods: (unstructured description, structured description, identifier and IRI). It is already possible to record the mode of issuance as an unstructured note in MARC 21, using a 500 field (General Note). Defining a new field to record mode of issuance would extend its range of functionality in terms of indexing, faceting and linked data applications. For example, a new field could record the controlled terms defined by RDA and their associated URIs. The only present source of terms and URIs for mode of issuance is the RDA Registry. However, other source vocabularies for mode of issuance terms and URIs may emerge within the cataloging community. For example, id.loc.gov. may be used to host a version of this vocabulary which includes MARC code equivalent values as well as full text terms and URIs. If this is the case, then it will be necessary to make any field which is defined for carrying the mode of issuance element repeatable. This would be consistent with the practice for coding URIs for vocabularies maintained by different agencies set out in MARC Proposal 2015-07.  This notes that :

“using a field which contains both an RDA Registry URI and a MARC21 code as a source [of] linked data may lead to semantic inconsistency over time. The same condition may apply to a field which contains both an RDA Registry and an id.loc.gov URI.”

3. PROPOSED CHANGES

Tag 334 is proposed for the new element mode of issuance. Other fields in the 33X range are already used to express RDA controlled vocabularies. It has already been proposed that tag 335 is used to code extension plan in discussion paper 2020-DP07 and proposal 2020-07; if mode of issuance is also to be accommodated, then it would make sense for both of these fields to occupy the same range. The following field and subfield labels and definitions are suggested:

334  Mode of Issuance (R)

Field Definition and Scope
A categorization reflecting whether a manifestation is issued in one or more units.

Indicators
Both indicator positions are undefined; each contains a blank (#).

Subfield codes

$a – Mode of issuance term (NR)
Mode of issuance of the manifestation being described.

$b – Mode of issuance code (NR)
Code for the mode of issuance of the manifestation.

$0 - Authority record control number or standard number (R)
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$1 - Real World Object URI (R)
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$2 - Source (NR)
MARC code that identifies the source of the term or code used to record the mode of issuance information.

$6 - Linkage (NR)
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$8 - Field link and sequence number (R)
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

4. EXAMPLES

The examples given below model the usage of field 334 to record mode of issuance in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format. The subfield $2 code "rdami" is modeled on the anticipated curie for RDA Registry URIs associated with the vocabulary encoding scheme for mode of issuance. In each case, the proposed extension plan is recorded in field 335 to provide additional context.

For purposes of brevity, the examples do not include formatted contents notes or subject headings. These would offer no additional value in terms of contextual information.

Example 1

Resource issued as a single printed monograph.

LDR    pam a2200253 i 4500
001      019116220
003      Uk
005      20190904103104.0
008      180919s2019    enk           000$1|eng d
015      $a GBB8K3282 $2 bnb
016 7   $a 019116220 $2 Uk
020      $a 9781785943904 (hbk.) : $c £16.99
020      $z 9781473531734 (ePub ebook) : $c £16.99
040      $a StDuBDS $b eng $c StDuBDS $d Uk $e rda
042      $a ukblcatcopy
082 04 $a 823.914 $2 23
100 1   $a Baker, Tom, $d 1934- $e author.
245 10 $a Scratchman / $c Tom Baker with James Goss.
264   1 $a London : $b BBC Books, $c 2019.
300      $a vii, 295 pages ; $c 24 cm.
334      $a single unit $2 rdami
335      $a static plan $2 rdaep   
336      $a text $2 rdacontent
337      $a unmediated $2 rdamedia
338      $a volume $2 rdacarrier
490 0   $a Doctor Who
500      $a Formerly CIP. $5 Uk
530      $a Also issued online.
776 08 $i ebook version : $z 9781473531734
700 1   $a Goss, James, $d 1974- $e author.

Example 2

Resource issued as multiple printed monographs.

LDR    00001377ccm a22003494i 4500
001      00119471663
005      20170308153041.0
008      170130s2013 okuuul| n | zxx
010      $a  2016563007
028 32 $a HE0004 $b Solitárius Press
040      $a DLC $b eng $e rda $c DLC
050 00 $a M559 $b .M
100 1   $a Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, $d 1756-1791, $e composer.
240 10 $a Quintets, $m horn, violin, violas (2), cello, $n K. 407, $r E♭ major; $o arranged
245 10 $a Horn quintet, K.407 : $b for horn & string quartet, transcribed for 5 horns / $c by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ; arranged by Evan G. Chancellor.
246 36 $a Quintet for horn, K.407
264   1 $a [Norman, Oklahoma] : $b Solitárius Press, $c [2013]
300     $a 1 score (13 pages) + 5 parts ; $c 28 cm
334     $a multiple unit $2 rdami
335     $a static plan $2 rdaep   
336     $a notated music $b ntm $2 rdacontent
337     $a unmediated $b n $2 rdamedia
338     $a volume $b nc $2 rdacarrier
382 01 $b horn $n 1 $a horn $n 4 $s 5 $2 lcmpt
546     $b Staff notation.
700 1  $a Chancellor, Evan, $e arranger of music.

