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MARC DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 2008-DP01

DATE: December 17, 2007
REVISED:

NAME: Identifying headings that are appropriate as added entries, but are not used as bibliographic main entries

SOURCE: ARLIS/NA, VRA

SUMMARY: This discussion paper explores three alternatives to identifying headings that are appropriate as added entries, but are not used as bibliographic main entries.

KEYWORDS: Field 008/14 (AD), Heading use--main or added entry (AD), Added entries (AD) (BD), Main entries (AD) (BD), Field 667 (AD), Nonpublic general note (AD), Field 7XX (BD)

RELATED: 2007-06/11

STATUS/COMMENTS:

12/17/2007 - Made available to the MARC community for discussion.

02/14/2008 - Results of the MARC Advisory Committee discussion - The committee agreed that a value defined in field 008/14 (Heading use--main or added entry) would be the best approach because it would allow for efficient machine processing. Because value "c" was once defined as "Heading is appropriate for use as a main or added entry," and is now obsolete, a new value should be chosen. The definition of the new value in field 008/14 should include all types of headings, including "tale" headings, such as "Cinderella." Although a new 7XX field would allow for better display labels, the committee agreed that relator codes or terms may be used to enhance display. The use of field 667 (Nonpublic general note) was not considered viable because it would not be machine processable and because field 667 is used for many different purposes.


Discussion Paper 2008-DP01: Identifying headings that are appropriate as added entries, but are not used as main entries

1. BACKGROUND

In Proposal 2007-06/11 field 751 (Added entry - Geographic name) was defined for a geographic name added entry in the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data. These added entries are for place names that represent neither topical or authorship relationships. There is a similar situation that occurs often for art libraries that catalog in AACR/LCSH. When events, such as art exhibitions, are held in buildings that are established in subject authority records, it is not currently possible to add an appropriate non-topical entry for the venue in the MARC 21 record.

Exhibitions are often cited by their venue that may be a building that can accommodate the objects and audience. In the United States, such a venue might be the now demolished Coliseum in New York City or the Old Post Office and Clock Tower in Washington. In Italy and elsewhere in Europe, exhibitions are often held in palazzi and similar buildings that may or may not have a corporate body sharing the name and space.

The alternatives explored in this discussion paper could also prove useful for those cataloging material related to the performing arts since performances may take place in buildings, structures, or similar places with no corporate identity. For example, there is an annual open-air performance by the Danish Royal Ballet at the Kastellet in Copenhagen, Denmark. Since these exhibition and performance venues are likely to be known by the end user, they are important access points currently lacking in catalog records (although the words in the names may be indexed as keywords).

There have been numerous discussions of whether buildings can be authors in an AACR sense. This discussion paper does not wish to reopen those discussions but merely to allow for the provision of an added entry for the place or venue of an event in the MARC 21 record. Current practice for buildings established in SAF is to code them in field X10 (Corporate name entry), parallel to corporate bodies, but with a 008/14 (Heading use--main or added entry) value of "b" (Not appropriate for main or added entry).

In the ensuing discussion, the following field 008 character positions are referenced:

2. DISCUSSION

This paper explores three solutions to identify headings that are appropriate as added entries, but are not used as bibliographic main entries. They are: defining a code in authority field 008/14; coding authority field 667 with instructions about subject or name usage in certain situations; and defining a new 7XX bibliographic added entry field, similar to field 751 (Added entry -- Geographic name).

2.1 - Definition of code "c" in authority field 008/14

Authority field 008/14 (Heading use--main or added entry) is currently defined as the following:

This paper proposes defining code value "c" for headings that are appropriate as added entries, but not as bibliographic main entries. This change would provide additional controlled access points for exhibition, performance, or conference venues. Although such a venue may appear in keyword indexes in catalogs, this change would benefit users who are looking for specific venues by making venues a separate index to search. Art catalog users and the graphic and performing art cataloging communities would also be important beneficiaries.

Code "c" in authority 008/14 could be defined as:
Code c indicates that the 1XX field contains a name, name/title, or uniform title that has been established according to subject cataloging conventions but is appropriate for use as an added entry in bibliographic records. It is not appropriate for use as a main entry in bibliographic records.

Because current cataloging policies is to give no added entry for exhibition venues with headings that are not coded as appropriate for name heading use, this change to field 008/14 could be incorporated on an "as needed" basis, rather than a systematic change to authority records for all named buildings, structures, etc. This would allow institutions to take advantage of the new code without having to change cataloging policy first. Likewise, because many libraries have no need to catalog buildings and other venues as added entries, this change to field 008/14 would be very minor.

Examples

008/14 c [appropriate for added entry]
008/09 a [established heading record]
008/10 n [heading not established using descriptive cataloging rules]
110 2# $aPalazzo Colonna (Rome, Italy)

008/14 c [appropriate for added entry]
008/09 a [established heading record]
008/10 n [heading not established using descriptive cataloging rules]
110 2# $aApollo Theatre (New York, N.Y. : 125th Street)

008/14 c [appropriate for added entry]
008/09 a [established heading record]
008/10 n [heading not established using descriptive cataloging rules]
151 ## $aDumbarton Oaks Gardens (Washington, D.C.)

008/14 c [appropriate for added entry]
008/09 a [established heading record]
008/10 n [heading not established using descriptive cataloging rules]
151 ## $aOlympic Sculpture Park (Seattle, Wash.)

2.2 - Use of authority field 667

Other options do exist that would promote additional controlled access for exhibition, performance or conference venues. For example, current AACR/LCRI/LCSH practice calls for adding field 667 (Nonpublic general note) with instructions about subject or name usage in certain situations, e.g., heads of state, earlier/later jurisdictional name, city districts. Here, the cataloger would have to observe field 667 and be aware of the guidelines that are found in other documentation. For example, in the example cited below, one would need to be aware that city districts are not used in geographic subdivisions.

667 ## $aSUBJECT USAGE: This heading is not valid for use as a geographic subdivision.

Possible alternative text to identify headings that are appropriate as added entries, but are not used as bibliographic main entries could be:

008/14 a [Appropriate main entry]
008/15 a [Appropriate subject added entry]
667 ## $aNAME USAGE: This heading is not appropriate for use as a bibliographic main entry but may be used as an added entry.

Although this alternative does not require any change to the MARC 21 formats, coding field 667 also does not allow for machine-processing of venue names and thus, would not improve patrons' successes in finding venues in libraries' ILS systems.

2.3 - Define new 7XX field

Another alternative is to develop a new 7XX field for entities established in SAF that have a non-topical association with the resource. The use of this field would parallel field 751 (Added entry - Geographic name) where the local place name does not represent the jurisdiction. Fields 756, 757 and 758 are currently available for definition.

The new 7XX field could be defined as:

7XX - Added Entry - Non-topical Venue of Event (R)

Indicators: Both are undefined

Subfields

$a - Venue name (NR)
$e - Relator term (R)
$2 - Source of heading or term (NR)
$4 - Relator code (R)
$6 - Linkage (R)
$8 - Field link and sequence number (NR)

Examples

7XX ## $aFreedom Hall (Louisville, KY)$4evp
7XX ## $aDAR Constitution Hall (Washington, D.C.)$4evp

3. QUESTIONS

  1. Is there a need to identify headings for non-topical venues that are appropriate as added entries, but are not used as bibliographic main entries?
  2. If so, what alternative outlined in this paper would best identify such added entries?
  3. Would the cost of implementing either option 2.1 or 2.3 be greater than the need since only a small population of institutions would ever implement these options?
  4. Are there any other alternatives to explore that would allow institutions to identify added entries that are not used as bibliographic main entries?

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