|Still Image; more discussion: still image Q&F
|Normal rendering||Baseline for the behavior of content when presented to a user, e.g., images that permit zooming.
|Clarity (support for high image resolution)
||The degree to which this format supports the representation of pictures that would be deemed high resolution when viewed by experts or repurposed for a very high quality application. More discussion: still image clarity.
||The degree to which the color gamut represented in a given image can be managed and maintained through various outputs or migrations; for example, via support for color encoding in different colorspaces and the metadata needed by color management systems, such as the inclusion of a color map for indexed-color files or an ICC profile for the capture device. More discussion: still image color maintenance.
|Support for graphic effects and typography
||For still image formats that support vector graphics. Refers to the support within the format for scalable shapes, labels, legends, and other vector-graphic features. Also refers to the degree to which the format supports the use of shadows, filters or other effects as applied to fill areas and text, offers levels of transparency, and manages the specification of fonts and patterns. Discussion in context: still image graphic effects and typography.
|Support for multispectral bands||Support for the inclusion and documentation of multiple spectral bands in an image, generally employed to support scientific analysis, in contrast to the widely adopted color models oriented toward human perception, e.g., RGB or CMYK. More discussion: support for multi-spectral bands.|
|Functionality beyond normal rendering||Support for features that serve users with special interests. For example, some users will prefer that vector-based images like those used for architectural drawings remain malleable (editable) so that they can be modified after being copied from a library collection, while other users may require rich-data content, e.g., a still image with "extra bits per pixel" for use as a source for high quality repurposing, even though the full extent of the rich-data master cannot be seen on normal viewing devices.||Sound; more discussion: sound Q&F
|Normal rendering||Baseline for the behavior of content when presented to a user, e.g., sounds that can be played, stopped, and restarted.|
|Fidelity (high audio resolution)
||For sound and moving image formats. The degree to which this format supports the representation of sound that would be deemed high resolution when heard by experts or repurposed for a very high quality application. More discussion: sound fidelity and moving image fidelity.
|Multiple sound channels
||For sound and moving image formats. The degree to which this format supports the representation of multi-channel audio, which is presented to the enduser at least two ways: (1) in terms of aural space or sound field, e.g., as stereo or surround sound, and (2) two or more signal streams that provide alternate or supplemental content, e.g., narration in French and German, sound effects separate from music, or the like. More discussion: sound multiple channels and moving image multiple channels.
|Support for downloadable or user-defined sounds, samples, and patches
||For sound and moving image formats. The degree to which this format permits references to, or the inclusion of, digital sound data and the articulation parameters needed to create one or more voices or instruments in a musical presentation. More discussion: downloadable samples and patches.
|Functionality beyond normal rendering||Support for features that serve users with special interests. For example, some users may require that music notation formats, e.g., MIDI, permit the use of a variety of sounds or tone sets to mimic actual instruments or create new tones and timbres. Rich-data content, e.g., a waveform with "extra bits per sample," may be created to serve as a master, i.e., for use as a source for high quality repurposing, even though the full extent of the rich-data master cannot be reproduced on some playback devices.||Textual; more discussion: text Q&F
|Normal rendering||Baseline for the behavior of content when presented to a user. Normal rendering for textual items includes convenient linear reading on screen, the ability to print sections of the document to paper, to excerpt quotations as text strings, to search for words within an item, and to index for searching as part of a corpus of documents. Rendering of any text item must reflect the intent of the author in representing the individual characters, paragraph structure, lists, headings, and indicators of emphasis.
|Integrity of document structure
||Support for representations of the logical structure of textual works when usability and future usefulness for scholarship depend upon the navigation options and/or automated analysis that explicit tagging of structural elements enables. More discussion: integrity of structure.|
|Integrity of layout and display
||Support for representations of the look and feel of a textual work when exact choice of features such as font and column layout of a text document is essential to its meaning. More discussion: integrity of layout. |
|Support for mathematics, formulae, etc.
||Support for the accurate rendering of non-textual elements when these are essential to the informational content of the document. More discussion: integrity of rendering equations, etc.|
|Functionality beyond normal rendering
||Support for features that serve users with special interests. The behavior of a digital textual work (the functionality experienced by a reader) is supported by the combination of structural text tagging and the capabilities of a particular online environment or dedicated player (or e-book reader). The potential functionality supported by the underlying markup (e.g., representing the underlying hierarchy of the table of contents) must be distinguished from the particular view of the hierarchy. Many aspects of functionality for text (such as bookmarking or searching for words) are properties of a particular viewer rather than of the underlying content. E-books using a particular proprietary "reader" may provide functionality beyond that of a book presented as a linked set of web pages, even if the web pages and the e-book "file" were derived from the same marked up source data.
