NAME: Defining Field 007 (Physical Description Fixed Field) for Tactile Materials in the USMARC Bibliographic and Holdings Formats
SOURCE: National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped
SUMMARY: This paper explores the possible definition of a field 007 to indicate physical characteristics for tactile material, or material intended to be read by touch. Characteristics include specific material designation, grade level of braille, primary code of braille, braille music format, and production and physical characteristics. The field is requested to aid in retrieval and limiting of material.
KEYWORDS: Field 007; Physical Description Fixed Field; Tactile Materials; Braille
11/15/97 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the 1998 Midwinter MARBI meetings.
1/11/98 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - There was general interest in seeing this paper return as a proposal at the next meeting. Specific suggestions included adding a code for combined in /05 and changing the definition of code a in /08 to single- sided, non-interpoint. It was also suggested that the field be repeated for combinations rather than attempt to relate the grade to the appropriate scheme. In order to internationalize the proposal, expertise might be brought in from the Canadian National Institute for the Blind and the European Union initiatives. In addition, the cartographic community might consider it more closely to see that it fits the needs of tactile maps.
DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 104: Defining Field 007 (Physical Description Fixed Field) for Tactile Materials 1. BACKGROUND The National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress (NLS) provides free loan of recorded and braille books, magazines, and music scores in braille and large print to U.S. residents who are unable to read or use standard print material because of visual or physical impairment. The Service maintains records for these items which it currently makes available on the Internet in an LC system and through a CDROM catalog distributed to network libraries. In the future NLS intends to begin record distribution in MARC to network libraries that collect braille and other tactile materials. Note that the term tactile material refers to a category of material that is intended to be read by touch; braille is the most common form of tactile material although others exist. NLS records include information about the production and physical format of the material in addition to bibliographic information. Details about the specific material, the primary code of braille and the format for braille music may be currently indicated in a note. Details about the production of the item may be included in the collation. NLS is interested in defining a new field 007 for coded information about the physical aspects of the tactile material in order to limit searches or otherwise use for retrieval. There are some types of tactile material that users may prefer for various reasons, including quality or their ability to use them. For instance a production method called print/braille includes both eye-readable print with interleaving or embossed braille, intended to be used together. There are different braille code schemes and braille items may be understandable only to certain users. It is preferable to put such information in a coded form for ease of retrieval and limiting. Currently in the bibliographic format a record may indicate that an item is braille in 008/23 (Form of item) code f, for Books, Music, and Serials, and in 008/33-34 (Special format characteristics) code m, for Maps. Field 007/01 for Text also contains code "c" to indicate braille. However, there are no further distinctions made about the type of braille, and there is no way to indicate other types of tactile coding (such as music) that may be important to the blind or physically handicapped user. This paper explores the possible definition of a new field 007 for tactile materials. In cases where there are two aspects of an item, such as a tactile map, an 007 for map and another 007 for tactile material might be used. 2. 007 elements 007 (Tactile materials) 00 Category of Material This code indicates that the material is intended to be read by touch. f Tactile material 01 Specific material designation A one character code that indicates to what class of tactile material the item belongs. a Moon This is an abstraction of the print. b Braille d Tactile, with no writing system c Combination z Other 02 Not used 03-04 Primary code of braille The code scheme that indicates which dots represent which letter. This position is also used for the code used for the text labels of cartographic or graphic items. Up to two schemes may be indicated. a Literary braille b Format code braille c Mathematics (Nemeth) braille d Computer braille e Music braille m Multiple code schemes Used when there are multiple and none predominate. n Not applicable u Unknown z Other 05 Grade of braille The grade of braille depends upon the encoding rules and whether contractions are used. a Grade 1 braille For example, English uncontracted braille b Grade 2 braille For example, standard English braille, the code for contracted braille of the Braille Authority of the United Kingdom and English Braille, American ed., the code for contracted braille of the Braille Authority of North America c Grade 3 braille n Not applicable u Unknown z Other 06-07 Braille music format Used for the braille music format of the item. Up to two formats may be indicated, left justified in order of predominance with blank fill. a Bar over bar b Bar by bar c Line over line d Paragraph e Single line f Section by section g Line by line h Open score i Melody chord system j Short form scoring k Short form scoring (American system) l Vertical score n Not applicable u Unknown z Other 08 Production, physical characteristics Used for the production method of the item. a Handcopied These are manually produced, generated one copy at a time. b Press (interpoint) Plain braille. c Print/braille Eye-readable print with braille interleaved or embossed. d Jumbo braille Used for braille students and braille readers with reduced tactile sensitivity. n Not applicable u Unknown z Other Examples 1. A monograph in English braille, American edition, produced by braille press. 007 fb|ba|||b 2. A handcopied raised line map with Standard English braille labels. 007 fb|a|b||a 3. A press braille score with piano part in bar over bar and vocal part in line by line with text in English braille, American edition. 007 fb|e|bacb 3. QUESTIONS FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION 1. How can these codes be internationalized? What other language-based types of braille are there that may need to be coded? 2. Is the specificity under Braille music format necessary?