NAME: Changes to Field 856 (Electronic Location and Access) in the USMARC Bibliographic Format
SOURCE: Library of Congress; Federal Geographic Data Committee
SUMMARY: This paper proposes the addition of three subfields to field 856. Two of the new subfields and one change of name are intended to accommodate location and access information for non-Internet resources, as needed to satisfy the Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (subfield $j added for Bits per Second; subfield $r added for Settings; subfield $b changed from IP address to Access number). Subfield $v is proposed for hours access method is available, which was requested during the discussion of Proposal No. 94-9 (Changes to the USMARC Bibliographic Format to Accommodate Online Systems and Services). In addition codes are being added to field 856 subfield $2 to align access methods with those specified in the Uniform Resource Locator draft standard.
KEYWORDS: Field 856; Electronic Location and Access (Bibliographic/Holdings)
RELATED: 94-9 (June 1994); DP 78 (June 1994)
12/2/94 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the February 1995 MARBI meetings.
2/16/95 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Approved as amended.
Discussion included both changes proposed in the paper and changes suggested for the field in general. The following changes were approved:
1st indicator: The section "Proposed changes" did not include the addition of value 3 for "Dial-up"; this will be added.
Subfield $b: The phone number needs to be standardized. The MARBI chair will contact NISO to see if there is such a standard. In its absence, the phone number will be input as follows: country code followed by hyphen; area code followed by hyphen; rest of number followed by hyphen; extension preceded by "x" (if applicable). If the latter is not applicable, the phone number ends after the last portion of the number (e.g., 1-202-707-6237; in this case "1" is the country code for U.S.). Local systems will be able to determine which part of the number it needs to dial. Guidelines for inputting phone numbers will be specified in the format. The field needs to be made repeatable. It may be repeated if there is more than one phone number and all the other data in the field is the same. Phone numbers recorded in other USMARC formats will specify the same conventions.
Subfield $j: The data will be recorded with lowest BPS first and highest second, separated by a hyphen. If there is only lowest it is followed by a hyphen; if there is only highest it is preceded by a hyphen.
Subfield $r: Guidelines should explicitly specified the possible values: O (Odd), E (Even), N (None), S (Space), M (Mark).
Subfield $u: "URL:" will be taken out of the example. It will be specified that the subfield is repeatable if all the rest of the data in the field is the same. Subfield $2: The list of codes will be in a code list, rather than in the format.
2/16/95 - Results of final LC review - Agreed with the MARBI decisions.
PROPOSAL NO. 95-1 Changes to Field 856 (Electronic Location and Access) I. BACKGROUND Proposal No. 94-9 (Changes to the USMARC Bibliographic Format to Accommodate Online Systems and Services) and Discussion Paper No. 78 (Location and Access Information for Non-Internet Resources in USMARC Records) addressed location and access information for catalog records for electronic resources. 94-9 was intended to accommodate USMARC records for online systems and services, while previously only records for electronic data resources (electronic text, software, data files, bibliographic databases, electronic graphics files, etc.) were accommodated. The discussion also revealed a need to align access method with the schemes specified in the URL draft standard. Discussion Paper No. 78 generally attempted to accommodate location and access information for non- Internet resources. It was initiated by the Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM), although the need had been previously noted. This standard has mapped its data elements to MARC, and requires that specific information on dial-up access to electronic resources be included. II. ACCESS METHOD The discussion of 94-9 indicated a need to define codes for access methods that use value 7 (Method specified in subfield $2) in the first indicator in field 856 (Electronic Location and Access). It was suggested that subfield $2 be coordinated with access methods defined in the Internet Engineering Task Force's Uniform Resource Locator (URL) draft standard. The following are access schemes specified in the Internet-Draft URL standard, with their accompanying definitions. Corresponding USMARC data elements are given where applicable. (The full URL