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Cataloging in Publication Program

The Library of Congress > Cataloging in Publication Program > CIP Data Block Frequently Asked Questions

General Information


Specific Elements


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LCCN and Permalink Information


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General Information


What is the Cataloging in Publication (CIP) Data Block?

A Cataloging in Publication record (aka CIP data) is a bibliographic record prepared by the Library of Congress for a book that has not yet been published. When the book is published, the publisher includes the CIP data on the copyright page (usually the verso of the title page of print books) thereby facilitating book processing for libraries and book dealers. The CIP data that appears in the books is often referred to as the “CIP Data Block.”

Why is the Library of Congress changing the CIP Data Block?

At the 2013 meeting of the Cataloging in Publication Advisory Group (CAG) at the Summer American Library Association in Chicago, Illinois, CAG members recommended a thorough review of the CIP Data Block, which has not significantly changed since its development in 1971. Specifically, CAG thought that the CIP Data Block should be evaluated to see if Resource Description and Access (RDA) bibliographic elements should be added; whether data elements for electronic books should be included; whether the card catalog layout continued to have relevance or should be changed; and, whether current or new data elements should be included or excluded from the CIP Data Block. A committee was formed with key staff from the Library of Congress and external partners representing constituencies including, school, public, and academic libraries. The committee surveyed the community, made presentations to key groups that use the CIP Data Block, shared recommendations for changes, and, ultimately developed the new CIP Data Block.

What are the new features of the CIP Data Block?

The new layout includes labels for the data elements clearly indicating each category to the user of the data block. The labels are: Names, Title, Other titles, Description, Identifiers, Subjects, and Classification. When data on both the print and e-versions of a book have been provided by the publisher, the layout combines print and electronic resource data elements into one CIP Data Block. The layout may also include a LCCN Permalink, a permanent URL that when searched, takes the user to lccn.loc.gov where a bibliographic record for the title can be selected and electronically sent to the user in various formats. The permalink will appear only when a title that has received CIP data has been selected for the Library of Congress’ permanent collections. Finally, acronyms are now used to identify the subject thesauri and classification systems from which the provided subject terms and classification numbers are taken.

Why did the Library of Congress decide to include these new features in the new CIP Data Block?

The Library chose to add labels to define each category so that users of the CIP Data Block can easily determine core aspects of a book and then input those aspects into their own library systems or databases. After surveying the community, there was great support for combining print and electronic resource data elements into one CIP Data Block for a title. This allows the user to know of all formats available for the title. The survey of the user community indicated that 99% of the respondents had access to the Internet. As a result, the committee decided that the presence of a permalink would be very helpful to users of the CIP Data Block. Instead of manually typing the CIP Data Block elements into their catalogs, users could go to the Library of Congress and download or e-mail a complete bibliographic record for their use. This would reduce time spent on creating bibliographic records from the CIP Data Block and reduce errors that may arise when manually inputting a record from the print CIP Data Block. Finally, the CIP Data Block now includes specific acronyms (e.g. BISAC, MESH, LCC, DDC) to identify subject thesauri or classification systems. This will allow users to immediately know the origin of the information that appears in the CIP Data Block for subject thesauri and classification systems.

What are the new data elements included in the new CIP Data Block?

The new CIP Data Block will now include Publisher Name, Publisher Place, and Publication Date as part of the Description, as well as the audience level identifying the appropriate age or grade level for the content of the monograph. American Mathematical Society subject headings, BISAC headings, and Genre/Form terms will be included within the Subjects section of the CIP Data Block. The new data block will also include Government Document Classification (SUDOC) in the Classification section.

What are the acronyms in the new layout of the CIP Data Block?

