DATE: May 5, 1995

NAME: Improved Coding for Citation Data in Field 524


SUMMARY: This paper proposes the addition of a subfield $2 (schema used) and the subfield $3 (Materials specified to note field 524 (Preferred Citation of Described Materials Note) in the Bibliographic format to make the field more useful for citations, especially law citations. In addition the field should be made repeatable.


KEYWORDS: Citations; Field 524 (Preferred Citation of Described Materials Note); Subfield $2 (524); Subfield $3 (524)


5/5/95 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the June 1995 MARBI meeting.

6/24/95 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Approved.

9/12/95 - Results of final LC review - Approved. Agreed with MARBI decisions.

PROPOSAL NO. 95-13:  Improved Coding for Citation Data in Field 524


This proposal will let catalogers more effectively and consistently
add citation data, whatever its source or format, to bibliographic
records.  It should be emphasized that this proposal will not
commit libraries to begin adding citation data to their records. 
It simply improves the tools for doing so, should it be thought

Like most bibliographic data, citation data potentially has both
display and retrieval functions.  The display function provides the
catalog user with a helpful directive on how to cite the work, thus
saving the user the time and trouble needed to derive the cite from
the "Bluebook" (A Uniform System of Citation (Cambridge, Mass. :
Harvard Law Review Assoication), 15th ed. (1991), the dominant
authority for legal citation in the United States) or other source.

The retrieval function (assuming that the library had citation data
indexed in some fashion), would frequently enable a user to look up
a cite in the catalog without having to translate the cite into a
title proper or other traditionally indexed form.  This would pay
off mostly in the case of uncommon cites or extensive cite checking

In some cases citation data might also serve a (secondary)
collating function.  For example, AACR2 successive entry
descriptions of serials sometimes split works which from the legal
citation point of view are one and consequently have the same
citation form.  In such cases, a look up by cite would lead to all
bibliographic manifestations of the citation.

Presumably, law libraries would confine citation data to primary
materials, loose-leaf services, law reviews, and similar material. 
Bluebook cites for treatises are largely straightforward recastings
of author, title, edition, and date of publication data which is
already easily accessible from the MARC record.

The MARC bibliographic format currently contains a field for
citation notes, field 524 (Preferred Citation of Described
Materials Note).  This field has been little used in law
cataloging.  Law libraries that have chosen to add citation data
have typically used a general purpose note field (e.g. the 500
field) rather than field 524.  Some add the citation to field 246
for indexing purposes, etc.  From the point of view of retrieval
and display labeling, field 524 would be better, being more
explicit, but it lacks the structure needed to handle citation data
in a complete way.  Two changes are needed to address these
problems: (1) making the field 524 repeatable and (2) adding
subfields to the field 524 for source of citation and materials



The citation field needs to be repeatable because of the
possibility of competing citations for the same work.  Many such
conflicts are conceivable, between legal and non-legal citation
forms or between foreign and American schemes.  (For an overview of
legal citation practices, see Fundamentals of Legal Research (6th
ed. 1994), p.554-569.)

Multiple citations are also necessary when a single bibliographic
record describes multiple works, each with its own cite or when a
single record describes multiple versions of a work, each with its
own cite.  The emergence of "public domain" legal citation schemes
and electronic legal publishing may cause cases requiring multiple
citations to proliferate.

Source of Citations

Currently field 524 has no subfielding other than $a for the note
and $6 for alternate graphic links.  The field lacks structure for
coding anything apart from the bare citation.  Consequently there
is no way to formally indicate the source or citation scheme of the
cite specified in the field.  Because there are many citation
schemes in actual use and because citation schemes change over
time, universal citation coding must explicitly indicate the source
and/or style of a citation.

Competing citation systems make source tagging imperative.  Without
a source, it will be impossible for users to distinguish between
multiple citations; nor will it be possible for the user to assess
the currency of a citation.

