NAME: MARC Format Alignment
SOURCE: National Library of Canada, Library of Congress, British Library
SUMMARY: This paper discusses the work on alignment of USMARC, CAN/MARC and UKMARC that is under discussion by the national libraries to increase interchange opportunities that are currently inefficient because of format differences.
KEYWORDS: CAN/MARC; UKMARC
5/26/95 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the June 1995 MARBI meeting.
6/26/95 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Concern was expressed about the possibility of numerous changes, just as we complete format integration. Implementors would like to see a period of less change. The question was asked if the Authority format is also involved in the discussions.
DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 90: Format Alignment 1. INTRODUCTION In November of 1994 representatives from the British Library (BL), the Library of Congress (LC), and the National Library of Canada (NLC) met in Washington, DC, to discuss the alignment of USMARC, CAN/MARC, and UKMARC. A press release was issued after that meeting and posted on several lists, including the USMARC Forum. It stated the reasons for an attempt being made to completely align the formats for the US, Canada, and the UK: "Motivating the meeting was the prospect of the benefits the three national libraries and their constituencies would realize through the reconciliation of differences inherent in their respective formats. Chief among the advantages foreseen by the group was the potential for reducing the cost of cataloging, as the elimination of key differences would facilitate copy cataloging and record sharing. In turn, this would allow libraries to redirect the savings gained to cataloging of unique materials, thereby increasing the coverage of the world's bibliographic output. The records would be available in a more timely fashion since they would require less mediation by catalogers, and they would no longer be subject to a record format conversion process. By obviating the need for such conversion, the three agencies would optimize their resources. The number of total conversion programs the agencies would need to write to convert from other national formats would be reduced, and the maintenance of those programs as well as the maintenance and documentation of the common MARC format would be beneficially streamlined. In addition to helping catalogers and those responsible for maintaining the format, format alignment would significantly improve other library functions. For example, by facilitating timely record sharing, alignment of the formats would assist collection developers who would have earlier and more accurate access to the bibliographic records representing recently published works. Reference librarians and other online searchers would profit from enhanced international cross- catalog searching. Libraries in general would encounter additional options for systems as vendor competition would increase by virtue of having an expanded market they could serve with a single format, rather than three variant formats. Finally, building on the successful implementation of format integration, MARC format developers would have a solid, unified foundation on which to propose augmentation." There were two major areas to be treated in the alignment process: the arrangements for control and maintenance of the joint format and the actual changes to content designation that might be proposed to effect alignment. An ambitious timeline was set forth that called for an issues paper on the maintenance mechanisms and significant work to be complete on the content designation by the end of May so they could be shared with the user groups in the three countries. Below is a summary of papers on content designation submitted by NLC and discussions held between LC and the BL in May 1995 on format differences. It provides a good overview of possible format changes. A more detailed document is being created on which the USMARC community will be asked to analyze cost and impact of proposed changes, in preparation for further discussions by the national libraries. It should be noted that Australia is becoming a USMARC user in 1996 and New Zealand has been using USMARC for a number of years. They have not been a formal part of the alignment initiative, as they were considered to be "not different". The National Library of Australia is a member of the USMARC Advisory Group. There is close collaboration between the National libraries in Australia and New Zealand as they are jointly developing a new system for their respective institutions. They will continue to be informed and participate in this discussion through the USMARC Advisory Group. 