AMS: American Mathematical Society – AMS uses the Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC), an alphanumerical classification scheme collaboratively produced by the two major mathematical reviewing databases, Mathematical Reviews and Zentralblatt MATH. LC translates AMS class numbers to subject terms taken from the MSC.
BISAC: Book Industry Subject and Category – BISAC is a standardized set of categories developed by the Book Industry Study Group (BISG). When publishers provide BISAC terms, LC includes them as subjects.
CYAC: Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging – The CYAC Program at the Library of Congress is responsible for the creation of metadata for the wide range of fiction material available in the United States for children and young adults, which is used by publishers, researchers, school libraries, and public libraries. Where appropriate, the CYAC Program applies its own subject headings, which are formulated for children and young adults.
DDC: Dewey Decimal Classification – DDC is a library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876 and has been revised and expanded through 23 major editions.
GSAFD: Guidelines on Subject Access to Individual Works of Fiction, Drama, etc. – The Guidelines constitute a recommendation for national standard practice in the provision of genre and subject access to individual works of fiction, drama, poetry, humor, and folklore in all formats. LC is now supplying GSAFD terms when appropriate.
LCC: Library of Congress Classification – LCC is a classification system that was first developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to organize and arrange the book collections of the Library of Congress.
LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings – LCSH has been actively maintained since 1898 to catalog materials held at the Library of Congress.
MESH: Medical Subject Headings – The National Library of Medicine (NLM) uses this controlled vocabulary thesaurus. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity. As a member of the ECIP Cataloging Partnership Program, NLM adds MeSH subject headings to CIP titles it catalogs.
NLM: National Library of Medicine – The United States National Library of Medicine is located in Bethesda, Maryland, and is the world's largest medical library.
SUDOC: Superintendent of Documents Classification System – Government documents, received under the Federal Depository Library Program, are organized in this classification system.

Why did the Library of Congress decide to include these new data elements in the CIP Data Block?

The survey respondents overwhelmingly supported addition of publisher name, publisher place, and publication date to the CIP Data Block. They also supported addition of BISAC headings, which are sometimes used in public libraries to organize their collections, and genre/form terms to the data block. The Library of Congress has an arrangement where it provides American Mathematical Society subject headings to CIP titles, and we are currently in discussions with the Government Publishing Office to include more U.S. federal titles in the CIP Program. Many libraries collect U.S. federal publications, and some are selective or regional federal depository libraries. It, therefore, made sense to include AMS subject headings and the SUDOC number to the CIP Data Block. The Library of Congress will continue to assess whether additional thesauri or classifications should be added in the spirit of providing more access to the titles profiled through the CIP Program.

What are the data elements previously included in the CIP Data Block that will no longer appear?

The following data elements will no longer be included in the new CIP Data Block: Preferred (Uniform) Title – Conventional Collective Title; Author Affiliations; and Physical Description (i.e. “pages cm”).

Why did the Library of Congress decide to remove these data elements from the CIP Data Block?

The survey respondents recommended removing the Preferred (Uniform) title – Conventional Collective Title (e.g. “Poems. Selections”); non-collective preferred (uniform) titles will be retained in the CIP Data Block. Author affiliations (e.g. an author’s professional title or where the author works) were often lengthy and out of date. The respondents to the survey also felt that the affiliations bring little value to the user of the CIP Data Block and supported their removal from the block. Finally, since “pages cm” does not provide any information to the user of the data block – other than to indicate that the title has not yet been published – and it takes a full line of the block, it was agreed that it could be removed as well.

Do the changes to the CIP Data Block impact the MARC record?

No. All fields and data elements that appear in the MARC records distributed by the Library of Congress will continue to be present in those records. The CIP Data Block changes do not have any effect on the corresponding MARC record for the title.

Will the new CIP Data Block affect CIP processing?

No. The new CIP Data Block will not affect internal CIP processing at the Library of Congress.

When will the changes be in effect?

The Library of Congress plans to implement the new CIP Data Block by September 30, 2015.

When can I expect to see the new CIP Data Block on the verso of the title page or the Copyright page of print and electronic books?

You can expect to begin seeing the new CIP Data Block in print and electronic books in Fall 2015.

Will there be a transition time when some books are published with the older version of the CIP Data Block and some with the newer version?

Yes. Since most titles receive CIP pre-publication metadata from the Library of Congress weeks if not months prior to publication, many titles will be published with the previous version of the CIP Data Block after September 30, 2015. Eventually, you will see fewer books published with the older version and more with the new layout until eventually all books processed through the CIP Program will have the new CIP Data Block.

If I have already received CIP data in the previous format, should I change the data to the new format?

No. Please use the CIP data you received in whatever format it was sent to you by the Library of Congress.

If I received CIP data prior to the release of the new CIP Data Block but now need to submit a change request, will I get the revised CIP data in the old or the new CIP data block format?

All CIP data sent after implementation of the new CIP Data Block will be sent in the new format, even if you had received your original CIP data in the previous format.

As a publisher, do I need to include all elements of the CIP Data Block in my publications?

