NAME: Improved Coding for Citation Data in Field 524
SUMMARY: This paper proposes the addition of a subfield $2 (schema used) and the subfield $3 (Materials specified to note field 524 (Preferred Citation of Described Materials Note) in the Bibliographic format to make the field more useful for citations, especially law citations. In addition the field should be made repeatable.
KEYWORDS: Citations; Field 524 (Preferred Citation of Described Materials Note); Subfield $2 (524); Subfield $3 (524)
5/5/95 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the June 1995 MARBI meeting.
6/24/95 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Approved.
- add "publisher" to the appropriate code list;
- use "/" before edition year of sources: glc/1988.
9/12/95 - Results of final LC review - Approved. Agreed with MARBI decisions.
PROPOSAL NO. 95-13: Improved Coding for Citation Data in Field 524 1. BACKGROUND This proposal will let catalogers more effectively and consistently add citation data, whatever its source or format, to bibliographic records. It should be emphasized that this proposal will not commit libraries to begin adding citation data to their records. It simply improves the tools for doing so, should it be thought desirable. Like most bibliographic data, citation data potentially has both display and retrieval functions. The display function provides the catalog user with a helpful directive on how to cite the work, thus saving the user the time and trouble needed to derive the cite from the "Bluebook" (A Uniform System of Citation (Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard Law Review Assoication), 15th ed. (1991), the dominant authority for legal citation in the United States) or other source. The retrieval function (assuming that the library had citation data indexed in some fashion), would frequently enable a user to look up a cite in the catalog without having to translate the cite into a title proper or other traditionally indexed form. This would pay off mostly in the case of uncommon cites or extensive cite checking projects. In some cases citation data might also serve a (secondary) collating function. For example, AACR2 successive entry descriptions of serials sometimes split works which from the legal citation point of view are one and consequently have the same citation form. In such cases, a look up by cite would lead to all bibliographic manifestations of the citation. Presumably, law libraries would confine citation data to primary materials, loose-leaf services, law reviews, and similar material. Bluebook cites for treatises are largely straightforward recastings of author, title, edition, and date of publication data which is already easily accessible from the MARC record. The MARC bibliographic format currently contains a field for citation notes, field 524 (Preferred Citation of Described Materials Note). This field has been little used in law cataloging. Law libraries that have chosen to add citation data have typically used a general purpose note field (e.g. the 500 field) rather than field 524. Some add the citation to field 246 for indexing purposes, etc. From the point of view of retrieval and display labeling, field 524 would be better, being more explicit, but it lacks the structure needed to handle citation data in a complete way. Two changes are needed to address these problems: (1) making the field 524 repeatable and (2) adding subfields to the field 524 for source of citation and materials specified. 2. DISCUSSION Repeatability The citation field needs to be repeatable because of the possibility of competing citations for the same work. Many such conflicts are conceivable, between legal and non-legal citation forms or between foreign and American schemes. (For an overview of legal citation practices, see Fundamentals of Legal Research (6th ed. 1994), p.554-569.) Multiple citations are also necessary when a single bibliographic record describes multiple works, each with its own cite or when a single record describes multiple versions of a work, each with its own cite. The emergence of "public domain" legal citation schemes and electronic legal publishing may cause cases requiring multiple citations to proliferate. Source of Citations Currently field 524 has no subfielding other than $a for the note and $6 for alternate graphic links. The field lacks structure for coding anything apart from the bare citation. Consequently there is no way to formally indicate the source or citation scheme of the cite specified in the field. Because there are many citation schemes in actual use and because citation schemes change over time, universal citation coding must explicitly indicate the source and/or style of a citation. Competing citation systems make source tagging imperative. Without a source, it will be impossible for users to distinguish between multiple citations; nor will it be possible for the user to assess the currency of a citation. Pragmatically catalogers will not always be in a position to verify or translate citations into some ideal or up-to-date form. For example, a library might choose to use Bieber's Dictionary of Legal Citation to add cite notes for law reviews. Although the Bieber cite is presumably identical to the Bluebook cite, it is important to tag such cite notes with their actual origin, including edition and date of publication data. Without this information it will be impossible for users or librarians to make reasonable judgements about the actual status of a cite. For these reasons, the proposal calls for adding a subfield $2 to field 524 for source data. Subfield $2 would contain a USMARC source code for the citation system. A USMARC code list for citation sources would be needed. The law library community could contribute candidates for such a coded list. Example: 524 ## Ill. Legis. Serv. (West)$2bdlc1992 [Citation is from current edition of Bieber's Dictionary of Legal Citation (4th ed. 1992)] Materials Specified Field 524 also lacks a means of specifying precisely to what the citation pertains. At present field 524 citations implicitly apply to the entire entity described by the bibliographic record. Multiple version cataloging and other considerations discussed above make this inadequate. For these reasons, a subfield $3 is needed for materials specified. Subfield $3 would contain an explicit statement concerning to what the cite in $a applies if it is not to the entire entity. 