Example 3

Resource issued as a single printed monograph with an accompanying audio disc.

LDR    00003190cam a2200601 i 4500
001      00119523318
005      20200312153959.0
006      innnn ap
007      sd bumcnnmplue
008      170225s1983 ci ac b 000 0 hrv
010      $a  2016594374
028 02 $a UEP-379 $b Jugoton $q (audio disc)
035     $a (OCoLC)ocm15641410
040     $a DLC $b eng $e rda $c DLC $d DLC $d DLC
042     $a pcc
043     $a e-ci---
050 00 $a PG1618.K69 $b A6 1983
100 1   $a Krleža, Miroslav, $d 1893-1981, $e author, $e interviewee.
240 10 $a Poems. $k Selections
245 10 $a Plameni vjetar : $b izabrane pjesme / $c Miroslav Krleza ; odabrao i esej napisao Šime Vuc̆etic.
246 15 $a Pjesme Miroslava Krleže
264   1 $a Zagreb : $b Nakladni zavod Matice hrvatske, $c 1983.
300     $a 327 pages : $b illustrations, portraits ; $c 19 cm.
300     $a 1 audio disc : $b analog, 33 1/3 rpm ; $c 7 in.
334     $a multiple unit $2 rdami
335     $a static plan $2 rdaep   
336     $a text $b txt $2 rdacontent
336     $a spoken word $b spw $2 rdacontent
337     $a unmediated $b n $2 rdamedia
337     $a audio $b s $2 rdamedia
338     $a volume $b nc $2 rdacarrier
338     $a audio disc $b sd $2 rdacarrier
340     $3 audio disc $a vinyl $2 rdamat
344     $3 audio disc $a analog $2 rdatr
344     $3 audio disc $c 33 1/3 rpm
344     $3 audio disc $d microgroove $2 rdagw
490 0  $a Arinon : integralna biblioteka poezije "Riječ--Slika--Glas"
500     $a Accompanying audio disc in pocket.
500     $a Side A of the accompanying audio disc is a recording of the author speaking about his youth; side B contains a reading by Mladen Vasary of the author's Kajkavian poetry.
504     $a Includes bibliographical references (pages 304-305).
700 1   $a Vučetić, Šime, $e editor, $e writer of supplementary textual content.
700 1   $a Vasary, Mladen, $d 1954- $e narrator.
740 02 $a Miroslav Kreža govori o prijelomnom trenutku svoje mladost.
740 02 $a Mladen Vasary govori Krležine kajkavske stihove.

Example 4

Resource issued as a single, updating printed monograph.

LDR    01315cai  2200361 i 4500
001      2010269107
003      DLC
005      20160914074450.3
008      100930c20109999nyuar l   b   0    2eng c
010      $a   2010269107
020      $a 9781578232888
020      $a 1578232880
035      $a (OCoLC)667227043
040      $a THL $b eng $e rda $c THL $d UTV $d OCLCF $d UTV $d OCL
042      $a pcc
050   4 $a K1114 $b .I5864
245 00 $a International securities law and regulation / $c Dennis Campbell, general editor.
250      $a Second edition.
264   1 $a Huntington, NY : $b Juris Publishing, $c [2010]-
300      $a 1 volume (loose-leaf)  ; $c 26 cm
310      $a Updates issued annually
334      $a single unit $2 rdami
335      $a integrating indeterminate plan $2 rdaep   
336      $a text $b txt $2 rdacontent
337      $a unmediated $b n $2 rdamedia
338      $a volume $b nc $2 rdacarrier
504      $a Includes bibliographical references.
588      $a Description based on version updated through Release 5 (2016); title from title page.
700 1  $a Campbell, Dennis, $e editor.

Example 5

Resource issued as a printed serial.

LDR    nas a22      i 4500
001      016834985
003      Uk
005      20191231203910.0
007      ta
008      140822c20179999enkmr p       0   a0eng  
015      $a GBB7K5241 $2 bnb
022 0   $a 2056-7022 $2 02
040      $a Uk $b eng $c Uk $e rda
042      $a ukblsr $a issnuk
082 04 $a 641.5636 $2 23
222   0 $a PlantBased
245 00 $a PlantBased : $b the food revolution.
246 3   $a Plant based
246 18 $a PlantBased magazine
264   1 $a Earls Colne, Colchester, Essex : $b Prime Impact Events & Media, $c 2017-
300      $b illustrations (colour) ; $c 29 cm
310      $a Monthly
334      $a multiple unit $2 rdami
335      $a successive indeterminate plan $2 rdaep
336      $a text $2 rdacontent
337      $a unmediated $2 rdamedia
338      $a volume $2 rdacarrier
362 0   $a Issue 1 (October 2017)-
780 00 $t Cook vegan $x 2056-7391

Example 6

Resource issued as an online serial.