Yes. You should continue to include all elements of the CIP Data Block in your publications processed through the CIP Program.

I am a provider of CIP data to publishers. Should I begin using the new CIP Data Block, and, if so, when should I begin using it?

The Library of Congress recommends that you begin using the new layout beginning October 1, 2015. Please remember that you should label the data block you provide to the publisher “Publisher’s Cataloging in Publication Data.” You should not use the data block label “Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data.”

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Specific Elements


What do the labels mean?

The Names label contains all the name entries, including authors, editors, illustrators, translators, etc., as well as name/title combinations for related work access points, such as Austen, Jane, 1775-1817. Pride and prejudice. The following MARC fields are mapped to the Names section: 100, 110, 111, 700, 710, 711, 800, 810, and 811.

The Title label contains the title and statement of responsibility as taken from the 245 field in the MARC record. The following MARC field is mapped to the Title section: 245.

The Other titles label contains any preferred (uniform) titles, variant titles, and access points for series. The following MARC fields are mapped to the Other titles section: 130, 240, 730, and 830.

The Description label may contain the edition statement, the publisher name, place of publication, and the publication date, any series statement, general notes, multipart titles when available for multipart sets, summaries and audience level for juvenile and young adult literature, and language notes. The following MARC fields are mapped to the Description section: 250, 264, 490, and any 5XX.

The Identifiers label contains the Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) for the print and possibly for the e-book and all ISBNs relevant to the title being cataloged. The following MARC fields are mapped to the Identifiers section: 010 and 020.

The Subjects label may contain terms from the following subject thesauri: LCSH, CYAC, MESH, AMS, BISAC, as well as genre/form terms (GSAFD). The following MARC fields are mapped to the Subjects section: any 6XX.

The Classification label will contain the LC Classification (LCC) number for the print and the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) number. It may also include the LCC number for the e-book, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classification number, or the Government Documents (SUDOC) classification number. The following MARC fields are mapped to the Classification section: 050, 060, 082, and 086.

Where is the main entry?

The main entry (now referred to as the “primary access point” in RDA) could be the first-named author, the title, or the preferred (uniform) title. In the new CIP data block, the main entry could be in the Names, Title, or Other titles section.

How do I record added entries in a MARC record using the new CIP data block?

Added entries (or in RDA terms, “additional access points”) for personal and corporate names as well as name/title combinations will appear in the Names section. The MARC coding has not changed, so, for example, an additional access point for an editor is still coded as a 700 field. A related title access point is in the Other titles section and is still coded as a 730 in the MARC record.

Is the order of the elements in the Names section the same as in the bibliographic record?

The elements in the Names section are in the order they appear in the bibliographic record, e.g. names in a 1XX field will be listed before those in a 7XX field.

Should relationship designators always be used?

According to updated policy at the Library of Congress, catalogers should always include relationship designators for CIP records. Those relationship designators will appear in the CIP Data Block.

Where do I find preferred (uniform) titles and variant titles in the new CIP Data Block?

The preferred (uniform) title and any variant titles are contained in the Other titles section.

Where do I find conventional collective preferred (uniform) titles in the new CIP Data Block?

The new CIP Data Block will not include conventional collective preferred (uniform) titles.

Where do I find the preferred (uniform) title for a translated work?

A preferred (uniform) title for a translated work would be included in the Other titles section.

If author affiliations do not appear in the CIP Data Block, should they still be transcribed in the 245 $c of the bibliographic record?

The CIP Program will cease transcribing author affiliations in the MARC record.

Where is the edition statement?

If there is an edition statement, it will be the first piece of information in the Description section.

Why is the date of publication sometimes in brackets?

If no date of publication is present in the CIP galley, the date of publication can be inferred from the copyright date. According to RDA, inferred dates are in brackets.

Where is the series title?

The series title is in the Description section, preceded by the term, “Series.” If there is an authorized access point for series as established in the Name Authority File, it will appear in the Other titles section, unless the series access point is for a name/title access point, in which case it will be in the Names section. In 2006, the Library of Congress ceased providing authorized access points for series, however, some members of the ECIP Cataloging Partnership Program continue to provide these access points. The policy of the CIP Program is to accept authorized access points for series in partner-cataloged CIP records.

Where do I find the authorized access point for the series?