Pragmatically catalogers will not always be in a position to verify
or translate citations into some ideal or up-to-date form.  For
example, a library might choose to use Bieber's Dictionary of Legal
Citation to add cite notes for law reviews.  Although the Bieber
cite is presumably identical to the Bluebook cite, it is important
to tag such cite notes with their actual origin, including edition
and date of publication data.  Without this information it will be
impossible for users or librarians to make reasonable judgements
about the actual status of a cite.

For these reasons, the proposal calls for adding a subfield $2 to
field 524 for source data.  Subfield $2 would contain a USMARC
source code for the citation system.  A USMARC code list for
citation sources would be needed.  The law library community could
contribute candidates for such a coded list.  
     524  ##   Ill. Legis. Serv. (West)$2bdlc1992
     [Citation is from current edition of Bieber's Dictionary of
     Legal Citation (4th ed. 1992)]

Materials Specified

Field 524 also lacks a means of specifying precisely to what the
citation pertains.  At present field 524 citations implicitly apply
to the entire entity described by the bibliographic record. 
Multiple version cataloging and other considerations discussed
above make this inadequate.  For these reasons, a subfield $3 is
needed for materials specified. Subfield $3 would contain an
explicit statement concerning to what the cite in $a applies if it
is not to the entire entity.


   --     Add the following subfields to field 524 (Preferred
Citation of Described Materials Note):

          $2   Source of schema used
          $3   Materials specified

   --     Make field 524 repeatable.

Example 1 (Serial cataloged by National Library of Canada with
citation according to the Guide to Legal Citations (2nd. ed.

022  0#   $a0702-9683
040  ##   $aCaOONL$bfre$cCaOONL$dDLC$dCaOONL
043  ##   $an-cn-qu
082  ##   $a344.714/03$219
110  1#   $aQuebec (Province).$bcommission des affaires sociales
222  #0   $aDecisions de la Commission des affaires sociales
245  10   $aDecisions de la commission des affaires sociales.
246  10   $aTables cumulatives de concordance et de legislation
          citee, 1975 a 1982
246  10   $aRecueil de jurisprudence
260  ##   $aQuebec :$bEditeur officiel du Quebec, $cl976-[1993?]
300  ##   $av. ;$c24 cm.
362  1#   $aNe parait plus apres fasc. 3 (1992).
500  ##   $a"Recueil de jurisprudence".
515  ##   $aLa numerotation des livr. de 1976-1985 reprend a
          chaque annee avec le v. 1, celle des livr. de 1986-  ,
          avec le fasc. 1.
524  ##   $aC.A.S.$2glc1988
555  ##   $aIndex publie en 1984? sous le titre: Tables cumulatives
          de concordance et de legislation citee, 1975 a 1982.
650  #0   $aPublic welfare$xlaw and legislation$zQuebec
650  #6   $aAide sociale$xDroit$zQuebec (Province)$xjurisprudence. 
710  20   $aSociete quebecoise d'information juridique.

Example 2 (Reporter cataloged originally in 1932 with citation from
current edition of Bluebook):

010  ##   $a32019830
043  ##   $an-us-nd$an-us-sd
050  ##   $aKFN8630$b.A2
110  1#   $aDakota.$bSupreme court
245  10   $aReports of cases argued and determined in the Supreme
          court of the territory of Dakota :$bfrom its organization
          to [October, 1889]
260  ##   $aYankton, Dakota ;$bBowen and Kingsbury,$cl879-94 
300  ##   $a6 v. ;$c23 cm.
500  ##   $aTitle varies: v. 1-4, Reports of cases argued and
          determined in the Supreme court of the territory of
          Dakota. v. 5, Reports of cases determined in the Supreme
          court of Dakota territory. v. 6, Reports of cases decided
          in the Supreme court of the territory of Dakota
500  ##   $aImprint varies: v. 1-2, Yankton, Dakota, Bowen and
          Kingsbury, 1879-82; v. 3, Yankton, Dakota, L. E.
          Cavalier, 1889; v. 4, Pierre, Carter publishing company,
          1894; v. 5, St. Paul, Minn., West publishing company,
          1889; v. 6, Chicago, E.B. Myers and company, 1891
500  ##   $aReporters: v. 1, G. G. Bennett -- v. 2-4, E. G. Smith
          -- v. 5-6, R.B. Tripp 
500  ##   $aOn cover: Dakota reports
524  ##   $aDakota$2usc1991
610  10   $aDakota$bSupreme court
650  #0   $aLaw reports, digests, etc.$zDakota
700  11   $aBennett, Granville Gaylord,$d1933-1910
700  11   $aSmith, Ellison Griffith,$d1994-
700  11   $aTripp, Robert B
740  01   $aDakota reports