3. PROPOSED CHANGES -- Add the following subfields to field 524 (Preferred Citation of Described Materials Note): $2 Source of schema used $3 Materials specified -- Make field 524 repeatable. ____________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX: EXAMPLES Example 1 (Serial cataloged by National Library of Canada with citation according to the Guide to Legal Citations (2nd. ed. 1988)): 022 0# $a0702-9683 040 ## $aCaOONL$bfre$cCaOONL$dDLC$dCaOONL 043 ## $an-cn-qu 082 ## $a344.714/03$219 110 1# $aQuebec (Province).$bcommission des affaires sociales 222 #0 $aDecisions de la Commission des affaires sociales 245 10 $aDecisions de la commission des affaires sociales. 246 10 $aTables cumulatives de concordance et de legislation citee, 1975 a 1982 246 10 $aRecueil de jurisprudence 260 ## $aQuebec :$bEditeur officiel du Quebec, $cl976-[1993?] 300 ## $av. ;$c24 cm. 362 1# $aNe parait plus apres fasc. 3 (1992). 500 ## $a"Recueil de jurisprudence". 515 ## $aLa numerotation des livr. de 1976-1985 reprend a chaque annee avec le v. 1, celle des livr. de 1986- , avec le fasc. 1. 524 ## $aC.A.S.$2glc1988 555 ## $aIndex publie en 1984? sous le titre: Tables cumulatives de concordance et de legislation citee, 1975 a 1982. 650 #0 $aPublic welfare$xlaw and legislation$zQuebec (Province)$xCases. 650 #6 $aAide sociale$xDroit$zQuebec (Province)$xjurisprudence. 710 20 $aSociete quebecoise d'information juridique. Example 2 (Reporter cataloged originally in 1932 with citation from current edition of Bluebook): 010 ## $a32019830 043 ## $an-us-nd$an-us-sd 050 ## $aKFN8630$b.A2 110 1# $aDakota.$bSupreme court 245 10 $aReports of cases argued and determined in the Supreme court of the territory of Dakota :$bfrom its organization to [October, 1889] 260 ## $aYankton, Dakota ;$bBowen and Kingsbury,$cl879-94 300 ## $a6 v. ;$c23 cm. 500 ## $aTitle varies: v. 1-4, Reports of cases argued and determined in the Supreme court of the territory of Dakota. v. 5, Reports of cases determined in the Supreme court of Dakota territory. v. 6, Reports of cases decided in the Supreme court of the territory of Dakota 500 ## $aImprint varies: v. 1-2, Yankton, Dakota, Bowen and Kingsbury, 1879-82; v. 3, Yankton, Dakota, L. E. Cavalier, 1889; v. 4, Pierre, Carter publishing company, 1894; v. 5, St. Paul, Minn., West publishing company, 1889; v. 6, Chicago, E.B. Myers and company, 1891 500 ## $aReporters: v. 1, G. G. Bennett -- v. 2-4, E. G. Smith -- v. 5-6, R.B. Tripp 500 ## $aOn cover: Dakota reports 524 ## $aDakota$2usc1991 610 10 $aDakota$bSupreme court 650 #0 $aLaw reports, digests, etc.$zDakota 700 11 $aBennett, Granville Gaylord,$d1933-1910 700 11 $aSmith, Ellison Griffith,$d1994- 700 11 $aTripp, Robert B 740 01 $aDakota reports Example 3 (Source of the citation is the publisher of the work cited. Legal publishers sometimes print a citation statement on the work. Typically these appear just after or before the title page and are often prefixed by the phrase "Cite as ..." or the equivalent.): 020 ## $a0316322997 043 ## $an-us-il 100 10 $aCleary, Fdward W. 240 10 $aHandbook of Illinois evidence 245 10 $aCleary & Graham's Handbook of Illinois 250 ## $a4th ed. /$bMichael H. Graham 260 0# $aBoston :$bLittle, Brown,$ccl984 300 ## $axlii, 768 p. ;$c24 cm 500 ## $aFirst-3rd eds. have title: Handbook of Illinois evidence 500 ## $aIncludes index 500 ## $aKept to date by pocket parts 524 ## $aCleary & Graham's Handbook of Illinois (4th ed. 1984)$2publisher 650 #0 $aEvidence (Law)$zIllinois 700 10 $aGraham, Michael H. Example 4 (This citation illustrates collation by citation. The citation follows Uniform System of Citation (15th ed. 1991)): 022 0# 8750-2631 043 ## $an-use--$an-usl-- 050 0# $aKF135.A7$bA812 222 0# $aAtlantic reporter. Second series 245 00 $aAtlantic reporter, second series 260 ## $aSt. Paul, Minn. :$bWest Pub. Co.,$cl939-1988 300 ## $a531 v. ;$c26 cm 310 ## $aWeekly, with bound cumulations 362 0# $aVol. 1 (Sept.-Nov., 1938)-v. 531 () 440 #0 $aNational reporter system.$pstate series 500 ## $a"Cases argued and determined in the courts of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont." (varies) 524 ## $aA.2d.$2usc1991 580 ## $aCitations to all cases reported are compiled in: Shepard's Atlantic reporter citations 650 #0 $aLaw reports, digests, etc.$zAtlantic States 710 20 $aWest Publishing Company 730 #1 $aShepard's Atlantic reporter citations 780 00 $tAtlantic reporter 785 00 $tWest's Atlantic reporter, second series 787 1# $tShepard's Atlantic reporter citations$xO730-2053 Example 5 (Example of work with multliple publisher constructed cites.): 040 ## $aNNU-L$cNNU-L 043 ## $ae-gw--- 100 1# $aLorz, Albert. 245 10 $aBundesjagdgesetz :$bmit Landesrecht, Verordnung uber die Jagdzeiten und Bundeswildschutzverordnung Fischereischeinrecht Seefischereirecht /$cvon Albert Lorz. 265 ## $aMunchen :$bBeck,$cl991 300 ## $axv, 293 p. ;$cl9 cm. 440 #0 $aBecksche Kurz-Kommentare :$vBd. 38 504 ## $aIncludes bibliographical references and index. 524 ## $3Bundesjagdgesetz$aBJagdG$2publisher 524 ## $3Bundeswildschutzverordnung$aBWildSchV$2publisher 650 #0 $aGame-laws$zGermany (West) 650 #0 $aWildlife conservation$xLaw and legislation$zGermany (West) 650 #0 $aFishery law and legislation$zGermany (West) 710 12 Germany (West)$tBundesjagdgesetz.$f1980. 710 12 Germany (West)$tFischereischeingesetz.$fl980.