||Moving image; more discussion: moving image Q&F
||Baseline for the behavior of content when presented to a user. For moving images is associated with end-user implementations, normal rendering consists of playback of a single image stream with accompanying sound in mono or stereo through one or two speakers (or equivalent headphones). Player software provides user control over some picture elements (brightness, hue, contrast), some sound elements (volume, tone, balance), and navigation (fast forward, go-to-segment, etc.). For formats implemented in specialized professional applications, the same type of normal rendering does not obtain. Some professional authoring or editing systems, e.g., those used in non-linear video editing, permit playback in a manner comparable to that described for end-user implementations. But in other contexts, e.g., when working with the DPX format's frame images, normal playback will only occur "downstream," i.e., from a newly made file derived from the DPX source.
|Clarity (high image resolution)
||For bitmapped representations but not vector-based animations like Flash files. The degree to which "high image resolution" content may be reproduced within this format. The term is meant broadly, referring to the factors that will influence a careful (even expert) viewing experience. A real test of clarity occurs when the reproduction is repurposed, e.g., when selected footage is edited into a new video program. More discussion: still image clarity and moving image clarity.
|Functionality beyond normal rendering||Support for features that serve users with special interests. For example, some video formats offer functional features like scalabilty and interactivity. More discussion: moving image beyond normal functionality.||Web archiving; more discussion: Web archiving Q&F
|Normal rendering||Baseline for the behavior of content when presented to a user. Normal rendering for archived Web sites is identical to that expected for active Web sites on the Internet: users may read and scroll through text, follow hyperlinks from one page to another, and copy and print. Assuming that the harvesting tool had succeeded in collecting the images, sounds, or other elements that are embedded in a page, these are also presented to or accessible to users.|
|Documentation of harvesting context||Support for recordation of the context and circumstances of the capture process. Harvesting detail includes information about how the record was requested (typically a http request) and the response (typically a full http response including headers and content body). More discussion: Web archiving context.|
|Efficiency at scale||Support for efficient processing in the format used to store the harvested Web pages; pages should not be required to be held in a logical order; the format should not have an inherent limit to the filesize; should allow segmentation of large harvested resources
support straightforward merging of aggregations of harvested pages is desirable.
efficient indexing by original URL and the date and time of harvesting in order to permit Since simulation of the original Web experience in terms of following links found in pages is a part of normal rendering, the format must permit .
if elimination of duplicate content becomes more feasible, then archiving formats be capable of storing relevant metadata that can point to no-longer duplicate data in another location, e.g., the dataset from a preceding crawl.
More discussion: Web archiving scale.|
|Support for stewardship||Support for activities to enhance access for researchers and future preservation activities. Examples include the ability to record metadata about harvested resources based on analysis of the harvested content, the enhancement of access for researchers by assigning topical subject terms based on textual analysis, and the ability to extract a subset of a Web archive for a researcher for specialized analysis. More discussion: Web archiving stewardship.|
|Functionality beyond normal rendering||None identified at this time.||Datasets; more discussion: Dataset Q&F
||Baseline for the behavior of content when presented to a user. Includes considerations of data typing and data structure. More discussion: Dataset normal functionality.
|Support for software interfaces (APIs, etc.)
||For all datasets, including GIS. Support for standard or widely available APIs (Application Programming Interfaces), software toolkits, or software libraries, particularly for subsetting datasets, data manipulation/transformation, data aggregation, or discipline-specific functionality. More discussion: Dataset support for specialized software interfaces.|
|Data documentation (quality, provenance, etc.)
||For all datasets, including GIS. Support for documentation of data quality or provenance in textual or structured machine-processable form, e.g., in a well-known XML schema. More discussion: Dataset support for data documentation.|
|Functionality beyond normal
||Support for features that serve users with special requirements.||GIS images and datasets; more discussion: Geospatial Q&F
||Basic functionality for a GIS format regardless of underlying content type (raster, vector, or attribute) is georeferencing, placing information in relation to the surface of the earth using place names or assigning coordinates. To align different geospatial resources, they must all use or be transformed to the same geographic reference system, including what is known as a datum. Normal functionality within a geographical information system (GIS) involves support for basic spatial analysis functions. More discussion: Geospatial normal functionality.
|Support for GIS metadata
||Support within the format for GIS-specific metadata, particularly in a form that satisfies standards or community practices in a way that contributes to interoperability. In addition to the metadata needed to support normal functionality, assessment of a resource's fitness for a particular purpose requires information about the quality of the data and its provenance and lineage. Important characteristics to be recorded in metadata include: projection, scale, datum for coordinates, precision. For certain categories of GIS files, other characteristics may be significant, e.g. cloud cover percentage for satellite images. More discussion: Support for geospatial metadata.
|Support for grid-based analysis
||Support within the format for the performance of grid-based analysis. In this type of analysis, the area of interest is divided into rectangular cells based on geo-location (using a known datum and projection). The cells contain data values from a variety of sources and are stored in a format designed to hold gridded data. The values are then available for various forms of spatial and statistical analysis. Grids contain information that can range from geographic coordinates to reflectance values from solar radiation hitting surface features. More discussion: Support for grid-based analysis.
|Functionality beyond normal
||Support for features that serve users with special requirements.
|No specific quality and functionality factors defined for generic formats
||For list of generic formats documented to date, see Format Descriptions for Generic Formats.