Example 3 (Source of the citation is the publisher of the work
cited.  Legal publishers sometimes print a citation statement on
the work.  Typically these appear just after or before the title
page and are often prefixed by the phrase "Cite as ..." or the

020  ##   $a0316322997
043  ##   $an-us-il
100  10   $aCleary, Fdward W.
240  10   $aHandbook of Illinois evidence
245  10   $aCleary & Graham's Handbook of Illinois
250  ##   $a4th ed. /$bMichael H. Graham
260  0#   $aBoston :$bLittle, Brown,$ccl984
300  ##   $axlii, 768 p. ;$c24 cm
500  ##   $aFirst-3rd eds. have title: Handbook of Illinois
500  ##   $aIncludes index
500  ##   $aKept to date by pocket parts
524  ##   $aCleary & Graham's Handbook of Illinois (4th ed.
650  #0   $aEvidence (Law)$zIllinois
700  10   $aGraham, Michael H.

Example 4 (This citation illustrates collation by citation. The
citation follows Uniform System of Citation (15th ed. 1991)):

022  0#   8750-2631
043  ##   $an-use--$an-usl--
050  0#   $aKF135.A7$bA812
222  0#   $aAtlantic reporter. Second series
245  00   $aAtlantic reporter, second series
260  ##   $aSt. Paul, Minn. :$bWest Pub. Co.,$cl939-1988
300  ##   $a531 v. ;$c26 cm
310  ##   $aWeekly, with bound cumulations
362  0#   $aVol. 1 (Sept.-Nov., 1938)-v. 531 ([1988])
440  #0   $aNational reporter system.$pstate series
500  ##   $a"Cases argued and determined in the courts of
          Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire,
          New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont."
524  ##   $aA.2d.$2usc1991
580  ##   $aCitations to all cases reported are compiled in:
          Shepard's Atlantic reporter citations
650  #0   $aLaw reports, digests, etc.$zAtlantic States
710  20   $aWest Publishing Company
730  #1   $aShepard's Atlantic reporter citations
780  00   $tAtlantic reporter
785  00   $tWest's Atlantic reporter, second series
787  1#   $tShepard's Atlantic reporter citations$xO730-2053

Example 5 (Example of work with multliple publisher constructed

040  ##   $aNNU-L$cNNU-L
043  ##   $ae-gw---
100  1#   $aLorz, Albert.
245  10   $aBundesjagdgesetz :$bmit Landesrecht, Verordnung uber
          die Jagdzeiten und Bundeswildschutzverordnung
          Fischereischeinrecht Seefischereirecht /$cvon Albert
265  ##   $aMunchen :$bBeck,$cl991
300  ##   $axv, 293 p. ;$cl9 cm.
440  #0   $aBecksche Kurz-Kommentare :$vBd. 38
504  ##   $aIncludes bibliographical references and index.
524  ##   $3Bundesjagdgesetz$aBJagdG$2publisher
524  ##   $3Bundeswildschutzverordnung$aBWildSchV$2publisher
650  #0   $aGame-laws$zGermany (West)
650  #0   $aWildlife conservation$xLaw and legislation$zGermany
650  #0   $aFishery law and legislation$zGermany (West)
710  12   Germany (West)$tBundesjagdgesetz.$f1980.
710  12   Germany (West)$tFischereischeingesetz.$fl980.

Go to:

Library of Congress
Library of Congress Help Desk (09/03/98)