2. DISCUSSION In looking at alignment, account has been taken of the fact that the USMARC constituency (and also the CAN/MARC users) went through an in-depth review of the format in the format integration process. At that time a number of simplification proposals were considered, along with changes required for integration. Differences between CAN/MARC and USMARC The USMARC and CAN/MARC specifications are very close already as we have had a long history of cooperation with Canada on format development. In the last 5-10 years, format changes have been virtually simultanious and almost identical. The following differences would need to be dealt with to accommodate CAN/MARC. If a data element is in USMARC but different it is noted. If it is not in USMARC and there are no conflicts for the value of code, then nothing is stated about USMARC. CAN/MARC USMARC LDR/05 - Record Status a Previously partial record a Increase in encoding level LDR/17 - Encoding Level -------- # Full with item 0 Full level with item -------- 3 Abbreviated record -------- 5 Partial record 5 Partial/prelim. record 6 Minimal level -------- 7 Preliminary record 7 Minimal level 007 - Globe // 01 - Specific material designation d Satellite globe -------- e Lunar globe (earth moon) -------- u unknown -------- 007 - Globe // 02 - Original vs. reproduction aspect Undefined Defined (not used) 007 - Sound Recording // 09 - Kind of disc, cylinder, or tape t Test pressing -------- 008 - All // 38 - Modified record code r Romanized record r Completely romanized/printed cards romanized -------- o Completely romanized/printed cards in script 008 - All // 39 - Cataloging source # National Library of Canada # Library of Congress -------- a NAL -------- b NLM c Cooperative cataloging c Library of Congress coop. cat. program d Another nat. lib. cat. d Other l LC cataloging -------- -------- n Report to NST o Other -------- r Reporting library, MARA -------- 008 - All // 40 - Fill character usage Cp defined Cp not defined 0 Fill char. not used 1 Fill char. used in control fields 2 Fill char. used in variable fields 9 Fill char. used in control and var. fields 008 - Books // 24-27 - Nature of Contents j Patents -------- k Official standards k Discographies m Thesis -------- q Examination papers q Filmographies -------- t Technical reports x Technical reports -------- z Treaties -------- 3 Discographies -------- 4 Filmographies -------- 008 - Books // 33 - Fiction # Non-fiction -------- c Comic strip -------- d Drama -------- e Essays -------- f Fiction -------- h Humor, satire, etc. -------- i Letter -------- j Short stories -------- m Miscellaneous info. -------- p Poetry -------- s Speeches -------- -------- 0 Not fiction -------- 1 Fiction 008 - Maps // 18-21 - Relief c Gradient tints c Gradient tints, color h Color h color [obsolete] u Unknown -------- 008 - Maps // 22-23 - Projection az Azimuthal, other type -------- bz Cylindrical, other -------- cz Conic, other type -------- 008 - Maps // 24-25 - Prime meridian CANMARC has 39 prime meridian values, using 2 character positions for them. USMARC has only 7 values, in cp 24. Six of the 7 USMARC merdians are also in the CAN/MARC list. USMARC uses cp 25 for Type of cartographic material. 008 - Maps // 30 - Narrative text Cp defined Cp not defined 0 No text present 1 Text on cartographic item 2 Text accompanies cartographic item 008 - Maps // 31 - Index 1 Index on item 1 Index present 2 Index accompanies item -------- 008 - Music // 18-19 - Form of Composition bd Ballads -------- rp Rhapsodies -------- sd Square dance music -------- 008 - Music // 24-27 - Accompanying textual material Cp 24-27 used Cp 24-29 used l Biography of arranger -------- or transcriber 008 - Music // 28 - Government publication Cp defined Cp used for acc. mat. CAN/MARC has the usual values for government publication. 008 - Music // 29 Cp not defined Cp used for acc. mat. 008 - Serials // 24 - Nature of entire work -------- k Discographies -------- q Filmographies t University calendars t Technical reports x Technical reports -------- 3 Discographies -------- 4 Filmographies -------- 008 - Serials // 25-27 - Nature of contents -------- k Discographies -------- q Filmographies t University calendars t Technical reports x Technical reports -------- 3 Discographies -------- 4 Filmographies -------- 008 - Visual Materials // 23 - Form of item Cp defined for form of item Cp used for acc. mat. # None of the following # No accompanying mat. a Microfilm -------- b Microfiche -------- c Microopaque -------- 008 - Visual Material // 24-27 - Accompanying material Cp 24-27 used Cp 23-27 used a Language material, printed -------- c Music, printed -------- d Diorana -------- e Map, printed -------- f Filmstrip -------- g Game -------- h Microform -------- i Sound rec., non-musical -------- j Sound rec., musical -------- k Picture -------- l MRDF l Stills m Motion picture m Script material n Chart -------- o Flash card o Posters p Microscope slide p Pressbooks q Model q Lobby cards r Realia r Instructional materials s Slide s Music t Transparency -------- v Videorecording -------- 009 - Cartographic Material Field defined Field not defined 016 - National Library of Canada Record Control Number Field defined Field not defined 024 - Other Standard Identifier // Ind 2 - Difference indicator -------- # No information provided 0 Eye readable 0 No difference 1 Scanned if different from 1 Difference eye-readable 028 Publisher Number for Music // Ind 2 - Note controller 0 Print a note 0 No note, no added entry 1 Do not print a note 1 Note, added entry -------- 2 Note, no added entry -------- 3 No note, added entry 034 - Coded Cartographic Mathematical Data // $a Category of scale c Other type of scale z Other type of scale 046 - Type of Date Code $6 Linkage -------- 050 - Library of Congress Call Number // Ind 2 - Source of call number # Information not provided -------- 060 - National Library of Medicine Call Number // Ind 2 - Source of call number # Information not provided -------- 082 - Dewey Decimal Call Number // Ind 2 Ind 2 not defined Ind 2 - Source of call number 0 Assigned by LC 4 Assigned by agency other than LC 084 - Other Class Number -------- $6 Linkage 086 - Government Document Classification Number // Ind 2 <no name> Ind 2 defined Ind 2 not defined # when Ind 1 is not "1" 0 IC cat. no. 1 Cat. IC no. 2 QP cat. no. 3 Cat.IR no. 4 DSS cat. no. 5 Cat. MAS, no Ind = # 087 - Report Number Field defined Field content in 088 088 - Document Shelving Number (CODOC) Field defined Defined as 008 - Report Number 300 - Physical Description $d Accompanying material -------- -------- $e Accompanying material -------- $f Type of unit 440 - Series Statement/Added Entry - Title $h General material desig. -------- 583 - Action Note $8 Link and sequence no. -------- 654 - Subject Added Entry - Faceted Topical Terms -------- $y Chronological subdivision -------- $z Geographical subdivision 751 - Geographic Name/Area Name Entry Field defined Field not defined Ind 1 - undefined Ind 2 - Type 0 Primary geographic/area entry 1 Secondary geographic/area entry 2 Analytical geographic entry $a Geographic name or area element $b Element following entry element $6 Linkage 886 - Foreign MARC Information Field Ind 1 - undefined Ind 1 - Type of field 0 Leader 1 Control fields(002-009) 2 Variable fields(010-999) $c Control field (002-009) -------- $d Variable field(010-999) -------- -------- $2 Source of data 9XX - Equivalence, Cross-References and History Notes Fields defined Field not defined Differences between UKMARC and CANMARC/USMARC As is indicated below there are numerous detail differences between USMARC and UKMARC content designation, yet since the cataloging traditions have been closely aligned for a number of years, much of the data is very consistent with the data found in USMARC records. This consistency will probably be enhanced in the future. As part of an initiative to have the BL become a partner in NACO, LC's CPSO is working closely with BL cataloging staff on cataloging differences, especially related to the formulation of headings. The BL is also in the process of re-adopting LCSH for subject access to its records. The BL is discussing with the UKMARC community the alignment with USMARC and CAN/MARC, while identifying some fields that appear in UKMARC that are not in USMARC. The UKMARC format is primarily focussed on book material and was not been fully or consistently enhanced for other forms of material. The fullness of USMARC is seen as an advantage and would avoid duplicate development and expansion of UKMARC. The following roughly indicates the differences between UKMARC and USMARC. General differences UKMARC does not carry ISBD punctuation at the subfield boundries, resulting in more subfielding than in USMARC. USMARC is designed for use by various groups using cataloging rules of their choice, some of which are ISBD-based and but others are not; therefore the ISBD punctuation is carried within fields when it is required. UKMARC uses 0 frequently in indicator positions where USMARC would use a blank, for example, if the indicator is not defined the value 0 is used. The UKMARC character set is not exactly the same as USMARC, although it incorporates ASCII and most of the extended ANSEL characters. The superscripts and subscripts are not defined. LDR Differences in values used. 007 Not currently defined in UKMARC. 008 Only a Books 008 (with a few non-book cps) currently defined in UKMARC. A few cps need to be examined. Fiction indicator, Target audience, prime meridian, and government publication cps have some differences in values. 0XX A number of USMARC fields are not defined in UKMARC. The ISBN uses 021 instead of 020. The BL system control number is in 024. UKMARC 031 and 032 have special cartographic data. UKMARC 081 is used for DDC numbers from "old" editions. 1XX/4XX/6XX/7XX/8XX heading fields Differences in cataloging need to be reconciled before the format is aligned (work underway). Major differences in subfielding. 2XX Differences in cataloging need to be reconciled before format is aligned (work underway). UKMARC 248 used for second and subsequent level titles. Edition and publisher statements have additional subfielding in UKMARC. 3XX Physical description statement has additional subfielding in UKMARC. Most other fields not defined in UKMARC. 440/490 UKMARC has additional subfielding. 5XX Different tags used for same notes. Further examination needed. 76X-79X Not presently in UKMARC. 841-89X Not presently in UKMARC. Next Steps The differences noted above will be reviewed by the CAN/MARC and UKMARC communities during the June-July time period. The Library of Congress, National Library of Canada, and the British Library will then meet to formulate more precise proposals. These will be circulated to the respective communities by the end of 1995 for impact and cost assessment to be made by format users. In the U.S., the proposals should be ready for discussion of impacts at the Jan./Feb. 1996 MARBI meeting.