document is available by anonymous FTP from: ds.internic.net\internet-drafts\draft-ietf-uri- url-08.txt.) ftp File Transfer protocol The FTP URL scheme is used to designate files and directories on Internet hosts accessible using the FTP protocol (RFC959). (Accommodated by 1st indicator, value 1) http Hypertext Transfer Protocol The HTTP URL scheme is used to designate Internet resources accessible using HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol). gopher Gopher protocol The Gopher URL scheme is used to designate Internet resources accessible using the Gopher protocol. The base Gopher protocol is described in RFC 1436 and supports items and collections of items (directories). mailto Electronic mail address The mailto URL scheme is used to designate the Internet mailing address of an individual or service. No additional information other than an Internet mailing address is present or implied. (Accommodated by 1st indicator, value 0) news USENET news The news URL scheme is used to refer to either news groups or individual articles of USENET news, as specified in RFC 1036. nntp USENET news using NNTP access The nntp URL scheme is an alternative method of referencing news articles, useful for specifying news articles from NNTP servers (RFC 977). telnet Reference to interactive sessions The Telnet URL scheme is used to designate interactive services that may be accessed by the Telnet protocol. (Accommodated by 1st indicator, value 2) wais Wide Area Information Servers The WAIS URL scheme is used to designate WAIS databases, searches, or individual documents available from a WAIS database. The WAIS protocol is described in RFC 1625 ; Although the WAIS protocol is based on Z39.50-1988, the WAIS URL scheme is not intended for use with arbitrary Z39.50 services. file Host-specific file names The file URL scheme is used to designate files accessible on a particular host computer. This scheme, unlike most other URL schemes, does not designate a resource that is universally accessible over the Internet. prospero Prospero Directory Service The Prospero URL scheme is used to designate resources that are accessed via the Prospero Directory Service. Each scheme not given its own value in field 856, 1st indicator, could be coded as value 7 (Source specified in subfield $2), and that subfield will contain the specific access method. Field 856 subfield $2 indicates that the access method used is controlled by an authoritative list maintained at the Library of Congress. The above values could be used in such a list. The URL document states that other schemes may be specified by future specifications; Section 4 of the document describes how new schemes may be registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and lists some scheme names that are under development. The USMARC authoritative list should remain consistent with those registered with IANA. III. HOURS HOST IS AVAILABLE A subfield is needed for hours that the electronic location is available. This data element may be distinguished from the hours the electronic resource itself is available, if the record is one for an online system or service. In that case, as discussed with Proposal No. 94-9, field 307 (which will replace field 301 (Hours, etc.)) contains the hours of the resource itself. However, the particular access method described in field 856 could have different hours. For instance, "BIOSIS Previews" can be mounted on the University of California system under GLADIS or on the Harvard system under HOLLIS, as well as by BRS/After Dark. A record for the electronic resource BIOSYS Previews could contain separate 856 fields for each host that makes it available, and each could have different hours. IV. ACCESS FOR NON-INTERNET RESOURCES The consensus of participants in the USMARC Advisory Group discussion of Discussion Paper No. 78 was that field 856 should be used for both Internet and non-Internet resources, with the access method indicated in the first indicator (to include a value for non-Internet, or dial-up access). It was determined that the telephone number could be recorded in subfield $b (currently IP address) if it were generalized. Two new subfields would be needed to accommodate the other data elements needed for dial-up access, Highest and Lowest bits per second (BPS) used for transmission of data, and Settings (Number DataBits; Number StopBits; Parity). Settings could be included with specified syntax, such as hyphens separating each piece of data. It was determined that if a resource had both an Internet location and one available through dial-up access, two 856 fields would be given, with the applicable information repeated in separate subfields in each field. The following are