Garden and Forest
Garden and Forest: A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry was the first American journal devoted to horticulture, botany, landscape design and preservation, national and urban park development, scientific forestry, and the conservation of forest resources. The journal was established by Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927), the founding director of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Though the journal was published independently, Sargent considered the weekly magazine the organ of the Arboretum.
The full ten-volume run of Garden and Forest contains approximately 8,400 pages, including over 1,000 illustrations and 2,000 pages of advertisements. Each seven-to-eleven-page issue contains articles that are both literary, as well as scholarly and scientific, and of interest to readers ranging from curious amateurs to practicing professionals. It provides practical information on specific plants as well as horticultural practices, guidance on the design of gardens, the growth of trees, and the care and management of public and private grounds. Each issue usually includes department devoted to: Editorial Articles, New or Little Known Plants, Entomological, Pomology, Foreign Correspondence, Correspondence, Cultural Notes, Plant Notes, The Forest, and Recent Publications or Periodic Literature. Some issues also include listings of Exhibitions and Expositions, and summaries of Retail Flower Market Prices. Many of the articles are illustrated. The art work includes line drawings, halftones, diagrams, plans, botanical illustrations, portraits, and landscapes. Every issue also contains at least four pages of advertisements that provide a valuable snapshot of contemporary commercial products, services, and establishments. Each volume has an annual index and list of illustrations.
Garden and Forest is the first project of the Preservation Digital Reformatting Program in the Library of Congress's Preservation Reformatting Division. It is the first Library of Congress digitizing project to employ Making of America models.
Making of America
The Library of Congress has participated in Digital Library Federation activities pertaining to technical architecture and metadata. Garden and Forest is the first Library of Congress project to incorporate Making of America models into the digitizing of source materials in order to optimize the potential for interoperability with like digital collections created at other institutions.
The second Garden and Forest collaboration is between the Library of Congress's Preservation Reformatting Division and the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. The founding director of the Arnold Arboretum, Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927), established the journal and shaped its mission. The Arnold Arboretum was considering digitizing Garden and Forest when it learned the Library of Congress's project was already underway. The two institutions then joined forces to provide enhanced access to the digital reproduction. Toward that end, the Arnold Arboretum is contributing essays that illuminate the historical background of the journal (available with the Phase 1 release, December 1999) and the four major fields it addresses: botany, horticulture, landscape design and preservation, and forestry. In addition, it is developing an electronic finding aid, based on the volume-level indices in each original print volume, that will enable users to search and browse controlled subject terms, as well as author, title, and illustration-caption information. These value-added enhancements, and detailed documentation about them, will be available in 2000.
Several institutions assisted with Interlibrary Loan requests to provide replacement pages needed to make the ten volumes of Garden and Forest complete. The California Academy of Sciences Library, and Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University made special and extended contributions to this effort. In addition, the California Academy of Sciences Library helped to solve the mystery of the original publication format of Garden and Forest by surveying a large number of issues in their collection that remain in their original state.
Digitizing Garden and Forest
Garden and Forest: A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry is the first digital reformatting project done by the Library of Congress's Preservation Reformatting Division. It is also the first serial digitized in its entirety by LC. This digital-reformatting project represents the addition of digital technology to the list of options available for crafting preservation strategies for Library collections.Selection
There has been high interest in digitizing Garden and Forest since the early years of the American Memory program. Its brittle condition, however, prevented it from being inverted for scanning on a flatbed scanner, and its size (21.5 by 30 cm.) made it too big for the book cradles then available for use with overhead capture devices. When the Preservation Reformatting Division began to plan its first digital reformatting project, Garden and Forest was considered a good candidate for several reasons: its embrittled condition precluded continued use; its content was of high interest; and digitizing the full run of the serial would provide an opportunity for the Library to gain experience with digitizing and interoperability models beyond those employed by the National Digital Library Program (NDLP), including approaches developed in the Preservation community.
Planning and Preparation
The 8,400 pages of Garden and Forest were captured on a Xerox Docuimage 620s flatbed scanner at 600 dpi bitonal. The resulting images were 7216 by 5088 pixels in size. The 480 pages with printed halftones were descreened and rescreened using Scantool software. Later in the project, after the results of the halftone-processing technology were evaluated, it was decided to also create 400 dpi grayscale images for the 480 halftone pages. (See the Illustrated Book Study for further discussion of related imaging issues.) Craig Jensen, of Acme Bookbinding, provided the scanning and image processing services.
The text was converted and encoded by the University of Michigan Digital Library Production Service (DLPS), under the direction of John Price-Wilkin and Christina Powell. Machine-readable text was produced by Optical Character Recognition (OCR) using Prime Recognition. This text was left uncorrected ("dirty OCR") and minimally encoded with the Making of America (MOA) SGML Document Type Definition (moa.dtd) used at the University of Michigan for their MOA texts. This DTD is conformant with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). Texts were encoded according to the recommendations for Level 1 in the TEI in Libraries Guidelines.
Reformatting work performed by PRD staff included:
Backup and Archiving of Digital Files
Delivery and Interoperability
The features of Phase 1 delivery include the Garden and Forest website at LC; image and text files mounted at University of Michigan; Michigan search and browse forms mounted at LC but pointing to the Michigan search engine; and search, retrieval, and display at Michigan. During Phase 1, searching of Garden and Forest is separate from searching Michigan MOA materials.
Future phases of delivery will include cross-collection searching of Garden and Forest and Michigan MOA materials; article-level indexing of Garden and Forest; addition of interpretive "value-added" enhancements developed by the Arnold Arboretum, such as historical background essays; and addition of a subject index created from the print volume indices, developed collaboratively by the Arnold Arboretum and LC. Every phase of delivery will add more access aids for users and create greater integration of Garden and Forest and the Making of America digital library.