The authorized access point for series as established in the Name Authority File is in the Other titles section, unless the series access point is for a name/title access point, in which case it will be in the Names section. In 2006, the Library of Congress ceased providing authorized access points for series, however, some members of the ECIP Cataloging Partnership Program continue to provide these access points. The policy of the CIP Program is to accept authorized access points for series in partner-cataloged CIP records.

Why do some CIP Data Blocks have both a series statements and a series access point?

If the book is in a series, the CIP data block will include the series statement in the Description section. The authorized access point for the series will be provided only in those cases where a member of the ECIP Cataloging Partnership Program provides this access point. In 2006, the Library of Congress ceased providing authorized access points for series, however, some members of the ECIP Cataloging Partnership Program continue to provide these access points. The policy of the CIP Program is to accept authorized access points for series in partner-cataloged CIP records. The series title is in the Description section, preceded by the term, “Series.” The authorized access point for series as established in the Name Authority File is in the Other titles section, unless the series access point is for a name/title access point, in which case it will be in the Names section.

How accurate is the audience level?

If the audience level is supplied by the publisher, the source of the information will be included in the CIP data block. For the purposes of the CIP Program, the source of the information is considered to the publisher. The CIP Program makes no value judgment on the publisher-provided audience level.

Do the subject elements appear in a specific order (e.g., LCSH, BISAC, GSAFD) or in the order in the bibliographic record?

The subject elements will appear in the order found in the MARC record.

Can names appear in both the Names section and the Subjects section?

Yes, a personal or corporate name can appear in the Names and/or the Subjects sections, depending on the resource being cataloged.

Why is there a separate LCC for e-books?

The CIP Program provides the full Library of Congress Classification (LCC) number for all print titles. The full LCC includes the unique shelfisted number, but, according to the LC-PCC Provider-Neutral E-Mongraph Guide, e-books are not shelflisted. The LCC provided for e-books is what is included in the 050 $a in the MARC record.

Why are genre/form terms included in the Subjects area?

The CIP Data Block Committee carefully considered where to put genre/form terms in the data block with full understanding that genre/form terms are not subjects. The Committee erred on placing genre/form terms in the same category as subjects to save space in the data block in order to provide publishers more space on the verso of the title page to use as they want. While the Committee understood that placing subjects and genre/form terms together was mixing two different but related concepts, the assumption was that most catalogers would be able to distinguish between the two.

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LCCN and Permalink Information


Why does the CIP Data Block sometimes contain two LCCNs?

One of the major changes to the CIP Data Block is to combine elements from the print and e-book records into one data block for the use of publishers in those cases where the publisher has provided data about both the print and e-book. Print and e-book manifestations are cataloged on separate records and thus have separate LCCNs. If the publisher applied for e-book metadata through the CIP E-books Program, both the LCCN for the print and the LCCN for the e-book will appear in the CIP data block in the Identifiers section.

Why are there different LCCNs for e-books?

Print and e-book manifestations are cataloged on separate records and thus have separate LCCNs. If the publisher applied for e-book metadata through the CIP E-books Program, both the LCCN for the print and the LCCN for the e-book will appear in the CIP data block in the Identifiers section.

Why do some CIP Data Blocks have ISBNs for e-books but no e-book LCCN?

The CIP Program includes all ISBNs relevant to the title being cataloged. CIP publishers are not required, although highly encouraged, to apply for CIP data for the e-book. If publishers do not apply for e-book metadata, they can still submit the ISBNs for their e-book versions for inclusion in the bibliographic record and CIP Data Block.

If there are two LCCNs, should there be two LCCN Permalinks?

The CIP Data Block will contain the LCCN Permalink for the print version only. CIP e-book records are being suppressed from view in the LC OPAC until the Library of Congress is able to provide access to the e-books.

Why do some CIP Data Blocks contain no LCCN Permalink?

If a bibliographic record has been suppressed from the OPAC at the CIP cataloging stage, no LCCN Permalink will be provided. Typically this applies to certain formatted materials, such as large print editions, which the Library of Congress does not acquire.

When I type in the LCCN of the e-book in the Library of Congress OPAC, why does the search retrieve the print bibliographic record?

E-book bibliographic records are suppressed from view in the LC OPAC. The LCCN of the e-book record is available in the print record in a 776 field, a field that contains the LCCNs of the different formats of the same title. In the print bibliographic record, the e-book LCCN is located next to Additional formats, online version.

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