definitions for the new data elements, repeated from Discussion Paper No. 78. Dialup telephone number: contains the telephone number used for electronic access. If there are more than one they are repeated in separate fields. Data could be included in 856$b if it were generalized. Currently it is IP address; its definition could be changed to Access number to accommodate both IP address and telephone number. Lowest BPS: contains the lowest number of bits per second used for transmission of data. Highest BPS: contains the highest number of bits per second used for transmission of data. The two above could be contained in 856$j (BPS). The syntax could be: lowest/highest, e.g. 1200/9600. Number DataBits: contains the data bits, or number of bits per character. Number StopBits: contains the stop bits, or the number of bits to signal the end of a byte. Parity: contains the parity checking technique used. The three above could be contained in 856$r (Settings). The syntax could be: Parity-Number DataBits-Number StopBits separated by hyphens, e.g. E-7-1. V. PROPOSED CHANGES The following is presented for consideration: - In the USMARC Holdings/Bibliographic Formats, define the following subfields in Field 856 (Electronic Location and Access) $j Bits Per Second (BPS) (NR) [Syntax of data <Highest BPS>-<Lowest BPS> If only lowest given: -<Lowest BPS> If only highest given: <Highest BPS> $r Settings (NR) [Syntax of data <Parity>-<Number DataBits>-<Number StopBits>] If only Parity given: <Parity> If only one of the other two given, leave data blank but include hyphens, e.g., <Parity>--<Number StopBits> <Parity>-Number DataBits>- $v Hours access method is available (R) - Change the definition of 856$b from IP Address to Access number. - Include codes for access methods in Field 856$2 consistent with those defined in the URL draft standard. See Attachment A for a description of this field if this proposal is approved. ------------------------------------------------------------------- ATTACHMENT A < > indicates addition; [ ] indicates deletion 856 Electronic Location and Access (R) Indicators First Access method 0 Email 1 FTP 2 Remote login (Telnet) < 3 Dial-up> 7 Method specified in subfield 2 Second Undefined Undefined Subfield Codes a Host name (R) b [IP address] <Access number> (NR) c Compression information (R) d Path (R) f Electronic name (R) g Electronic name -- End of range (R) h Processor of request (NR) i Instruction (R) < j BPS (NR)> k Password (NR) l Logon/login (NR) m Contact for access assistance (R) n Name of location of host in subfield a (NR) o Operating system (NR) p Port (NR) q File transfer mode (NR) < r Settings (NR)> s File size (R) t Terminal emulation (R) u Uniform Resource Locator (R) < v Hours access method available (R)> w Record control number (R) x Nonpublic note (R) z Public note (R) 2 Access method (NR) 3 Materials specified (NR) FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE This field contains the information required to locate an electronic item. The information identifies the electronic location containing the item or from which it is available. It also contains information to retrieve the item by the access method identified in the first indicator position. The information contained in this field is sufficient to allow for the electronic transfer of a file, subscription to an electronic journal, or logon to a library catalog. In some cases, only unique data elements are recorded which allow the user to access a locator table on a remote host containing the remaining information needed to access the item. Field 856 is repeated when the location data elements vary (subfields $a, $b, $d) and when more than one access method may be used. It is also repeated whenever the electronic filename varies (subfield $f), except for the situation when a single intellectual item is divided into different parts for online storage or retrieval. (This field is identical to field 856 (Electronic Location and Access) defined in the USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data.) GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS INDICATORS First Indicator - Access method The first indicator position contains a value that defines how the rest of the data in the field will be used. If the resource is available by more than one method, the field is repeated with data appropriate to each method. The methods defined are the main TCP/IP protocols. The value in the first indicator position determines which subfields are appropriate for use. For example, when first indicator value 1 (FTP) is used, subfields $d (Path), $f (Electronic name), $c (Compression information), and $s (File size) are appropriate, whereas they would not be with first indicator value 2 (Remote login (Telnet)). 