NAME: Addition of Subfield $b to Field 154 (General Explanatory Index Term) in the USMARC Classification Format
SOURCE: Library of Congress
SUMMARY: This paper proposes the addition of a subfield to field 154 to record a succeeding level or subdivision of a general explanatory index term in the USMARC Classification Format. It is needed for the Library of Congress Classification scheme when a general term refers the user to another term, because there is not one classification number to refer to. It aligns the structure of the field with field 753, which is used for the explanatory note.
KEYWORDS: Field 154 (Classification); Subfield $b, in field 154 (Classification); General Explanatory Index Term (Classification)
12/2/94 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the February 1995 MARBI meetings.
2/4/95 - Results of USMARC Adivsory Group discussion - Approved.
2/16/95 - Results of final LC review - Approved.
PROPOSAL NO. 95-5: Addition of Subfield $b to Field 154 (General Explanatory Index Term) I. BACKGROUND The Library of Congress is converting all of the Library of Congress Classification schedules into the USMARC Classification Format. During the development and approval process of this format, it was not certain which data elements LCC might use. A field was developed particularly to accommodate National Library of Medicine Classification, that it is was also expected would be applicable for Dewey Decimal Classification, to allow for a general term that does not point to any particular classification number, but to other topics. At the time, it was not expected that LCC needed this field. Index terms (generally, subject terms that are found in the back-of-the-book index to a classification schedule) are input into the record for the number to which they refer. For example, the index to the H schedule has an entry: Pipes Building supplies industry: HD9715.9.P56-HD9715.9.P564 The index term is recorded in field 753 (Index Term--Uncontrolled) in the record that contains HD9715.9.P56-.P64 in field 153. There are occasions where there are references in the index to other terms. Where possible, that term is recorded in another 753 field of the record in which the referred term appears. For example: the following terms are in the H schedule index: Multiple employment: see Supplementary employment Supplementary employment: HD6490.F6 Both terms are recorded in separate 753 fields in the record for HD6490.F6. Some instances occur where the reference points to another term that does not refer to one classification number. It may have several subtopics under it, or it may point to a general area. For instance, the term Automatic data processing has a reference to Electronic data processing. Under Electronic data processing are listed 21 subtopics with their classification numbers, but there is no general number for Electronic data processing as a whole: Automatic data processing, see Electronic data processing Electronic data processing Advertising: HF5828.2 Banking: HG1709 Demography: HB849.5 Financial management: HG4012.5 Industrial relations: HD6961.2 ... To include the variant term in field 753 of a classification record would require that it be repeated in each record with the subtopic. Such a practice is redundant and difficult for maintenance. Alternatively, field 154 (General Explanatory Index Term) can be used for this type of situation, or for situations that refer to a general area. The record would contain field 154 with the term and a field 753 with the reference. The situation above (Automatic data processing) would be coded as follows: 154 $aAutomatic data processing 753 $uElectronic data processing [753$u is defined as "Use reference term" and could enable a system to generate a print constant "see".] 153 $aHF5828.2 [$h hierarchy subfields] $jData processing 753 $aElectronic data processing $bAdvertising In the records for each subtopic under Electronic data processing, there would be a 753$aElectronic data processing with the subtopic in 753$b, but the general reference from Automatic data processing would only be in the record for the general index term. Although it has not occured frequently, there could be situations where there is a subtopic under the general explanatory index term. It is possible, however, to include subtopics under the index term in field 753, in subfield $b. If the term is a reference and recorded in $u, there is a subfield $v (Use reference term--succeeding level) in which to record the subtopic. However, there is no such subfield in field 154 for a succeeding level. The following example is from the KJ-KKZ schedule: Administration Criminal justice: KJA3525 Higher education: KJC6314 Organization, see Organization and administration ... While there are 32 subtopics under Administration with corresponding classification numbers, under Organization and administration there is no general number. Currently, there is not way to consider "Organization" a subtopic under the general term "Administration". The coding should be as follows: 154 $aAdministration $bOrganization 753 $uOrganization and administration (The other subtopics in the example above would be recorded in a 753 field in the record for the number to which they refer.) Such coding allows for the appropriate hierarchical relationships to be apparent in the index terms and aligns the structure of field 154 with that of field 753. II. PROPOSED CHANGE The following is presented for consideration: - Add subfield $b (General explanatory index term-- Succeeding level) in field 154 of the USMARC Classification Format. See Attachment A for a description of this field if this proposal is approved. ------------------------------------------------------------------ ATTACHMENT A 154 General Explanatory Index Term (NR) Indicators First Undefined Undefined Second Undefined Undefined Subfield Codes $a General explanatory index term (NR) < $b General explanatory index term--Succeeding level (R)> FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE This field contains a general explanatory term from the index to the classification scheme that is identified in field 084 (Classification Scheme and Edition). Field 154 is appropriate only in an index term only record (008/06, Kind of record, code c) that is created because the index term cannot be accommodated in a 70X- 75X Index Term field in a schedule or table record (008/06, code a or b) that contains a classification number in field 153 (Classification Number). This occurs when the index term is not associated with one classification number or span. Field 753 (Index Term--Uncontrolled) is always used in a record containing field 154 to direct the user to different locations within the classification scheme for classifying the topic. GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS INDICATORS Both indicator positions are undefined; each contains a blank (#). SUBFIELD CODE $a - General explanatory index term Subfield $a contains a general explanatory index term representing a general concept that may be found in numerous places in the classification scheme identified in field 084 (Classification Scheme and Edition). <$b - General explanatory index term--Succeeding level Subfield $b contains a term at a level after the first in a general explanatory index term.> EXAMPLES 008/06 c [index term only record] 084 0#$anlm$c4th ed., rev. [National Library of Medicine Classification] 154 ##$aResearch 753 ##$i(Form number 20 or 20.5 in any NLM schedule where applicable) 753 ##$iOther fields outside the NLM area, in appropriate LC number 008/06 c [index term only record] 084 0#$anlm$c4th ed., rev. [National Library of Medicine Classification] 154 ##$aFollow-up studies 753 ##$i(Form number 20 in any NLM schedule where applicable) 753 ##$iIn a particular area, with the subject of the original study, e.g. Heart Diseases, $eWG 200 008/06 c [index term only record] 084 0#$addc$bSistema de Clasificación Decimal$c1980$espa 154 ##$aEl 753 ##$iv.a. la palabra que sigue al artículo en los nombres geográficos que comienzan con el artículo "el" [Translation of 753: see also the word that follows the article in geographic names that begin with the article "el"] < 008/06 c [index term only record] 084 0#$alcc [Library of Congress Classification] 154 ##$aAdministration$bOrganization 753 ##$uOrganization and administration> RELATED USMARC DOCUMENT/FIELD 008/06 Kind of record 084 Classification Scheme and Edition 753 Index Term--Uncontrolled