DATE: Dec. 16, 2002
NAME: Coding graphic images in Leader/06 in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format
SOURCE: Library of Congress
SUMMARY: This paper discusses changing the definitions of values g and k in Leader/06 (projected medium and two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic) and in Field 007/00 (projected graphic and nonprojected graphic).
KEYWORDS: Leader/06 (BD); Field 007/00 (BD, HD); projected graphic (BD, HD); two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic (BD, HD); moving image (BD, HD); still image (BD, HD)
12/16/02 -- Made available to the MARC 21 community for discussion.
This paper discusses the desirability of changing the definitions of values "g" and "k" in Leader/06 and Field 007/00 for visual materials. Instead of making a distinction between projected and nonprojected images, the definitions would employ more up-to-date terminology and differentiate between moving and still images. This would allow for greater precision and clarity when describing visual materials in bibliographic records.
g - Projected medium (Leader 06)
Code g indicates that the content of the record is for a motion picture, videorecording (including digital video), filmstrip, slide, or transparency. All of these media are intended for projection. Material specifically designed for overhead projection is also included in this type of record category.
k - Two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic
Code k indicates that the content of the record is for a two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic such as, activity cards, charts, collages, computer graphics, digital pictures, drawings, duplication masters, flash cards, paintings, photo CDs, photonegatives, photoprints, pictures, postcards, posters, prints, spirit masters, study prints, technical drawings, transparency masters, and reproductions of any of these.
Classifying images as either "nonprojected" and "projected" has been the traditional method for coding visual materials in Leader/06, because these distinctions were important prior to the digital era. However, there has been a growing recognition that this distinction is no longer the most useful one. This is partly due to the proliferation of digital resources, particularly digital reproductions of still images that don't require projection in the same sense as before. Defining images as either "still" or "moving" in Leader/06 is a more logical and precise means of classifying image types and more in line with current terminology. The nature of the image itself (still or moving) rather than how it happens to be delivered or viewed (which can be recorded elsewhere if needed) is of greater importance. "Projection" implies a certain type of equipment that is no longer as relevant as it was previously. Institutions are increasingly using the terms "still images" and "moving images" to describe collections of visual materials and differentiate between types of visual materials.
In addition, many online catalogs allow for limiting searches to specific forms of material. With current definitions, it is necesary to limit for both projected and nonprojected graphics to retrieve all still images. Consequently, moving images are also retrieved. This situation does not serve the user well.
The following changes to the definitions of "g" and "k" in Leader/06 could be considered:
g - Moving image
Code g indicates that the content of the record is for a graphic image created on film, video, or other media format that can be displayed or projected on a screen as a sequence of images in order to represent motion. This includes motion pictures, videorecordings, television programs, digital video and animated computer graphics. It does not include moving images that are primarily computer programs, such as computer games or computer-oriented multimedia.
k - Still image
Code k indicates that the content of the record is for a graphic image that does not display any movement. The image may or may not be displayed or projected on a screen. Nondigital images may be either opaque or transparent. This category includes activity and flash cards, charts, collages, digital images, digital photographs, drawings, filmstrips, paintings, photographic negatives, photographic prints, pictures, postcards, posters, prints, slides, still computer graphics, study prints, technical drawings, transparencies, and reproductions of any of these.
Field 007 (Physical description fixed field) contains information about the physical characteristics of an item. The first character position defines the subsequent positions with a code designating the category of material. Items coded as "g" or "k" in Leader/06 may have information about physical characteristics in 007 fields with the first character position of "g" (projected graphic), "k" (nonprojected graphic), "m" (motion picture), or "v" (videorecording).
Changing the definitions of values "g" and "k" in Leader/06 would necessitate slightly changing the definitions of "g" and "k" in the first character position of field 007/00 for visual materials. The current definitions of these two values classify graphic materials as either "projected" or "nonprojected:"
g - Projected graphic
Code g indicates that the item is projected graphic material which is defined as a two-dimensional representation intended to be projected without motion by means of an optical device, for example, a filmstrip, slide, or transparency (includes x-rays).
k - Nonprojected graphic
Code k indicates that the item is nonprojected graphic material. This is defined generally, as a two-dimensional pictorial representation whether opaque (e.g. print, footprint, drawing) or transparent, but not intended to be projected for viewing (e.g. a photographic negative).
This distinction between "projected" and "nonprojected " images is useful here and should be retained. However, it might be clearer, especially in the context of changing Leader/06 definitions, to change the names of the terms for "g" and "k" to emphasize that what is being described is a still image, as opposed to a moving image such as a motion picture or videorecording (both of which have different values in field 007/00). It would also be helpful in the definition of "g" to place more emphasis on the fact that, while items falling into this category can be projected, they are not always intended to be projected. A good example of this is the color film transparencies created by photographers.
The following changes to the definitions of "g" and "k" in Field 007/00 could be considered:
g - Projectable still image
Code g indicates that the item is a two-dimensional graphic image that does not display any movement and that can be projected by means of an optical device (e.g., a filmstrip, slide, transparency, x-rays).
k - Nonprojectable still image
Code k indicates that the item is a two-dimensional graphic image that does not display any movement. The image can not be projected. It may be either opaque (e.g., a print, photographic print, drawing) or transparent (e.g., a photographic negative).
Moving images are coded either "m" or "r" and would not
be affected by these changes.
Changing the definitions of "g" and "k" in Leader/06 and
Field 007/00 for visual materials would mark a change in how graphic materials
have been traditionally classified and coded in bibliographic records. Records
for projectable still images would contain "obsolete" coding in Leader/06,
and it might not be feasible for institutions to go back and change these records.
As with other changes in the MARC 21 formats, it would be understood that records
for visual materials created before a certain date would possibly contain obsolete
coding in Leader/06. However, coding in Field 007/00 for visual materials would
not change. Items currently coded "g" (filmstrips, slides, transparencies)
would continue to be coded as such.
|animated computer graphics||g||g|
|still computer graphics||k||k|
|* denotes change in coding|
1. Should filmstrips be coded as still images?
2. What exactly are computer graphics? Is it possible that they may be either still or moving depending on the circumstances? If yes, should perhaps be discussed in any future proposal in greater detail.
3. Since the word "graphic" would be removed from some of the terms, would that create a problem with the use of "graphic" in 245/h?