0 - Email Value 0 indicates that access to the electronic resource is through email. This access includes subscribing to an electronic journal or electronic forum through software intended to be used by an email system. 1 - FTP Value 1 indicates that the access to the electronic resource is through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Additional information in subfields of the record may enable the user to transfer the resource electronically. 2 - Remote login (Telnet) Value 2 indicates that access to the electronic resource is through remote login (Telnet). Additional information in subfields of the record may enable the user to connect to the resource electronically. < 3 - Dial-up Value 3 indicates that access to the electronic resource is through dial-up by use of a telephone line. Additional information in subfields of the record may enable the user to connect to the resource.> 7 - Method specified in subfield $2 Value 7 indicates that access to the electronic resource is through a method other than the defined values and for which an identifying code is given in subfield $2 (Source of access). Second Indicator - Undefined The second indicator position is undefined and contains a blank ($). SUBFIELD CODES $a - Host name Subfield $a contains the fully qualified domain (host name) of the electronic location. It contains a network address which is repeated if there is more than one address for the same host. The convention for a BITNET address is to add .bitnet. 856 1#$aharvada.harvard.edu$aharvarda.bitnet $b - [IP address] <Access number> Subfield $b contains the [Internet Protocol (IP) numeric address] <access number> associated with a host. <It can contain the Internet protocol (IP) numeric address if an Internet resource, or a telephone number if access is through a telephone line.> This data <may> change[s] frequently and [is] <may be> generated by the system, rather than statically stored. 856 2#$aanthrax.micro.umn.edu$b188.8.131.52 < 856 3#$b12027072316$j2400/9600$nLibrary of Congress, Washington, DC$oUNIX$rE-7-1$tvt100 $zRequires logon and password> $c - Compression information Subfield $c contains information about the compression of a file. If a specific program is required to decompress the file, it is noted here. The filename in subfield $f may indicate the type of compression by its extension (portion after "." or first space). The subfield may be repeated if two compression programs are used, noting the latest compression first. 856 1#$amaine.maine.edu$cMust be decompressed with PKUNZIP$fresource.zip $d - Path Subfield $d contains the path with directory names where the file is stored. The filename itself is recorded in subfield $f. This may be a surrogate path leading the user to the host where complete and current access information is stored in a locator table. 856 1#$awuarchive.wustl.edu$d/aii/admin/CAT.games$fmac- qubic.22.hqx $f - Electronic name Subfield $f contains the electronic name as it exists in the directory indicated in subfield $d, on the host machine in subfield $a. It may be repeated if a single logical file has been divided into parts and stored under different names, but that together constitute a single intellectual item. In all other cases, a file that may be retrieved under different filenames contains two 856 fields in the record, each with a different subfield $f. A filename may include wildcard characters (*) if applicable (with a subfield $z note explaining how fields are named). A filename may be case sensitive for some systems. 856 1#$awuarchive.wustl.edu$dmirrors/info-mac/util$fcolor- system-icons.hqx 856 0#$akentvm.bitnet$facadlist file1$facadlist file2$facadlist file3 This subfield also contains the name of the electronic publication or conference. 856 0#$auicvm.bitnet$fAN2 $g - Electronic name -- End of range Subfield $g contains the name of the last physical file in a sequence when the resource is contained in more than one physical file. This subfield is generally used when the repetition of subfield $f is not possible. 856 1#$asunx.loc.gov$dLCPP04A$f4A49751$g4A49755 $h - Processor of request Subfield $h contains the username, or processor of the request; generally the data which precedes the @ in the host address. 856 0#$auicvm.bitnet$fAN2$hListserv $i - Instruction Subfield $i contains an instruction or command needed for the remote host to process a request. 856 0#$auccvma.bitnet$fIR-L$hListserv$isubscribe <$j - Bits per second Subfield $j contains the lowest and highest bits per second used for transmission of data. Syntax of data should be: <Highest BPS>-<Lowest BPS>. If only lowest given: -<Lowest BPS>; If only highest given: <Highest BPS>. 