LDR    nas a22      i 4500
001      017742376
003      Uk
005      20170605135226.0
006      m       d       
007      cr
008      160213c20159999enkqr p o     0   a0eng  
015      $a GBB790042 $2 bnb
022 0   $a 2352-9415
037      $a ISSN_23529407 $b Portico $n Elsevier
040      $a Uk $b eng $c Uk $e rda
042      $a ukblsr
082 04 $a 620.1105 $2 23
222   0 $a Applied materials today $b (Online)
245 00 $a Applied materials today.
264   1 $a [Kidlington] : $b Elsevier, $c [2015]-
310      $a Quarterly
334      $a multiple unit $2 rdami
335      $a successive indeterminate plan $2 rdaep
336      $a text $2 rdacontent
337      $a computer $2 rdamedia
338      $a online resource $2 rdacarrier
362 0   $a Volume 1, issue 1 (November 2015)-
500      $a Title from table of contents page; ScienceDirect, viewed June 5, 2017.
530      $a Issued also in print.
588      $a Latest issue consulted: volume 7 (June 2017); viewed June 5, 2017.

Example 7

Resource issued as a printed serial with a single monographic supplement which is described separately (see example 8).

LDR    00001655cas a2200433 a 4500
001      00114274524
005      20180619112918.0
008      871029d18611946it dr e l 0 b0ita c
010      $a  2006217004
035      $a (OCoLC)ocm54965834
040      $a EQO $b eng $c EQO $d DLC $d OCLCQ $d OCLCO $d OCLCF $d OCLCA
042      $a pcc
043      $a e-it---
050 00 $a KKH7 $b .I83
110 1   $a Italy.
245 10 $a Gazzetta ufficiale del regno.
246 1   $i Title varies slightly, Mar. 17, 1861- June 10, 1946: $a Gazzetta ufficiale del regno d'Italia
260      $a Torino : $b Prezzo delle associazioni, $c 1861-1946.
300      $a 87 v. ; $c 30-52 cm.
310      $a Daily
334      $a multiple unit $2 rdami
335      $a successive indeterminate plan $2 rdaep
362 0   $a N. 1 (1 genn. 1861)-anno 87, n. 133 (10 giugno 1946).
500      $a Title from caption.
500      $a Imprint varies.
515      $a Issued in parts, 1923-1946.
525      $a Has supplements and extraordinary issues. Vol. for 1944 has title: Serie speciale.
770 0   $t Bollettino mensile di statistica (Rome, Italy) $w (DLC) 51035060
770 0   $t Prezzi in Italia $w (DLC) 45027162
770 0   $t Conto riassuntivo del tesoro al ... $x 0391-4763 $w (DLC) 2009210352 $w (OCoLC)40770348
785 00 $a Italy. $t Gazzetta ufficiale della Repubblica italiana $w (DLC)sn 93030766

Example 8

Resource issued as a single printed monograph with a host serial which is described separately (see example 7).

000      01360cam a22003617i 450
001      1665315
005      20191206165607.0
008      150806r18911891it s 000 0 ita
035      $9 101665315
035      $a (OCoLC)945025402
040      $a DNLM $b eng $e rda $c DNLM
041      09 $a ita
044      $9 Italy
060      00 $a W6 $b P3 v.7481 box 2206 no.12
245      00 $a Riepilogo dei bollettini sanitari inviati dai comuni alla Direzione di sanità pubblica nei tre anni 1888-1889-1890.
2641    $a [Italy] : $b [publisher not identified], $c [1891]
300      $a 7 pages ; $c 28 cm
334      $a single unit $2 rdami
335      $a static plan $2 rdaep   
336      $a text $b txt $2 rdacontent
337      $a unmediated $b n $2 rdamedia
338      $a volume $b nc $2 rdacarrier
500      $a "Supplementa al Numero 56 della "Gazzetta Ufficiale" di Lunedi 9 Marzo 1891."
500      $a Caption title.
710 1   $a Italy. $b Direzione generale della sanità pubblica, $e issuing body.
772 1   $a Italy. $t Gazzetta ufficiale del regno $w (DLC) 2006217004

5. BIBFRAME DISCUSSION

When the proposed addition is further developed, approved, and implemented, the BIBFRAME ontology may be modified to add a new property.

6. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

6.1. Does this paper establish the utility for recording mode of issuance in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format?

6.2. Is the benefit of recording mode of issuance using a structured description, identifier or URI sufficiently articulated?

6.3. Is field 334 a suitable field in which to record a structured description, identifier, or URI for mode of issuance?

6.4 Are there any circumstances under which it may be necessary to record different modes of issuance as part of the same resource description, for example a re-basing integrating resource?


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