856 0#$b12027072316$j2400/9600$nLibrary of Congress, Washington, DC$oUNIX$r7-1-E > $k - Password Subfield $k contains the password required to access the resource. An FTP site may require the user to enter an Internet address or may require a specific password, or a library catalog may require a password. If a password is required but anything may be used, this subfield need not be used. This subfield is used for general use passwords, not for any requiring security. Textual instructions about passwords are contained in subfield $z (Public note). 856 1#$aharvarda.harvard.edu$kguest $l - Logon/login Subfield $l contains characters needed to logon to a library catalog or FTP site. Often with anonymous file transfer the logon is "anonymous." An account number required for login may also be indicated. This subfield should be used for general use logins, not for any requiring security. 856 1#$aunmvm.bitnet$lanonymous $m - Contact for access assistance Subfield $m contains the contact for access assistance to the resource at the host specified in subfield $a. 856 2#$agopac.berkeley.edu$mRoy Tennant $n - Name of location of host in subfield $a Subfield $n contains the full name of the location of the host in subfield $a, including its geographical location. 856 2#$apucc.princeton.edu$nPrinceton University, Princeton, N.J. $o - Operating system For informational purposes, operating system for the host name specified in subfield $a is indicated here. Conventions for path and filenames may be dependent on the operating system. For the operating system of the resource itself (i.e., the title recorded in field 245), rather than the operating system of the host making it available, field 753 (Technical Details Access to Computer Files), subfield $c (Operating system) in the USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data is used in the related bibliographic record. 856 1#$aseq1.loc.gov$d/pub/soviet.archive $fk1famine.bkg$nLibrary of Congress, Washington, D.C.$oUNIX $p - Port Subfield $p contains the portion of the address that identifies a process or service in the host. 856 2#$amadlab.sprl.umich.edu$nUniversity of Michigan Weather Underground$p3000 $q - File transfer mode Subfield $q contains the file transfer mode, which determines how the file is transferred through the network. A normal ASCII file contains certain characters which are translated between systems to make the text files more readable. A file with non- ASCII characters must be transferred using another file transfer mode. 856 1#$aarchive.cis.ohio-state.edu $dpub/comp.sources.Unix/volume 10$fcomobj.lisp.10.Z$qbinary <$r - Settings Subfield $r contains the settings used for transfer of data. Included are: Number Data Bits (number of bits per character); Number Stop Bits (number of bits to signal the end of a byte); and Parity (parity checking technique used). Syntax of data is: <Parity>-<Number DataBits>-<Number StopBits>. If only Parity given: <Parity>. If only one of the other two given, leave data blank but include hyphens, e.g., <Parity>--<Number StopBits> <Parity>-Number DataBits>- 856 3#$b12027072316$j2400/9600$nLibrary of Congress, Washington, DC$oUNIX$rE-7-1$tvt100 $zRequires logon and password> $s - File size Subfield $s contains the size of the file as stored under the filename indicated in subfield $f. It is generally expressed in terms of bytes. It may be repeated in cases where the filename is repeated and is recorded directly following the subfield $f to which it applies. This information would not be given for an electronic journal, since the field relates to the entire title, not to particular issues. 856 1#$awuarchive.wustl.edu$dmirrors/info-mac/util$fcolor- system-icons.hqx$s16874 bytes 856 0#$akeptvm.bitnet$facadlist file1$s34,989 bytes $facadlist file2$s32,876 bytes$facadlist file3 $s23987 bytes $t - Terminal emulation Subfield $t contains the terminal emulation supported when necessary to specify for remote login (first indicator contains value 2 (Remote login (Telnet)). 856 2#$amaine.maine.edu$nUniversity of Maine$t3270 $u - Uniform Resource Locator Subfield $u contains the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), which provides standard syntax for locating an object using existing Internet protocols. Field 856 is structured to create a URL from separate subfields. Subfield $u may be used instead of those separate subfields or in addition to them. It might be desirable to include subfield $u and the other subfields if a user display is desired as well as a URL. The field is repeated if more than one URL needs to be recorded. 856 1#$uURL: ftp://path.net/pub/docs/urn2urc.ps <$v - Hours access method available Subfield $v contains the hours that access to the resource at the electronic location indicated in this field is available. If the record is for a system or service the hours it is available are recorded in field 307 (Hours, etc.). This subfield is only for the hours at the specific location indicated in field 856. 856 2#$apac.carl.org$b184.108.40.206$mCARL Situation Room$mhelp@CARL.org$nCARL Systems Inc., Denver, CO $v24 hours 856 3#$alocis.loc.gov$b220.127.116.11 $firstname.lastname@example.org $t3270$tline mode (e.g., vt100)$vM-F 6:00 a.m.-21:30 p.m. USA EST, Sat. 8:30-17:00 USA EST, Sun. 13:00-17:00 USA EST > $w - Record control number Subfield $w contains the system control number of the related record preceded by the USMARC code, enclosed in parentheses, for the agency to which the control number applies. The data in the subfield links field 856 to the USMARC record having the same data in a control number field. (The source of the code is Symbols of American Libraries that is maintained by the Library of Congress.) $x - Nonpublic note Subfield $x contains a note relating to the electronic location of the source identified in the field. The note is written in a form that is not adequate for public display or contains processing information about the file at the location specified. 856 1#$awuarchive.wustl.edu$cdecompress with PKUNZIP.exe$d/mirrors2/win3/games$fatmoids. zip$xcannot verify because of transfer difficulty $z - Public note Subfield $z contains a note relating to the electronic location of the source identified in the field. The note is written in a form that is adequate for public display. $2 - Access method Subfield $2 contains the access method when the first indicator position contains value 7 (Method specified in subfield $2). This subfield may include access methods other than the three main TCP/IP protocols specified in the first indicator. This subfield is controlled by an authoritative list maintained at the Library of Congress. <It contains one of the following codes: http Hypertext Transfer Protocol The HTTP URL scheme is used to designate Internet resources accessible using HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol). gopher Gopher protocol The Gopher URL scheme is used to designate Internet resources accessible using the Gopher protocol. The base Gopher protocol is described in RFC 1436 and supports items and collections of items (directories). news USENET news The news URL scheme is used to refer to either news groups or individual articles of USENET news, as specified in RFC 1036. nntp USENET news using NNTP access The nntp URL scheme is an alternative method of referencing news articles, useful for specifying news articles from NNTP servers (RFC 977). wais Wide Area Information Servers The WAIS URL scheme is used to designate WAIS databases, searches, or individual documents available from a WAIS database. The WAIS protocol is described in RFC 1625 ; Although the WAIS protocol is based on Z39.50-1988, the WAIS URL scheme is not intended for use with arbitrary Z39.50 services. file Host-specific file names The file URL scheme is used to designate files accessible on a particular host computer. This scheme, unlike most other URL schemes, does not designate a resource that is universally accessible over the Internet. prospero Prospero Directory Service The Prospero URL scheme is used to designate resources that are accessed via the Prospero Directory Service. > $3 - Materials specified Subfield $3 contains information that specifies the part of the bibliographic item to which the field applies. 856 0#$3Finding aid to the Edgar F. Kaiser papers$agopher.berkeley.edu$b128.224.55$kguest $lanonymous$mReference Services, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, tel. 510-642-6481 $nThe Library, University of California, Berkeley$oUNIX$p70 $qbinary$s2,394,394,444$xThe finding aid to the Kaiser papers is currently under revision. $zFor further information about shipbuilding files, contact The Bancroft Library Reference INPUT CONVENTIONS Embedded Holdings Information When holdings information is embedded in a USMARC bibliographic record, no additional 856 field is input. Multiple 856 fields may be used only when the information does not include other holdings information fields that must be linked to a specific 856 field for intelligibility. However, subfield $3 may be used to specify a subset of the item to which the 856 information is applicable. RELATED USMARC FIELD OR DOCUMENT Symbols of American Libraries USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data: 753 Technical Details Access to Computer Files USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data: 856 Electronic Location and Access <Uniform Resource Locators (URL)>